CONSTRUCTION OF BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The project centers on efficiency device capable of restoring the strength of any lead-acid battery. This device has the tendency of putting energy back to a cell irrespective of size it varies: 4V, 6V, 12V/60Amps, 12V/150Amps, 12V/200Amps etc.
The envisage of Sir Luigi Galvani (1737-98) and Italian man named “Alessandro Volta” (1737-1829) of a simple voltaic cell lead to the construction of lead-acid cell which later in the year, the idea of machine to restore the lose cells called “battery charger” came into invention. The inventions of this battery charger definitely improve living both in the private and industrial sector of humanity. Battery charger nowadays in the world was cell design to charge any lead-acid battery an accumulator and a variety of cells without giving damage to the cell during charging condition.
Battery charging is a process whereby the cell of a battery is recharged to bring it back approximately to its initial charge. The chemical in primary (dry cell) ones used up cannot be restored while that of secondary cell (accumulator) can be restored through charging. As they accumulator is being used discharge take place i.e. the chemical is being used by an E.M.F and relative density of the cell fall. Charging a battery is done in a direction opposite to that of discharge since most electricity supply authorities e.g. (NEPA) produce Ac it is necessary to deduce a means of charging (converting) from Ac to Dc in a process called rectification. The rectifying circuit is very important in the operation of a battery charger. Sire Luigi Galvani (1737-98).
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The main objectives of this project it to construct a battery charger that would help to restore energy back into a discharged battery. Specifically, the project sought to:
- Facilitate student’s skill acquisition in the construction of battery charger.
- Enhance student’s skills in the utilization of battery charger and charging of various kinds of batteries.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In batteries loose the stored energy when used in car, domestic or industrial to exert one work or the other. This lost energy in the battery must be restored to keep the battery active and functional by charging it with the use of a battery charger, brought about the idea of charging the cells to its initial state after loss must have been encountered enhance by the introduction of a battery charger, so that the loss charges can be regained. Cars cannot move when batteries are down therefore there is need for the availability of a battery charger always to restore back the lost energy. It is on the basis of this that the researcher when into the construction of a battery charger to enhance the continuous operation of a car and other devices that make use of a battery.
1.3 SCOPE OF WORK
The scope of work is limited to the construction of a 12volts battery charger; for domestic and industrial purposes.
1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Battery: A battery is defined as a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
Transformer: A transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed to electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. A transformer is used for changing the magnitude of an alternating current or voltage.
Fuse: This is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide over current protection, of either the load source circuit.
Switch: A switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.
Meter: An electricity meter is a device that measured the amount of electric energy consumed by an electrical power device.
Rectification: This is the process of converting AC to DC in a circuit in the operation of the battery charger a rectifying circuit plays a very vital role to the conversion of AC to DC during the operation.
Led: Light Emitting Diode: There are commonly used for indicator lamps and read out display in many instruments.
Resistors: These are electronic device that limit the passage of electric current.
Diode: These are P-N junction device that only the flow of current in one direction but offers a very high resistance to the current flow in the opposite direction and can serve as a rectifier in Ac circuits.