A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON MENTAL STABILITY AND OBESITY

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON MENTAL STABILITY AND OBESITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Mental health problems have a two-way association with obesity, with conditions such as depression often leading to weight gain, which in
turn can trigger depression (Public health England 2013). In such instances, food can be used as a coping strategy, diet can be unhealthy
and low mood can affect adherence to weight management programs. (Gatineau M, Dent M 2011) Weight gain can be both a secondary
manifestation of a mental disorder and a side effect of medication. The common factors that are characteristic of physical and mental
health problems are increasingly being recognized. For example, a recent inquiry concluded that a new way of thinking is required to
address the historical division between care of physical and mental health (MHF 2013). There is little doubt that prevention and prompt
treatment of obesity can be potentially life-saving, and certainly can reduce the physical morbidity resulting from it. People with severe
mental health problems are prone to the risks associated with obesity beyond that of the general population. However, currently, no
specific guidance is available that relates specifically to obesity prevention and weight management for service users residing in secure
mental health units. A priority recommendation for research is how obesity can be managed for people with conditions associated with
increased risk, for example, individuals with enduring mental health difficulties. One of the rising concerns in Western countries is the high
prevalence of obesity which has mainly been attributed to a constant decrease in physical activity levels and increased energy intake [T.
Lobstein, L. Baur, and R. Uauy 2004, C. L. Ogden, M. M. Lamb, M. D. Carroll, and K. M. Flegal 2010]. Although recent research suggests
stabilization in prevalence rates of overweight and obese person in developed countries [M. Wabitsch, A. Moss, and K. KromeyerHauschild2014], evidence shows that once obesity is established, it is problematic to reverse [H. O. Luttikhuis 2009]. Additionally, it has
been shown that obesity during youth is likely to follow through to adulthood [A. S. Singh 2008]. Correspondingly, obesity has been
pronounced the main health issue in developed countries [A. S. Singh 2002] with consequences for the physical as well as psychological
well-being for the affected children and adults. Hence, obesity is a risk factor for subsequent chronic diseases in later life which should not
be neglected [M. K. Gebremariam 2012, P. T. Katzmarzyk, T. S. Church, C. L. Craig, and C. Bouchard 2009]. Sufficient physical activity and a
well-balanced diet on the other hand are essential for normal growth and development [A. P. Hills, N. A. King, and T. P. Armstrong 2007] and
play an important role in the prevention of increased weight and obesity [W. B. Strong, R. M. Malina 2012]. Health educators professionals,
governments, and many communities have long identified obesity as an increasing health problem and therefore have developed different
programs targeting inappropriate weight gain by reducing energy-dense foods and sedentary time (mainly television viewing) as well as
increasing the daily amount of physical activity people engage in [M. M. Fernandes 2013]. Since several studies have shown positive and
preventive effects of an active lifestyle later life and also that sedentary behavior is maintained as an adult health promotion has to start
early in life. Therefore, schools have been identified as providing an ideal environment for the promotion of health-enhancing behaviors.
According to the results of a recent review, Waters [2011] suggest that for interventions to be successful, they have to be integrated into the
school curriculum and include amongst others “healthy eating, physical activity, and body image” [E. Waters 2011] as well as support for
teachers and parents. Furthermore, interventions intended to last longer than one year are more likely to become integrated into
curriculum, school and parents activities than shorter interventions [J. A. C. Silveira 2011] and therefore are more promising to increase
knowledge and behaviors which contribute to a healthy lifestyle and enhanced quality of life in the long term. This program enhances a
healthy lifestyle in the people in Baden-Wurttemberg, southwest Germany, and ¨ started in 2009 (for more detailed information see [J.
Dreyhaupt 2012]). The program’s contents and materials are coined into the school curriculum focusing on health promoting behavior
change towards more physical activity, less time spent with screen media, and a more balanced diet, especially targeting a minimization of
so drink intake and breakfast skipping. The teaching materials, developed in collaboration with experienced health educators, are
delivered by the classroom teacher and promote healthy and active alternatives, which people are offered in order to lead a healthier
lifestyle. The prepared, ready-to-use teaching units include lessons that increase awareness, teach health-related topics and offer ideas and
alternatives for leisure activities. In order to know whether the implementation and intended outcomes were achieved a large-scale
evaluation had to be carried out.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

A small body of mainly exploratory, mixed method research has identified that in order to address obesity and achieve parity of esteem
between mental and physical health in secure mental health units, a number of elements need to be in place. These include access to
health education interventions and the associated training and equipment required a range of dietary and physical activity strategies to
reduce the obesogenic environment and changes in policy at ward level that address staff and patient behavior change. Interventions
require attention to national guidance and policies, alignment with quality assessment and robust evaluation. However, there is strong
evidence of the need to tackle obesity in secure settings. There is much more to be explored in terms of tackling the problem. Interventions
would need to be evaluated in larger-scale studies to assess how effective and applicable different approaches might be for specific
populations, including those detained in secure units.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major aim of the study is to examine a comparative study on health education intervention on mental stability and obesity. Other
specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To examine health education responsibilities and intervention in respect of mental stability and obesity.
  2. To examine the prevalence and impact of obesity in adults, as well as investigating interventions that might prove effective.
  3. To examine the impact of health education intervention on mental stability and obesity.
  4. To examine the challenges of implementing health education intervention programs
  5. To examine the relationship between health education intervention, mental stability and obesity.
  6. To proper solutions to the challenges of implementing health education intervention programs.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study would be of benefit in highlighting the importance of involving mental health staff in delivering, supporting and adopting lifestyle
change interventions. Involving patients in decision making maintains their autonomy and helps to empower patients to care for their own
needs. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies
on the subject matter.

  1. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    The study is restricted to a comparative study on health education intervention on mental stability and obesity
    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or
    information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
    Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on
    the time devoted for the research work.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON MENTAL STABILITY AND OBESITY

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON MENTAL STABILITY AND OBESITY