A MODEL BLOOD-FAT PREDICTION, USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS (A CASE STUDY OF INDIVIDUALS IN BORI)

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Blood lipids is the term used for all the fatty substance found in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides. Some people have too much cholesterol (fat) in their blood and this increases their chances of having a heart attack.

Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in blood, either free or bound to other molecules. They are mostly transported in a protein capsule, and the density of the lipids and type of protein determines the fate if the particle and its influence on metabolism. The concentration of blood lipids depends on intake and excretion from the intestine, and uptake and secretion from cells. Blood lipids are mainly acids and cholesterol. Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood, and is a major risk function for cardiovascular disease.

Artificial neural (ANNs) or connection system are computing system vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. Such system “learn” to perfume task by considering examples, generally without being programmed with any task-specific rules.

An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons which loosely model the neurons in a biological brain. Each connection, like the synapses in a biological brain, can transmit a signal from one artificial neuron to another. An artificial neuron that receives a signal can process it and then signal additional artificial neuron connected to it.    

In common ANN implementations, the signal at a connection between artificial neurons is a real number, and the output of each artificial neuron is computed by some non-linear functions of the sum of its inputs. The connections between artificial neurons are called ‘edges’. Artificial neurons and edges typically have a weight that adjusts as learning proceeds. The weight increases or decreases the strength of the signal at a connection. Artificial neurons may have the threshold such that the signal is only sent if the aggregate signal crosses that threshold.

Typically, artificial neutrons are aggregated into layers. Different layers may perform different kinds of transformations on their inputs. Signals travel from the first layer (the input layer), to the last layer (the output layer), possibly after traversing the layers multiple times.

The original goal of the ANN approach was to solve problems in the same way that a human brain would. However, over time, attention moved to performing specific tasks, leading to deviations from biology. ANNs have been used on a variety of tasks, including computer vision, speech recognition, machine translation, socil network filtering, playing board and video games and medical diagnosis.

  1.           Statement of the Problem

The red and white blood cells is very important in the human body, too much blood had bad effect on our body system which include skin itchiness an redness, headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, numbness, tingling, burning or weakness in their hands, feet, arms or legs. Polycythemia Vera (PV) is a blood disorder in which the body makes too many red blood cells. It is one in a family of diseases called myeloproliferative disorders. In these diseases, bone marrow-the spongy tissue bones where blood cells are made is affected by a type of chronic leukemia that cause it to make more cells than it should. In PV, too many red blood cells are produced, but sometimes it can also result in too many white blood cells or too many platelets (the component of blood that aids in clotting). A consideration amount of research is currently investigating PV and its treatment.

A shortage of red blood cells and/or hemoglobin is an anemia. This results in a reduced ability of the blood to deliver oxygen to the various parts of the body, which can result in a wide range of symptoms ranging from mild fatigue to life-threatening organ dysfunction, depending on severity. 

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the project is to develop a system for blood fat prediction using       neural network with the following objectives:

  1. Develop an interface for data capture
  2. Build a system that will predict body fat base on previous and current state of the body.
  3. To educate the reader on the effect of excess and shortage of blood

1.4     Scope of the Study

This project discusses Neural Network and blood fat prediction system. Body fat prediction is discussed but not in detail.

1.5     Significance of the Study

This research has a lot of significance on the society at large. Blood fat is what many persons do not really know about and are ignorant about their effects. We educate individuals on how to check their blood level and how to use our prediction system.

1.6     Research Methodology

We adopt structure system analysis and design methodology (SSADM) which is widely used computer application development method. SSADM divides and application development project into modules, stages, steps

and tasks and provides a framework for describing projects in a fashion suited to managing the project.

1.7     Definition of Terms

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain process information.

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transport metabolic waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma.

Body: the human body is the entire structure of a human being. It I composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems.

Cholesterol: Cholesterol is a fatty substance which is mainly made in the body when the liver breaks down saturated fats in the food. This cholesterol then passes into the blood.

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs): This is often called ‘bad cholestorol’ as it helps to deliver cholesterol to the body through the bloodstream.

High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs): This is often called ‘good cholesterols’ as it helps take bad cholesterol out of the bloodstream form parts of the body.

Network: A network is defined as a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks, including the following:  Local Area Networks (LANs): The Computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building).

System: A system is a regularly interacting or independent group of units forming and integrated whole.