PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM GROUNDNUT SHELL FOR ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUBSTAINABILITY

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PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM GROUNDNUT SHELL FOR ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

ABSTRACT

Activated carbon was produced from groundnut shells by acid activation method at temperature of 600oC. The effects of carbonization and acid impregnation time on the adsorption potential of the activated carbons on adsorption of iron and lead from river water was examined. The results show that the concentrations of iron and lead before purification are 1.84mg/l and 0.05mg/l respectively. After purification lead was not detected in any of the samples while the concentrations of iron reduced from 1.84mg/l to 0.29mg/l. Thus, this study showed that activated carbon produced from groundnut shell is suitable for the adsorption of metal ions and as such could be used as a cost effective adsorbent in the treatment of waste water.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of content vi

CHAPTER ONE

0.1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background Of The Study 1

1.2 Aims and Objectives 3

1.3 Motivation of the work 4

1.4 Importance of the work 4

CHAPTER TWO

2. 0 Literature Review 6

2.1 Activated Carbon 6

2.1.1 Classification 14

2.1.1.1 Powdered activated carbon (PAC) 14

2.1.1.2 Granular activated carbon (GAC) 16

2.1.1.3 Extruted activated Carbon (EAC) 17

2.1.1.4 Impregnated Carbon 17

2.1.1.5 Polymes CoatedCarbon 18

2.2 Properties of activated Carbon 19

2.3 Applications of activated Carbon 22

2.4 Moisture Content 25

2.5 Ash Content 26

2.6 Principle of Activation process 28

2.7 Raw materials 28

2.8 production method 29

2.9 Chemical activation 30

2.10 Heavy metals (Iron and lead) 32

2.11 Adsorption 34 2.12 Types of adsorption 35

2.13 factors affecting adsorption 36

2.13.1 Adsorption equilibrium 38

1.14 Types of Environmental Pollution 39

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology 41

3.1 Materials and method 41

3.2 Methods 44

3.3 Determination of Ash content (%) 46

3.4 Determination of moisture Content (%) 46

3.5 Determination of fixed carbon content (%) 47

3.6 Determination of Iron and lead 47

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result and Discussion 48

4.1 Discussion 49

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Conclusion 52

5.2 Recommendation 53

Reference 54

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Environmental pollution

Environmental pollution is a problem both in developed and developing countries urbanization such as population growth and urbanization invariably place greater demands on the planet and stretch the use of natural resources to the maximum. It has been argued that the carrying capacity of Earth is significantly smaller than the demands placed on it by large numbers of human populations and overuse of natural resources often results in nature’s degradation (G. Aranobich and Donolwe, 1998).

Environmental Studies

Is a multidisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment in the interests of solving complex problems. Environmental studies bring together the principles of sciences, Commerce/Economics and Social Sciences so as solve contemporary environmental problems. It is a broad field of study that includes also the natural environment, built environment, and the sets of relationships them. The field encompasses study in basic principles of solve contemporary environmental problems. It is a broad field of study includes also the natural environment, built environment, and the sets of relationships between them. The field encompasses study in basic principles of ecology and environmental science, as well as associated subjects such as ethics, geography, policy, politics, law, economics, philosophy, environmental sociology and environmental justice, planning pollution control and natural resource management. Ecology and environmental science,as well as associated subjects such as ethics, geography, policy, politics, law, economics, philosophy, environmental sociology and environmental justice, planning, pollution control and natural resource management.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aims and objectives of this research work include the following:

i) To produce activated carbon from Groundnut shell.

ii) To characterized ash and moisture content from Groundnut shell.

iii)To characterized volatile matter and fixed carbon.

iv) To Determine adsorption capacity

1.3 MOTIVATION OF THE WORK

Rapid industrialization has cumulatively increased the problem of drinking water scarcity and the demand for contaminated free water for daily consumption. A typical problem of chromium contamination in water is faced by the residents of baysla area in port-court district of Nigeria. It has been included in the list of world’s top ten polluted places.

1.4 IMPORTANCE OF THE WORK

Over the last few decades, adsorption has gained importance as a purification, separation and recovery process on an industrial scale Activated carbon is perhaps one of the most widely used adsorbents in industry for environmental application. Activated carbons are carbons of highly microporous structure with internal surface area and porosity. Any cheap material with a high carbon content, low inorganic can be used as a raw material for the production of activated carbon (Basal et al, 1988).

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PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM GROUNDNUT SHELL FOR ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

 

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