EFFECT OF ADSORBENT DOSAGE ON THE REMOVAL OF COPPER IONS FROM ITS AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING Arachis hypogea SEED SHELL

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EFFECT OF ADSORBENT DOSAGE ON THE REMOVAL OF COPPER IONS FROM ITS AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING Arachis hypogea SEED SHELL

 ABSTRACT

In this research work, Arachis hypogeal seed shell has been utilized as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of copper ions from its aqueous solution using batch experiments. The effect of operating parameters such as adsorbent dose, initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The results showed that the adsorption rate of heavy metals ions (copper) increased gradually with the pH increase. The results also revealed that the adsorption rate increased with the adsorbent dosage. Finally, it was found that the ion made from Arachis hypogeal seed shell can be effectively used in the reduction of copper from aqueous solution.

Table of Content

Title page     …       …       …       …       …       …       …       …       i

Certification …           …           …           …           …           …           …           …           ii

Dedication    …           …           …           …           …           …           …           …           iii

Acknowledgments …           …           …           …           …           …           …           iv-v

Abstract          …           …           …           …           …           …           …           …           vi

Table of content       …           …           …           …           …           …           …           vii-ix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction …           …           …           …           …           …           …           1-3

1.1     Background of the Study  …           …           …           …           …           3-5

1.2     Aim and Objectives             …           …           …           …           …           5

1.3     Scope and Limitation         …           …           …           …           …           6

1.4     Definition of Terms             …           …           …           …           …           6

1.4.1 Absorbent       …           …           …           …           …           …           …           6

1.4.2 Copper              …           …           …           …           …           …           …           6

1.4.3 Groundnut      …           …           …           …           …           …           …           7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review   …           …           …           …           …           …           8

2.1     History            …           …           …           …           …           …           …           8-9

2.2     Description of Groundnut              …           …           …           …           9-10

2.2.1  Parts of Groundnut …        …        …        …        …        …            10-11

2.2.2  Classification of Groundnut         …           …           …           …           11

2.3     Industrial uses of Groundunt        …           …           …           …              11-12

2.4     Groundnut seed Shell         …           …           …           …           …              12-13

2.5     Nutritional value     …           …           …           …           …           …              13-15

2.6     Groundnut Seed shell as an Absorbent …           …           …              15-16

2.7     Types of Absorption           …           …           …           …           …           16

2.7.1  Chemical Absorption         …           …           …           …           …           17

2.7.2  Physical Absorption            …           …           …           …           …           17

2.8     Types of Adsorbent             …           …           …           …           …              17-20

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and Method        …           …           …           …           …           21

3.1     Materials        …           …           …           …           …           …           …           21

3.2     Sample collection and preparation          …           …           …           21

3.3     Adsorption study    …           …           …           …           …           …              21-22

3.3.1  Effect of Adsorping dosage          …           …           …           …           22

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results and Discussion      …           …           …           …           …           23

4.1     Results            …           …           …           …           …           …           …              23-24

4.2     Discussions  …           …           …           …           …           …           …              25-26

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation …      …      27

5.1     Summary       …           …           …           …           …           …           …           27

5.2     Conclusion   …           …           …           …           …           …           …              28-29

5.2     Recommendations  …           …           …           …           …           …           29

References

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Over the last few decades environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activities has increased exponentially and has reached alarming levels in terms of adverse effects on living organisms (Renge et al., 2012). Human activities such as mining, waste accumulation, industrial activities and the use of agro-chemicals (Fertilizers and pesticides) have caused extensive contamination of both surface and ground water with toxic heavy metals (Clemente et al., 2007). Heavy metal discharge into aquatic ecosystems is a matter concern. It is known that 11 metals namely Pb, Cr, Hg, Ur, Se, Zn, As, Cd, Co, and Ni out of the 20 classified metals are referred to as toxic and are released into the environment in quantities which pose serious risks to human health (Johnson et al., 2008).

Copper is a hazardous heavy metal that is used in various industries such as smelting, plating, electroplating, manufacture of brass and copper based agro-chemicals though copper at a lower concentration is essential for living organisms, at a higher concentration, it becomes potentially toxic. Copper toxicity, also called copperiedus, refers to the consequences of excess of copper in the body, copper toxicity can occur as a result of intake of food and water containing excess copper. Further, copper does not degrade in the environment and its presence in the soil adversely impacts the activities of micro-organisms thereby slowing down the decomposition of organic mater (Sengil et al., 2009). In living organisms copper intake in excess causes its accumulation in the liver and leads to gastrointestinal disorders, damage to kidneys and anemia. It has been reported that increase incidence of lung cancer among industrial workers has been blamed on the inhalation of copper containing sprays (Bhattacharyya et al., 2011). Hence, it is necessary to ensure that copper is removed from waste waters prior to its discharge into water bodies as water is essential to human life and necessary for almost all domestic, agricultural and industrial activities various technologies have been applied and found effective in heavy metal removal. Such technologies include electrochemical precipitation, membrance separation, ion excharge and adsorption (Naiga et al., 2009 and Singha et al., 2013). The major types of wastes which are generated from agricultural sources include sugarcane baggase, straw and husk from paddy and wheat, vegetable wastes, tea, groundnut shell, jute fibre coconut husk etc.

It is evident from the above discussion that heavy metal pollution particularly caused by copper is harmful to the environment and living organisms on account of its toxic effect. It is imperative that simple cost effective techniques be evolved for dealing with this issue especially for developing countries which lack sophisticated removal techniques and finance for it. Therefore, to reduce environmental risks associated with copper solution, it is essential to develop low cost adsorption techniques.

1.1     BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY

The heavy metals, Pb2+, Cu2+, Zb2+ are harmful to the environment. They allumulate in the living organisms by adsorption and thus pose a serious threat to public health.

Excessive allumulation of copper in-vivo could lead many diseases like diarrhea, skin disease and even death (Zhu et al., 2016 andWang et al., 2016).

Lead is a cumulative poison acting on various systems and organs of the human being, such as the hematopoictic andcardiovascular system, the central nervous systems and the reproductive organs (Sallmen et al., 2000).

The are many technical methods used to treat contamination by heavy metals, such as in exchange resin, activated carbon adsorption, chemical precipitation and electrochemical treatment (Huang et al., 2007).

Biomass materials have the advantage of widespread-sources, conveniences, low cost, directly-treated and thus greatly reduce the cost of the treatment of heavy metals. The common agricultural and sideline product shells, sawdust, orange peel and bark, cotton shells, peanut shells are discarded in the others. A large number of peanut shells are discarded in the natural environment and burned, which not only cause serious environmental pollution, but also are a waste of resources. Peanut hull carbide (PHC), commonly used as a bio-absorbent produced from piles of peanut shells, is similar to the activated carbon structure in appearance. According to the research, PHC may contain polar functional groups such as aldehydes, ketones, acids and phenolic compounds, which can be involved in the formation of chemical bonds and can absorb heavy metal ions (Ricordel et al., 2001).

In china, peanut shells are cheap and have a wide range of sources. In this paper, peanut shells are used as an adsorbent and therefore, the mechanism of heavy metals ions in solution adsorption laws are discussed.

 

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EFFECT OF ADSORBENT DOSAGE ON THE REMOVAL OF COPPER IONS FROM ITS AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING Arachis hypogea SEED SHELL

 

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