AFRICA AND CHINA RELATIONS IN THE 21ST CENTURY NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY, (1999-2015)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                               iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                 iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                   v

Table of contents                                                                                                                     vi

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction                                                                                           1

  1. Background of the study                                                                                                   1
    1. Statement of the problem                                                                                                  3
    1. Objectives of the study                                                                                                     5
    1. Research questions                                                                                                           6
    1. Research hypotheses                                                                                                         6
    1. Significance of the study                                                                                                  7
    1. Scope and limitation of the study                                                                                     7
    1. Research methodology                                                                                                     7
    1. Definition of Terms                                                                                                          8
    1. Chapterization of the study                                                                                         8

References                                                                                                                        10

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review                                                                                11

References                                                                                                                      51

CHAPTER THREE: Oil and Nigeria-China Relations                                                    54

References                                                                                                                      85

CHAPTER FOUR: China’s Trade and Investment in Nigeria                                        89

References                                                                                                                       106

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, conclusion and recommendations                                    107

Bibliography                                                                                                                          111

Chapter One Introduction

1.1   Background of the study

During the Cold War ideological conflicts between the capitalist Western bloc and the communist Eastern bloc dominated international politics (Cesa, 2009:177). In response, Afro-

Asian countries convened the Bandung Conference of 1955 in Indonesia to demonstrate their amity and impartiality towards the Cold War belligerents. This was the precursor of the nonaligned movement (Hunter & Sexton, 1999:181). Among the countries involved was China, a communist state and a solid ally of the Soviet Union up to the mid-1950s. The Sino-Soviet alliance ebbed away as China inveighed against, inter alia, the 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary and criticised Nikita Khrushchev‟s idea of peaceful coexistence with the capitalist West (Lüthi, 2008). China also wanted to adhere to a strict form of communism which prescribed that capitalist and imperialist systems could only be replaced with a more humane and communist structure through radical revolution which would more likely involve violence. The Soviet Union under Khrushchev was distancing itself from this view and entertained the possibility of a parliamentary solution to capitalism and imperialism. China accused the Soviet Union of revisionism and made clear its ambition to be the due representative of communism and this gave birth to China Relations with Africa (Hunter & Sexton, 1999:183).

China‟s engagement with Africa has continued for over half a century. The Sino-African Relations have evolved from “brothers” (Chang, 2006) to “strategic partners” (China‟s African Policy, 2006) with the changes of China‟s domestic situation and international environment. Launched in 2000, the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) has become an important vehicle of China-Africa strategic partnership to boost cooperation in various fields (China Urges, 2010). In 2006 “strategic partnership (China‟s African Policy, 2006)” has been articulated again as China‟s dominant Africa Policy. Instead of singing the old tune of proletarian internationalism which stressed “rich ideology and the reinforcement of political benefits (Sorensen, 2010, p139)”, the policy paper highlights “economic win-win cooperation (China‟s African Policy,

2006),” which can be better understood within the framework of “South-South cooperation (China Africa, 2000)”.

China‟s engagement in Africa is one of the most controversial issues in international relations in the new century. Abundant books, academic papers and media reports have appeared, focusing on several aspects of china‟s activities on the continent. Opinions are diverse. In her book The Dragon’s Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa, American professor Deborah Brautigam (2010) highlights the positive roles of china‟s involvement in Africa. When defending the criticism such as human rights from the West, she stresses that the West did the same or even worse things at times in the past, and points out china‟s inability of handling some issues such as labour practice that are not solved yet inside China neither.

China as economic partner to Nigeria has been very dogged and focused in its relations with Nigeria over the decades. Despite the ups and downs of Nigeria-China relations, the Chinese have continued to ensure that their market shares in Nigeria remain on a steady path of growth. This should suggest that China has a long term plan for its engagement with Africa, and it is important for African states, particularly Nigeria to develop a strategy for managing the relationship (Alli, 2007).

AFRICA AND CHINA RELATIONS IN THE 21ST CENTURY NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY, (1999-2015)