This dissertation studied the need for contemporary mediation in Africa, specifically Ghana, and the effectiveness and efficiency of contemporary mediation in resolving conflicts in Africa. The study adopts a qualitative method, using both secondary data and primary data, which were gathered from the target population which consists of practitioners of ADR, academics with expertise in mediation and students of the University of Ghana. The findings of the study indicate that the administration of mediation and other ADR methods have been successful in improving the judicial system of Ghana and promoted peace and stability in various Ghanaian communities. An example of success chalked by mediation and other ADR methods include the successful resolution of major conflicts such as the Andani and Abudu conflict of the people of Dagbon state, leading to the installation of a new Dagbon King, Yaa Naa Abubakari Mahama, in January 2009. Despite the successes of mediation in Ghana, the study also found that mediation has not been successful in its attempt to resolve some disputes in Ghana; noticeable among them are the Kokomba and Nanumba conflicts in Northern Ghana and the Nkonya and Alavanyo crisis in the Volta region. The unsuccessfulness of mediation in resolving conflicts in Ghana is attributable to different challenges which are classified into three categories namely: Practitioner Challenges, Regulatory Challenges and Client Challenges. In order to make the administration of mediation more effective and efficient in resolving conflicts in Ghana, the study recommends that the government of Ghana should come out with an adequate remuneration package for Mediators and other ADR practitioners so as to get the best from them. The government should also adopt a project to comprehensively sensitize and educate the Ghanaian populace about the availability and the benefits of using mediation and other ADR methods in conflict resolution. Thirdly, the government of Ghana should come out with a regulatory body that will harmonize the activities of all the institutions that administer mediation in the country. Finally, the study also recommends that mediators and other ADR practitioners should fully comply with the code of ethics of ADR so as to gain the trust of community members, business men and the entire Ghanaian populace in the usage of mediation as an effective conflict resolution mechanism in Ghana.