The research work titled assessment on the incidence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kargi Road, covered five chapters. Which are chapter I contains introduction, background of the study, statement or the problem, significance of the study etc. chapter II contains literature related to the topic of study. Chapter III contains the method adopted n conducting the research work, population, sample of the study, sample size andthe instrument used for data collection and administration. Chapter IV Contains presentation and analysis of data. Chapter V contains effect of anaemia in pregnant women as research shown in Kargi Road, effect of anaemia, effect on mother, state of awareness regarding the disease and routine visit of ANC clinics summary and conclusion, recommendation etc.
In summary anaemia in pregnancy is a common problem in most developing countries and a major causes of morbidity and mortality, it cause by lack of red blood cells and their hemoglobin content. Its effect reduces resistance to infection, predisposed to Post-Partum hemorrhage potential threat to life.
Anaemia is a deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood due to lack of red blood cells and their hemoglobin content, which produce clinical manifestation arising from hypoxemia such as Lassitude and Breathlessness on Exertion.
Anaemia in pregnancy is the most prevalent and contributes to the incidence of maternal and foeths morbidity. It has been shown to be among the three (3) direct causes of maternal mortality, pre maturity and low birth weight in babies as well as three conditions associated with anaemia in pregnancy. Anaemia it is an important public health problem word wide. WHO estimate that more than half of pregnant women in the world have a hemoglobin level indicate of anaemia (>11.0g/dl), the prevalence however be as high as 56% or 61% in developing countries. Women often become anaemia during pregnancy because the demand for iron and pregnancy other vitamins is increase due to physiological burden of pregnancy. The inability to meet the required level of their substance either as a result of dietary deficiencies or infection give to rise to anaemia.
Anaemia ranges from mild, moderate to severe and the WHO pegs the hemoglobin level for each for each of these types of anaemia in pregnancy at 10.9g/dl (mild anaemia 7 – 9.9g/dl (moderate anaemia) and >7g/dl (severe anaemia) prevalence of anaemia can be as high as 61% in developing countries with the high incidence and severity occurring among primigravida living in malaria endemic area (example:- Nigeria). Studies has shown that, malaria is still a major problem among pregnant women.
A condition of pregnancy characterized by a reduction in the on concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. It may by physiological or pathological. In physiological anaemia of pregnancy, the reductionin concentration results from dilution because the plasma volume expands more than the erythrocyte volume. The leukocyte in pregnancy normally drops several points below its pregnancy level.
In pathological anaemia of pregnancy, the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is deficient because of disordered erythrocyte through destruction or bleeding.
Pathological anaemia is a common complication of pregnancy occurring approximately half of all pregnancies. Disordered production of erythrocyte may be result from nutritional efficiency of iron, folic acid or vitamin B12, sickle cell or another chromic nutrition exposure to toxin. Destruction of erythrocyte may be result from inflammation, chronic infection, sepsis or a hematologic disease in which Red Blood Cell (RBD) are abnormal. Excessive loss of erythrocyte through bleeding may result from abortion, bleeding intestinal parasite such as hook worm,placental abnormalities such as placenta previa and abruption placenta or post-partum uterine atony.
Anaemia is common in child bearing women and particularly in multipara of the lower income group. Many are anaemia before they become pregnant. It is essential if the condition is diagnosed at the beginning of pregnancy and treated effectively (maternal health care delivery. By Mrs. Olubunmi Awe, 2010).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Anaemia in pregnancy is a major cause of maternal and foetal mortality in Africa (Olubunmi Awa 2010). It is the most prevalent pregnancy associated diseases condition in Sabon Gari T/Wada Kaduna South Local Government Area.
It has become a serious health problem in the area as it among the direct causes of maternal mortality and as well. Previous estimate of death from the incidence have proved to be useful advocacy tools, though they said, incidence primarily affect the poor, multipara of the lower income families and poor visit to Antenatal Care (ANC). (Olubunmi Awa 2010).
As the Local Government Area is blessed with comprehensive health care centers and clinics managed by qualified staffs, the primary health care department still face case of this incidence. It is almost certain that, the incidence lead to foetal death, abortion, low birth weight babies etc.
The importance of the study and the effect of improper nutrition and lac of regular visit to clinics during the critical period of pregnancy would be extensively death within the subsequent chapter.
Anaemia in pregnancy is a common problem in most developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in malaria endemic areas. In pregnancy, anaemia has a significant impact on the health of the foetus as well as that of the mother.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Anaemia is one of the disease associated with pregnant women in Kargi Road Sabon Gari T/WadaKaduna South Local Government Area. Some women who were affected by the diseases recover with treatment while others die of ignorance at home. It seems the condition is difficult to control.
The disease is compounded by poor socio-economic status as well as lack of awareness that is can be prevented or treated by regular visit to the clinics where mothers are educated on the importance of antenatal visit and also educated on the right food to be taken as a means of prevention and remedy the situation when it occurs.
Measures to reduce the incidence of the disease in the community stated above have yield positive result, health care delivery services have been used to reach out to the community as provided by the government.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
· Still Birth: occurs when a foetus has died in the uterus during labour or delivery.
· Primigravidia: pregnancy for the first time.
· dysponoea: is the subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consist of qualitative distinct sensation that very in intensity.
· Palpitation: is a perceived abnormality of the heart beat characterized by awareness of heart muscle contraction in the chest hard beat, fast beat and irregular beat.
· Pallour: pale colour of the skin that can be caused by illness , emotional shock or stress, stimulant use or anaemia and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyheamoglobin
· anorexia: is an eating disorder, characterized by low weight, fear of gaming weight and a strong desire to be it in and food restriction
· Embolism : is the loding of an embolus which may be a blood clot, rat globule, gas bubble or foreign material in the blood strem
· Obstetrics: is the branch of medical science concerned with child birth and caring for and treating woman in or in connection with child birth.
· The Raphy : is the attempted remediation of a health problem usually following a diagnosis.