- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
According to Cleaner Casiellino, Michinery and Terry Vilarcial  parenting is the term summarizing set of behaviors involved across life, in the reactions among organisms that are usually the same and typically members of different but cohorts. Parenting interaction provide resources across the generational groups and functions in regard to domains individual survival reproduction, nature and socialization, this parenting is a complex process involving much more than a mother or father providing food and succor to an infant or child. Parenting involves bio-directional relationship between members of two or more generation and can extend through all major parts of the respective life spans of these groups which may engage all institution within a culture including education, economic, political and designed settings which the group left behind [Ford and Leaner Lager] “parenting is both a biological and social process.
The training given to a child, to a large extent determine his or her self-concept. The parenting styles of individual also determine how the child will adjust to the society emotionally. There are different families. There is the single parent homes, the two parents homes and the multiple parents homes which is generally known as polygamy. In these homes you find different styles of parenting being used. These parenting style have a way of affecting the self-concept of individual adolescents and their emotional adjustment in the society.
The parenting styles, goes a long way in determining how an individual sees his or herself, perception concerning his or her physical, social and psychological aspiration and emotional adjustment in the society in which he or she lives. It is therefore important to study the different parenting styles and ascertain how they determine the self-concept of the individual adolescent. It is also necessary to look at the way, this will help the individual to adjust emotionally to the society.
According to Bornstain  , the key functions of a child’s family are to raise the young person in a healthy as manner as possible. The parents role is to provide the child with safe, secure, nurturing, loving as well support the child’s environment, as one that allows the offspring to have a happy and healthy youth life. This sort of experience allows the youth to develop in knowledge, value, attitude and behaviour necessary to become an adult, making a productive contribution to self, family community and the larger society. What a parent does to fulfill these “duties” or roles is termed parenting in other words, parenting is a term summarizes behaviour of a person, usually mother or father in the process of raising a child given to the family.
The effects of poor parents on the academic performance of their children is absolutely essential in student’s achievement in school and in life. The overwhelming studies and research indicate that there are positive academic outcomes stemming from parental involvement with benefits beginning in early childhood throughout adolescence and beyond. The impact that parents can have on their children learning and achievement transcends income levels and social status. Infact the most accurate predictor of a student achievement in school is not income or social status, but the extent to which that students family is able to;
- Create a home environment that encourages learning.
- Express high expectations for their children’s achievement and future careers.
- Become involved in their children’s education at school and in the community. If two of these three criteria are accomplished, children of low income families will achieve at or above the levels expected of middle class children.
A child’s learning is enhanced when schools encourage parents to stimulate their children’s intellectual development. Numerous studies have shown that the home environment has a powerful effect on what children and youth learn, not only in school but also outside of school. This environment is considerably more powerful than the parent’s income and education in influencing what children learn in the first six years of life and during the twelve year of primary and secondary education. One major reason that parental influence is so strong is because the children spend more than ninety percent of their time from infancy throughout their childhood outside school under the influence of their parents. Therefore, ultimately the parents are the first and most important teacher.
Domina and Knipprath (2005) highlighted the fact that students value their education when they see the interest shown by their parents. This does not only lead to higher academic performance, but also to better attendance and improved behaviour at home and school, when school and home work together collaboratively, and using a competent approach to education, it can make a huge difference in a student achievement academically.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Poor parenting have been identified as a major problems responsible for poor academic performance of school chidrlen. Many parents believe that the best way to groom their children especially the adolescents is by being oppressive, authoritative and autocratic.
In the light of the above, the research intends to find out the major problems confronting poor parenting on children and their education in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research work is to examine the effects of poor parenting on the academic performance of their children. The difficulties which parents experience during their periods of schooling or the types of job they are involved, which has made them to deviate from their family responsibilities has been a way of affecting the children of their sound academic performance.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is not only important to parents in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State but also to the Nigeria parents in general. Among the importance of this research work are;
- It will serve as a source of knowledge about how parenting style affect the performance of their children.
- It will help in exposing the teachers to the influence of parental status on the academic performance of the student.
- It will be useful to educationist.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Does poor parenting styles lead to poor academic performance of students?
- Does lack of facilities in the home affect students academic performance in school?
- Does the level of educational qualification of parents affect the academic performance of the students?
- Does the style of parenting affect the academic performance of student?
- Does the family structure and size affects the academic performance of students?
- Does the occupation of parents affect the academic performance of students?
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to all the senior secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. The research is based on finding the effect of parents on the academic performance of their children.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
There are certain terms used in this study that have specific connotation to the study.
Academic: This is concern about teaching or studying those subject taught to provide skills.Educational Discrepancy: People who also have adequate opportunities but achieve considerably less than what could be predicted.
Academic Background: The detail of persons educations.
Parents: Persons father or mother.
Pupil: A person who is being taught especially a child in school.
Education: A process of teaching, training and learning especially in school or college to improve on knowledge, and develop skills.
Teacher: Person who inculcate knowledge into another person.
Parenting Style: This is the different styles of up bringing of children. Here we have; Indulgent parents, Authoritarian, Authoritative and Uninvolved [reluctant] parents.
Parental Attitude: This is the parental feeding towards the adolescent..
Indulgent Parents: These are the parents who feel less concern about their children’s up bringing
Authoritarian Parents: They are the parents who believes in oppressing their children with directive options and not responsive.
Authoritative Parents: They are responsive and they do not oppress their children directive options.
Uninvolved Parents Or Reluctant Parents: They are not responsive, neither are they helpful.