ANALYTICAL STUDY OF A SMALL SCALE BIOMASS GASIFIER

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ANALYTICAL STUDY OF A SMALL SCALE BIOMASS GASIFIER

 

ABSTRACT

Energy demand in the world today is increasing rapidly and energy generation and resources in the world are incapable of catering for this increase in demand. In third world countries such as Nigeria, energy generation is epileptic; this is evident in the electric power sector of Nigeria. Issues such as Environmental degradation and energy shortages in countries have therefore rekindled interest in alternative and renewable sources of energy. Biomass gasification is one of such sources of energy.This project is aimed at studying biomass gasification, various types of gasifier technologies and their application in the generation of sufficient amount of biogas useful for small scale activities or operations.

The methodology focuses on the design of a gasifier, stating design specifications, developing conceptual designs, design calculations and details of design of the selected concept. The chosen concept is then analyzed to ascertain the viability of the design in carrying out gasification of biomass.

Results show that reasonable amount of biogas (0.167 kmol gas/kg feed)can be generated by biomass gasification and that high temperature materials such as mild steel used in construction of the gasifier can support the thermal requirements of gasifier operations.

 

CHAPTER ONE                 

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to study

The world today is in a state of increasing energy demand, rising energy prices with more emphasis placed on reinforcing countermeasures to defend against the ever present problem of global warming .The result of this situation being the development of alternative sources of energy. In 2006 the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) projected that the world’s energy consumption would increase by 2% per year until 2030. The EIA and other organizations project that resources will be adequate to meet the world’s growing energy needs, but many critics disagree. Issues such as climate change also undermine the credibility of such forecast .Also according to the IEA world energy outlook, the world’s primary energy supply has increased by 58% in 25 years.

The energy crisis in the world today is a major concern that the world’s demands on the limited natural resources are diminishing as the demand rises. The glaring issue being that these natural resources are in limited supply. While they do occur naturally, it can take hundreds of thousands of years to replenish the reserves. Governments and concerned organizations   are working to make the use of renewable resources a priority, and to lessen the irresponsible use of natural supplies through increased conservation.

 

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ANALYTICAL STUDY OF A SMALL SCALE BIOMASS GASIFIER

 

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