1.1 Background to the Study
Moringa oleifera commonly called moringa, is regarded as one of the most popular and valuable trees in the
world. It is known in India as drum stick, I’m Senegal as Nebedy, in Thailand as Morum, in Hiati as Benzolive
tree and in Philippine as Malungay. It is also well known in all parts of Nigeria, in the North , the Hausa’s refer
to it as zogale or Bagaruwarmakka, in the South west; the Yoruba’s call it Ewe igbale or idagbomonoye and in
the South- east, the Igbo’s call it Ikwaoyibo (Thilza et al., 2010). Virtually, all parts of Moringa tree are
consumable (leaves, flower and pods). Studies from around the world revealed that Moringa leave have
remarkable nutritional values such as vitamins, mineral and amino acids. The leaves have been used to fight
malnutrition mostly among pregnant woman, nursing mothers and infants (Anwar et al., 2007). They are
considerable variations among the nutritional values of Moringa which depends on factors such as genetic
background, environment and cultivation method (Brisibe et al., 2009).
According to Ramachandran et al.,1980 and Fahey,2005, moringa could be very simple and readily available
solution to water treatment problems. It is called a multipurpose tree because it has been found to have
nutritional, antimicrobial, medicinal, industrial and water treatment properties. The seeds have been found to be
effective in removing turbidity, heavy metals and bacteria from water in a sustainable and environmentally
friendly way (kwaambwa et al., 2010). Previous studies have reported that various parts of moringa roots,
flowers, bark and stem including seed possess antimicrobial properties (Walter et al., 2011; Onuha et al., 2013).
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Antibiotic resistance has become a globe concern
(Mahalingam et al.,2011). The issue of multi drug resistant is continuously increasing at an alarming rate
especially in developing countries where there are increases in the indiscriminate use of wide broad spectrum
antibiotic as a result of self- medication, immuno suppressive agent and outbreak of epidemics along with the
use of adulterated drugs with side effects. Therefore there is a need to research new infection compacting
strategies to fight microbial infection.

1.2 Problem Statement
The potential of medicinal plants as source for new drugs is still widely unexplored. Among the estimated
250,000-500,000 plant species only a small percentage has been investigated phytochemically and the fraction
submitted for biological or pharmacological screening is even smaller. Moringa and other medicinal plant has a
long history of been traditionally used as a cure for illness such as cough, cold, asthma, nausea, fever e.t.c.
Hence there is need to assess the antibacterial properties of medicinal plant such as Moringa.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objectives of the study is to assess the antibacterial properties of Moringa roots and stem in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions
(1) What is Moringa plant?
(2) why are they important?
(3) why is it necessary to assess the antibacterial properties of Moringa roots and Stem?

1.5 Significance of the study
This study gives a clear insight into the health and economic benefit of moringa root and stem, investigating the
phytochemical composition of the root and stem as well as examining the antibacterial activity of the plant root
and stem.

1.6 Scope of the study
This research focuses on the antibacterial properties of Moringa oleifera root and stem in Nigeria.

Anwar F, Sajib L, Muhammed A, Anwarul HG (2007). Moringa oleifera a food plant with medicinal uses. Phytol
Res. 21: 17-25.
Brisibe EA, Umoron UE, Brisibe F, Magalhaes PM, Femeira JFS, Luthria D, Wux, Prior RL (2009). Nutritional
characterization and antioxidant capacity of different tissues of Artemisia annual L. food Chem. 115: 1240-1246
Fahey, J.W.(2005) Moringa oleifera: A review of the Medical Evidence for its Nutritional. Therapeutic and
Prophylactic properties. Trees for life journal. 1,5.
Kwaambwa, H.M., Hellsing, M. and Rennie, A.R. (2010) Adsorption of a water Treatment Protein Moringa.
Mahalingam R, Bharathidasan R, Ambikapathy V, Panneersel Van A (2011). Study on antibacterial activity of
some medicinal plant against han pathogenic microorganisms. Asian J. Plant Sci. Res. 1(3): 86-90
Onuoha, S.C. and Alisa, C.O (2013) Antibacterial Potential of leaf juice and Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam
against Human Pathogenic Bacteria. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences
Thilza IB, Sanni S, Zakari AI, Sanni FS, Mohammed T, Musa BJ (2010). In Vito antimicrobial activity of water
extract of Moringa oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated in eye diseases. A cad. Arena. 2(6): 80-82.
Walter A. Samuel, W., Peter, A. and Joseph, O. (2011) Antibacterial Activity of Moringa oleifera and Moringa
stenopetal a methanol and n- Hexane seed Extracts on Bacteria Implicated in Water Borne Diseases. African
journal of Microbiology Research,5, 153-157.



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