ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MISTLETOE LEAVES

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ABSTRACT

The sample of Mistletoe leaves was collected from an orange tree at Ururo in Umunze Anambra State. The leaves were extracted by using some solvent like ethanolic solvent, aqueous solvent n-hexane solvent and ethyl acetate solvent. The extracts was further analyzed which helps in determining the presence of phytochemical compounds in the Mistletoe plant leaf, such as alkaloids, flavonoid, phenol, tannins, steroid and saponins. These phytochemical compounds are found to be antimicrobial active agents. The efficiency of this plant in the treatment of various diseases necessitated the present work in order to identify the classes of natural products present in the leaf of the plant.These  pharmacological  values of this plant in herbal medicine and as base for the development of new drug.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

The use of the leaves, stem and bark of the plants for medicinal purposes is an age long practice. Also in the modern times, and among civilized people, the medicinal use of herbs and shrubs in the treatment of so many diseases both physiological and otherwise is an important breakthrough in pharmocognacy. Mistle toe is a flowering plant which lives on and obtains its nutrition from other plants by parasitizing on its host. Mistle toe grows as a partial parasite on a variety of trees, such as apples, oranges, breadfruits across Northern Europe, Asia and Africa. Mistle toe falls under the category of Medicinal plants. Mostly found in tropical and subtropical areas which has proved to contain phytochemicals and other constituents.

The Mistle toe white berries are potentially poisonous and toxic ad should be avoided. It has been discovered that it is capable of treating cancer, lowering of blood pressure, internal bleeding, convulsion s and so on. Despite the wide use of Mistletoe plant of medicine, the use of mistle toe cannot be routinely recommended. In that case, it should be used under the supervision of a licensed health care professional because it has its indications and side effects. The efficiency of this plant in the treatment of various diseases necessitated the present work in order to identify the natural product present in the leaf of the plant.

Mistletoe is semi-parasitic plants widely spread in Indonesia. Usually people recognize mistletoe based on host plant where it lives. Its spread occurs through seed-eating birds. Beside is known as destroyer of host plants, it also is known has ability as medicinal plants [1] such as cough medicine, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, ulcers and skin infection [2-3]. One kind of mistletoe is not widely known yet biological activity is clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoepentandra(L.) Miq). This plant is included into Loranthaceae family, i.e. semi- parasitic plants bound the branches of their hosts via a sucker called haustorium [4].