ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF BRIDIALMACRANTHA EXTRACTED BY VARIOUS SOLVENTS

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ABSTRACT

Plants remain the most common source of anti-microbial agents. Their usage, as traditional health remedies, is the most popular for 80 % of world population in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Herbs are reported to have minimal side effects. In recent years, pharmaceutical companies have spent a lot of time and money in developing natural products extracted from plants, to produce more cost effective remedies that are affordable to the population. The rising incidence in multi-drug resistance amongst pathogenic microbes has further necessitated the need to search for newer antibiotic sources. Several members of the genus Bridial are being used traditionally for wide variety of ethno-pharmacological properties. The plant of BridialmacranthaNees (Lauraceae), commonly known as Gulmau, is a large tree grows up to 27 m in height, found in Bihar and Deccan peninsula (Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India). The bark is used in pleurisy, asthma and rheumatism 2. The leaves are also used externally in the treatment of ulcers 3,4. The bark of Bridial macranthaNees has a pleasant odour, is cheap substitute for cinnamomuminers. The bark is a rich source of mucilage. Anti-inflammatory activity of bark has also been reported. As a result of indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of infectious diseases, microorganisms have developed resistance to many antibiotics. There is need to develop alternative antibiotic drugs from natural origin. One approach is to screen local medicinal plants which represent rich source of novel antimicrobial agents.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

A critical issue in the present healthcare scenario is the exponential increase in the multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) against antibiotics. This increase in the MDR is one reason for the failure of the treatments and the higher mortality percentage [1]. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to develop such antimicrobial agents that can check drug resistance and treat the infectious disease efficiently. Fungal resistance to antibiotics is also rising, demanding the development of new antifungal agents [2]. For example, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus are opportunistic fungi. These fungi can produce invasive fungal infections in any organ of humans [3]. Limited numbers of therapeutic antifungal agents are available for these fungi because of increased resistance mechanisms through the biofilms’ formation by the fungal strains [2]. It is well known that plant parts as a whole or their extracts in different solvents are applied for various health ailments since time immemorial. Since natural herbal remedies of diseases are the outcome of hundreds of years of careful evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy and risks, side effects, and properties of these herbal based treatments are well known. Further, the present consumers’ interest is for such natural foods that should be effective antimicrobial agents with no side effects [4]. Mangroves are a group of trees and shrubs that live in the coastal intertidal zone. Mangrove trees can grow under adverse environmental conditions like low-oxygen soil, high temperature, high salinity, etc. The distribution of mangrove forests is mainly at the tropical and subtropical latitudes [5].