APPRAISING THE USES OF THE HIGH SEAS AND SEA BEDS IN MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

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ABSTRACT

This research work examined the various uses of the high sea and sea beds, the various activities that are carried out in these maritime environments, the bodies and agencies that are responsible for implementing the related maritime laws and policies as it affect the global trades, and hence, produce a formal judgment on how these uses have benefited the maritime administration. This work further surveyed the High Sea and how maritime administration has influenced its activities positively and negatively, in line with different types of vessels for high sea transportation, Trades and related maritime investment, laws and treaties formulated for protection of maritime environments. It finally analyzes the local content with the international benchmark by   carrying out survey using the Nigerian High Sea concession area (Atlantic Ocean) and maritime zones under international laws that are relevant to the research population.  The researcher    conducted a GPS analysis on multinational oil wells for CHEVERON, SHELL, ENI (AGIP), and MOBIL at their different oil tank farms. A field research was made on the satellite well and platform for oil export. Manifolding model was proposed for oil drilling and export. With an analysis based on the findings, it was empirically found that there exist about 92% profit margin and an added reduction in overall environmental pollution if this proposal is adopted.   

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

International perspective

Since 1688, few ships and their Naval Architectural pattern led the Lloyd’s of London to form classification societies. The first register, printed in 1764 and for use in year 1764-1766, was published in order to give both underwriter and merchant an idea of the condition of vessel they either owned, insured or chartered[1].

In years that followed, insurance brokers and services of ship survey came upstream to arrest the situation of poorly maintained and badly operated vessels and to also contend with the situation of cargo losses.

In this modern age, the quest for economic growth, balance of trade indices and vast undersea oil discoveries had led maritime nations and other private practitioner into capital intensive venture such as:

Maritime transport, ship brokering cruse ship supply, dry-docking offshore minerals exploration, tanker operations oil and gas productions, seafarers training, trawler fishing activities, freight forwarding, sea environmental pollution control, import and export management, maritime safety and security services etc.

In order to ensure convenience, safety, secured economy and profit maximization of the above ventures, there is great need for activity definition and jurisdiction agreement within the comity of Maritime states[2]. It is on this note that several initiatives including those of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European Union Naval forces (EUNAVFOR) and the international oil pollution and compensation fund committee in their combined effort has brought about several United Nation Convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS) and encourage all safety of life at sea (SOLAS) contracting government to participate in long range identification and tracking (LRIT) of flag state and non- flag state vessel, for safer and unified maritime administration.

Most importantly, the periodic evolution from the (IMO) conventions, Hamburg rule on carriage regime, Rotterdam rule on carriage of wholly or partly by sea, the United States Congress act of 1972 on ocean dumping, the 1972/1974 Oslo and Paris conventions on international treaty on the controlling of marine pollution etc, had all served as legal benchmarks, operations standards and principles that had guided maritime operations[3].

The uses of different high seas of the world like: the Mediterranean sea, the Caribbean sea, the South China sea,  Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Guinea, the Baltic sea, the Persian gulf, and the wider Indian waters; together with their geometric defined seabed has existed since the beginning of ages. On the other hand the significant administrative laws, the legislative bills and policies, the convention acts and treaties; for the safe voyage in these maritime communities has not ceased to evolve[4].

The high sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land. The seabed which naturally defines the underwater geometry of the planet’s hydrosphere is the land found at the bottom of this sea[5] from the earliest starting point of history, sea and seabed have different naturally and territorial characteristics that determine their uses, this includes:

  1.          Sea surface area and dept.
  2. Sea channel draft and shape.
  3.          Subsea geological formation and mineral formations.
  4. Seabed textures and porosity                                                                                                                                                                       
  5.          Sea location and freezing components
  6.          Sea boarders’ vulnerability to terror and privacy
  7. Law of the sea and concessional agreements
  8. Sea navigational polices and treaties
  9.          Sea hydrospheric communication and information tolerance Sea military base and superpower inclusion.
  10.          Sea and seabed’s changes to climate and weather patterns.

International Maritime Organizations and Agencies are the apex bodies responsible for the implementation of Marine laws and policies as it relates to global trade and sub-economy of member and non-member nations. Since  pre -historic times the sea have been very useful to men as source of water, as means for fertilizing the land, as sources of food from 230,000 know marine species[6].

In the recent decades, while the seas are used for:

  1. Voyage channel for boats, yards, tramp and liner vessel transportation mode,
  2. On board construction of oil exploration terminals,
  3. The positioning of submersible and semi-submersible oil rigs for mineral exploration,
  4. Trawler vessel fishing and marine life farming activities.
  5. Provision of onboard regional maritime rescue coordination and relaying of signal information[7],
  6. Formation of concessionary agreement for the collection of offshore and port stevedoring fees,
  7. Planned fleet maintenance and vessel refueling harbors,
  8. Military surveillance, security and ship collision survey.

The Seabed on the other hand is used for:

  1. Underground laying of pipelines and communication equipments
  2. The analysis and comprehension of wave behaviour using multiple component technology, so as to characterize wave images for oil reservoir strength, density and cracking effects.
  3. Under see seismic analysis as regards petroleum evaluations parameters and economic decisions[8]
  4. The base band analysis of supersonic arrays in submarine vessel surveillance for attack and defence mission, under the sea.
  5. Displacement indices as regards the high sea perturbations, thrust fault and destructive plate boundary analysis for tsunamis and landslides[9]. 

1.2       Statement of Problems

The use of high sea and seabed in Maritime Administration in Nigeria context is experiencing series of problem due to the   presence of Niger delta militants and governments age long neglect of these oil rich zones. At different ocean and high sea, arises different temperatures and climate condition abounds. And these  have  multiplier effects of ocean acidification which has direct negative impact on high sea vessels and other seabed. The offshore structures even in these unavoidable problems are consistently deployed with inadequate shipping management skills and complete lack of administrative competence due to knowledge gap and political stagnation. Continued bottlenecks exists in Maritime Administration as a result of global policies as a well as institutional changes in legislative laws as regards the use of the high sea, Impact of liberalization by the United Nation Commission On Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has some strategies that remained unclear at different stages of its implementation. This has impacted negatively to maritime administration on national regimes. The persistence of this problem was the issue that led to the 40: 40: 20 ratios. It was indeed this concept that crushed the NNSL (Nigeria National Shipping Line)[10]. Many maritime infrastructural facilities which serve as derived demand with the high sea and sea bed for water transportation; is hit by decadence, dilapidation and poor maintenance culture. The problems of embezzlements and financial crime are always at the forefront when holistic correction of this defect is initiated. These appalling situations in itself have negatively affected maritime administration. The peculiarity and distinct nature of high sea mode of transport, saddled with modern technological innovations in the building of some factor services, has proven that the Nigerian government has not done what is needed to support this sector when contrasted with their partners in the far-east, western world, and other sub-continents, this problem has sabotaged the maritime administrative agency from attaining to the needed bench mark as kept by the international maritime organization (IMO).

1.3       Research Questions

      The following research questions will be addressed in the study.

  1. What categories of high sea and sea beds and the activities undertaken there in, have influenced maritime administration positively and negatively?
  2. To what extent has the use of high sea and seabed been evaluated with a view to determining their contribution to maritime administration?

1.4       Scope of the Study

The area of this work is within the Nigerian high sea-Atlantic ocean as it affects the Maritime administration in Nigeria.

1.5      Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this work is to appraise the uses of the high sea and sea bed in maritime administration in Nigeria. The study further aimed at: Characterizing the high sea by way of proper definition of maritime zones, flag of confidence and possible inclusion offences.  Further specific objectives are: 

  1.  to conduct a comprehensive study of the selected high sea  and  seabed and find out their locations, evaluate their factor, service ,distinct features and prefer better method to the economic benefit that they offer.
  2.  to determine and find out various activities that are carried out at the selected high sea and seabed, examine the stake holders’ involved, their limitation and maritime administration characteristics.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter reviews related literature to the study on appraising the uses of the high seas and seabed in maritime administration focusing specifically on the Nigerian high sea-atlantic ocean and its seabed.

2.1       The Meaning of Oil and Gas Manifold

The ideal of oil and gas manifold is to divert oil and gas flow without interruption, from the separator to crude oil burner for disposal; to surge tank or guage tank for measurement or storage, or to a production line.

Oil and gas manifold also isolates the test equipment to prevent interruption if the testing equipment is pulled out of service temporarily. The oil manifold is comprised of ball valves, arranges as a manifold and is skid mounted namely: The gas two ball valves is mounted on a skid. The valves have the following qualities:

  1. Metal – to – metal
  2. Double sealing design top resist harsh environment operations[11]

Oil and gas are designed to converge multiple junctions into a single channel into multiple junctions, simple manifold system basically are used to divide one supply input to multiple outputs, while complex systems incorporate integral values or an electronic network interface. The specific feature of manifold is determined by its  use.

In oil and gas sector, manifold systems are used within the exploration, development and production phase, particularly in wells using surface testing equipment. Choke manifolds combine high pressure value with multiple choke and are used to lower pressure at the well head, which is very important to gas flaring. Multiple chokes are needed so that if one fails the flow, can be directed to another one. Choks can be adjustable or fixed, howe3ver, must system have a combination of both.

In choosing manifold system there are a number of considerations to take into account, they are as follows:

  1. Pressure: Pressure is exerted through the system. It is important that the weakest part of manifold system can handle pressures grater than the force exerted also, regular maintenance is required to ensure the wear and cyclic fatigue has not handle its designed maximum pressure
  2. Flow: The size of the pipes, values and other components of the manifold system determine the maximum flow rate. Careful consideration should be applies when predicting future flow requirement for your application liquids such as crude oil, flow rate is measured in gallons per minute, while gasses are calculated in standard cubic feet per minute.
  3. Temperature: Temperature range of manifold equipment should be based on careful assessment of both current and future uses and applications. Manifolds can be made from a number of materials. Choosing the right material will determine the operation the manifold will be used in. for example the light weight corrosion resistant nature of aluminum is suitable for highly corrosive fluids and excessive wear steel and offers high physical strength and can be coated for great corrosive resistance stainless steel is recommended for externally connosive applications. Ductile iron is use when both corrosive resistance and machinability are important. Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers of different molecular weight and grade can be used to provide protection against specific types corrosion and chemical attack.

The number and types of ports determines the manifold’s application. The number of inputs required determines the number of supply ports, while the number of outputs determines the number of outlet  ports[12].

The subsea manifolds offers long term reliability as safety, with a modular approach. Our subsea approach is based on pre- engineered modular building blocks with a wide variety of configuration requirements and design options the system is designed with close attention to flow assurance requirements, with a range of foundation systems or various soil conditions. The installation of manifold system is determined by the following features

  1. Rig deployment and mid water tow
  2. Minimizing the need for heavy lift vessels.

Presently in Nigeria, there is no tangible contribution made by NIMASA (Nigeria maritime Administration and safety agency) on oil and gas manifold. The agency is yet to act on this improved system[13].

APPRAISING THE USES OF THE HIGH SEAS AND SEA BEDS IN MARITIME ADMINISTRATION