1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
It is often said that water is the most important substance to mankind, because of this the quest for portable and clean water for use has continue to increase even as population increases. Past, current and projected future population growth is outlined. Barring a calamitous pandemic, a further increase in the world’s population from 7 to between 8.8 and 10 billion by mid-century is unavoidable the effects on food production, and thereby water usage, are greater (John cleland, 2013)
Everybody wants clean water for drinking, bathing and other domestic uses, but not everybody appreciates the fact that our actions are often the worst enemy in achieving that. Groundwater is one of the major sources of drinking water and a very crucial part in the sustenance of plant and animal life (Ranjana, 2009) .Water which is a vital resource of life is increasingly being polluted in Nigerian wake of modern civilization, industrialization, urbanization and population growth, poor land use system, agricultural activities, that had lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality as well as several other anthropogenic activities that are impacting daily on the study area (Adeyeye and Abolude, 2004).
In many places, particularly in areas with low population densities, it is common to store and treat wastewater onsite where it is produced. To do this, there are a number of technical options for on-site waste management which if designed, constructed, operated and maintained correctly will provide adequate services and health benefits when combined with good hygiene practices.
As water is the most important component of eco-system, any imbalance either in term of amount, which is presence of impurities added to it can alter the whole eco-system which is harmful the life existence (De, 2000). For instance, excess of fluoride causes dental, skeletal and non skeletal fluorosis through continued use of fluoride contaminated water, air and agriculture production (Nagarajan et al., 2000).
Pollution of a body of water occurs when an impurity (micro-organism or chemical) is introduced by or as a result of human activities, creating danger to human health or the environment when present at high concentrations. According to Gideon et al, (2004), on-site wastewater (water collected from indoor flush toilets, bathrooms, laundries and kitchen etc. via septic tanks/soakaway) treatment systems are point sources of pollution; therefore, they are expected to cause sufficiently a great impact on groundwater sources in their vicinity.
Groundwater development is one of the sources of the Federal and State Governments Water Supply Intervention Programmes under which government embarked on construction of open wells and boreholes in order to increase access to portable water to Nigerians. However, water well construction is still characterized by cases of “failed hole”, poor quality service, and unprofessional conduct of drillers and lack implementation of the code of practice that regulates the practice of water well drilling in Nigeria.Its worthy of note that in the Nigeria codes Of practice for well construction(2010), has specified the minimum distance between a soakaway tank and a borehole as 20m as against 30m which the world health organisation (who) specfied.
As described by Horsefall and Spiff (1998), water quality standard is a measure, principle or rule established by authority set to protect the water resource for uses such as drinking water supply, recreational uses and aesthetics, agriculture (irrigation and livestock watering), protection of aquatic life and industrial water supplies. According to Itah et al, (1996), ground water is known to be purer than the surface water. Unfortunately it becomes chemically contaminated by pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers which have been a boom to the wor