ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND WATER AT UTA EWA CREEK, IKOT ABASI

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ABSTRACT
This research focuses on the assessment of heavy metal concentration in animal (Ilisha africana and Ethmalosa fimbrata) and water using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy. Objectives of the study are to determine the physico-chemical status of water, to determine the toxicity associated with these dangerous metals. In the ecological surveys, the main body of the creek was divided into three sampling stations. The concentrations of the metals detected in the water (0.2032) and animals (0.0588) of the creek were not close to the toxic limits according to laboratory evaluations, although some of the metals were slightly in their toxic limits. Mean salinity, Temperature and Dissolved oxygen was conducted. Stations that received industrial effluents had higher concentrations (0.4172) than others. The significance in the upward trend of Cadmium across the stations of the creek is to facilitate the need to include demersal and pelagic animals in biomonitoring programmes aimed at controlling water pollution and the potential risk to public health.

                TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Declaration iii
Certification iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgement vi
Abstract vii
Table of Content viii
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xii
List of Plates xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Aim of the Study 2
1.3 Objective of the Study 2
1.4 Significance of Study 3
1.5 Statement of the Problem 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE RE
2.1 Sources of Heavy Metals 5
2.2 Effects of Heavy Metals 5
2.3 List of Heavy Metals and their Toxicity Mechanisms 7
2.4 Environmental and Health Risks by Heavy Metals 7
2.4.1 Environmental and Health Risk by Lead 8
2.4.2 Environmental and Health Risk by Mercury 9
2.4.3 Environmental and Health Risk by Cadmium 9
2.4.4 Environmental and Health Risk by Asenic 10
2.5 Some Studies of Heavy Metals Toxicity in Fishes and Animals 10

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Study Area 12
3.2 Materials and Tools 13
3.3 Collection of Samples 14
3.4 Measurements of Some Physico-chemical parameters 14
3.5 Determination of Fish Length-Weight Relationship 16
3.6 Chemical Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentration 18
3.6.1 Digestion of Fish samples 18
3.6.2 Digestion of Water samples 20
3.7 Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS) 21
3.8 Statistical analysis 21

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Results for Water 22
4.2 Results for Fish samples 24
4.3 Discussions 26
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary/Conclusion 28
5.2 Recommendation 28
REFERENCES 29

ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND WATER AT UTA EWA CREEK, IKOT ABASI