ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF COMPLIANCE TO THE STANDARD MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN BORE HOLE AND SEPTIC TANK IN ISIHOR, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE

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ABSTRACT
This study was aimed at determining the level of compliance to the minimum standard distance between septic tanks and boreholes in Isihor, Benin City, Edo state. Fourty boreholes were selected and their lateral distances from in-situ septic tanks were measured. Physio-chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on water samples from eight of the fourty boreholes; (four closest to and four farthest from the septic tanks). Twenty parameters namely: pH, electrical conductivity, total suspended solid, temperature, turbidity, color, iron, nitrite, lead, phosphate, calcium, copper, total dissolved solid, Zinc, appearance, taste, odour, total coliform count, total feacal coliform, total solid were assessed in the month of October 2019. The results of the analyses were compared against the standards set by WHO, NSDWQ and NAFDAC, and the results showed that out of the twenty parameters assessed only pH and TSS did not meet the prescribed limits. TSS value range was 2.0-3.67 and pH was 4.3-5.4 indicating acidity. Correlation analysis carried out on the water quality data showed no strong correlation between the distances from septic tanks and the various water quality parameters however there was significant correlation between Nitrite concentration and distance from septic tank with coefficient of correlation R =-0.77. Nitrite can occur from the oxidation of nitrogenous waste products in septic tanks and although there was correlation the nitrite levels were still within acceptable limits. The study revealed that Nigerians are not adhering to the minimum standard distance that should exist between septic tank and boreholes. This is attributed mostly to impracticability due to the non-availability of land space and the paramount failure relevant authorities to provide piped borne water for the citizenry. It is recommended that water from boreholes around the study area be checked regularly for pollution level and effort should be made by the regulatory bodies to look into the feasibility of enforcing adherence to the standard minimum distance between boreholes and septic tanks to protect the health of the populace

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of study
The sources of ground-water pollution are many and varied because in addition to natural processes practically every type of facility or structure installed by man and each and every one of his activities may eventually contribute to ground-water quality problems. The quality of ground water is most commonly affected by waste disposal. Other major sources result from agricultural activities and ground-water development.
In addition to these three major categories, there are other potential sources of pollution, such as mining, spills, leakage from underground pipes and tanks, and road salting. Regardless of the general believe that many people have of pollution being a modern phenomenon, it has occurred through out most of human history, certainly since mankind ceased to be nomadic and started to make settlements Water pollution occurred when humans began to farm the land and settle in villages and towns many thousands of years ago. For instance, the first clearing and ploughing of land for growing cereals will have released significant amounts of nitrogen from the soil into rivers, lakes and groundwater which is another cause of pollution (morris et all 2003)
This Nigerian Code of Practice for well construction specifies the minimum requirements for drillers, supervising personnel and equipment to ensure cost effective water well construction and sustainable groundwater resources development in Nigeria. It also specifies the procedures governing the location, construction, maintenance and abandonment of water well, and the installation of pumps and pumping equipment; to conserve and protect the groundwater resources of the nation against contamination and to ensure safety of all water well construction activities. The code is applicable to all wells to be constructed, rehabilitated or abandoned, regardless of depth, for public and private water consumption in the Federal Republic of Nigeria.(NWRI 2010). The code specifies a minimum distance of separation between borehole and septic as twenty metres(20m), as against 30m as earlier specified by the world health challenges (who).
At the 53rd Annual International Conference and Exhibition of the Nigerian Society for Mining and Geosciences in Abuja, the Nigeria Minister of Water Resources Mr suleimn adamu said that the boreholes are likely to affect ground water longevit, He told them instead of spending too much money like they were already doing, they could have a single unit to serve people. He also cautioned against the excessive exploitation of ground water resources to an extent that there will not be much left for future generations. (Antony , 2017)
The Coordinator of the National Water Resources Capacity Building Network, North Central Regional Centre (NWRCBNet-NC), domiciled at the University of Ilorin, Dr Adeniyi Aremu, has expressed concerns on the dangers of indiscriminate drilling of boreholes in Nigeria and the likely effect this could have on the environment if the practice is not checked. Dr Aremu, who also lamented that most states in Nigeria were unable to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) target of providing adequate drinking water to half of the population by 2015.
further stated that there was a capacity building challenge within the water industries.(uniilorin 2017)
1.1 Aims and objectives
The aim of this research is to ascertain the level of compliance of the residence of isiohor to the minimum standard distance the should exist between a septictanks and a borehole providing drinking water .
The specific objectives are as follows
1.measure the distance between boreholes and SEPTICTANKS of some selected sites using a measuring tape and an hand held GPS
2.carry out water quality assessment which include the physiochemical and bacteriological investigations of the samples collected from the selected sites

To investigate know the level of awareness of the residence of the minimum distance between a bore holes and a SEPTICTANKS pit

To investigate if there exist any correlation between the distance between borehole and SEPTICTANKS and borehole and water quality index parameters .
1.2 Significance of study
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the level of effect underground water which is used for drinking has been contaminated due to the distance between borehole and SEPTICTANKS. Malaria is the predominant disease affecting the population of Nigeria. Many other diseases endemic throughout the country are generally associated with unsatisfactory drinking water supplies, poor sanitation condition’s and inadequate health education programs. These include diarrhea, dysentery, gastro-enteritis, infectious hepatitis, hookworm, guinea worm, and other parasitic infections. The prevalence of HIV AIDS is currently about 5% and probably increasing. Health implications of water supply deficiencies in Nigeria are enormous. As the percent of people with access to safe water in the country is low and the country is relatively densely populated, the direct health repercussions the situation imposes, especially on children, is often underestimated. ( FRN 2000)
Its generally known that population growth across the world is rapid and this rapid population growth has brought a number of adverse effects on the delivery of public health services which include sewage treatment and water supply (Kawanga, 2003). In isihor, septic tanks are used for sewage disposal, in this areas residential buildings, hospitals, restaurants and even office complexes all adopt on-site treatment of wastewater is practised and private boreholes are the only source for domestic and drinking water supply. Drinking water.
Majority of the water consumers, borehole owners and operators are ignorant of the implication of constructing a SEPTICTANKS system for liquid and solid waste disposal in close proximity to a borehole water source. This research will serve as an eye opener.

ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF COMPLIANCE TO THE STANDARD MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN BORE HOLE AND SEPTIC TANK IN ISIHOR, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE