ATTITUDE OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY SOCIAL STUDIES UNDERGRADUATES TOWARDS USE OF FAMILY PLANNING DEVICES

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ABSTRACT

The study examined the attitude of Ebonyi State University undergraduates towards use of family planning devices with particular reference to undergraduate students of Social Studies. The research objectives were set to determine the attitude of the undergraduate students towards the use of condom as a device, to determine the attitude of the undergraduate students towards the use of withdrawal method as a device and to ascertain the attitude of the undergraduate students towards the use of oral contraceptive pills. Three research questions were formulated in line with the research objectives. The descriptive survey design was adopted. The population of study consisted of the 133 undergraduate students of Social Studies, Ebonyi State University. The sample size comprised 100 undergraduate students of Social Studies selected using simple random technique. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. Mean and standard deviation was used for data analysis. The findings showed that undergraduates of Ebonyi State University shows negative attitude towards the use of condoms,the students showed a positive attitude towards the use of withdrawal method and the students showed positive attitude towards the use of oral contraceptive pills. From the findings, it was recommended that Undergraduates should endeavor to abstain from sexual activities, but if they cannot abstain from sex before marriage, they should use contraceptives. Lecturers should periodically give students advice on use of contraceptives and that Parents should give their children sex education.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Adaralegbe (2005) sees Social Studies as a study of man in his environment and the eects of science and technology among others. Esu and Inyang (2014) describe Social Studies as an integrated study of and the outcome of his interaction with the environment. The researcher on his own viewpoint sees Social Studies as the study of man and his environment. Social Studies can be seen as a study of how man influences and is in turn influenced by his physical, social, scientific and technological environment.

Nearly half of all pregnancies in the Nigeria are unintended, the highest of this instance occurs between 18-24 years of age. Four in ten of all unintended pregnancies are terminated by abortion (Guttmacher, 2011). Sexually active adolescents aged 10-24 years of age are at the highest risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and while young adults aged 15-24 years represent only 25% of the sexually active experienced population, they acquire nearly half of all new STDs (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). The high occurrence of unintended pregnancies and STD contraction can be prevented through contraceptive use. With contraceptives becoming increasingly easier to access, costing less, and expanding in variety or options the question remains as to why such incidences of pregnancies and STDs are so high among the young adult age group. The CDC STD Surveillance report stated that STDs are hidden epidemics of enormous health and economic consequence in the Nigeria. They are hidden because many Nigerians are reluctant to address sexual health issues in an open way and because of the biologic and social characteristics of these diseases. STDs are public health problems that lack easy solutions because they are rooted in human behavior and fundamental societal problems. The validity in the clause lies deeply rooted behavioral and societal stigma of discussing sexual activity in the Nigeria has become an overwhelming barrier to education on contraceptive use. Solutions to these societal issues can only begin through knowledge and discussion to explore how the adolescent population’s behaviors and attitudes regarding contraceptives are aecting their use. Family planning issues are important to university aged undergraduates.

Education is associated with sexual behaviours, childbearing and contraceptives use and studies show that women are more likely to postpone pregnancy. Therefore, education can be described as a dynamic activity which involves an orderly, deliberate and sustained eort to develop knowledge and skills (Olusakin, 2009). As Awoniyi (2010) puts it, formal education is a process by which the human mind develops through learning at school in stages from pre-primary through primary, secondary to tertiary (university) institution. The present socio-economic situation in Nigeria has made it obvious that the women must be given sound, formal education as their male counterparts are given. According to Adiele (2000), the education of the girl-child was not a common phenomenon in the traditional Nigerian society before independence. In fact, her birth would not attract so much celebration as that of the male-child, and depending on the number of female children the mother had given birth to before her, the birth of an additional girl-child could cause her mother her marriage. This is still a major problem in some homes even among educated men.

According to Omegbe (2011) “education itself is the development of an individual through training, transmission of what is worth while to the point that he is able to fit into his environment and contribute to the best of his ability, to the well being of the society. Therefore, incessant child-bearing places a woman in a very weak position physically, economically and psychologically, yet barrenness is viewed as a curse in the Nigerian society due to high infantile mortality, the capacity to breed was much valued but advances in the field of medicine have greatly increased the survival rate among both infants and adults. According to Onyeanwu (2001), the incessant child-bearing is therefore, no longer necessary, instead, it poses great danger to the health of the mother and also increased family size that cannot be supported with the family resources, especially now that the Nigerian economy has nose-dived and the resultant eect of unemployment among men in the society. Therefore, to improve the living condition of Nigerian families, the life of the women who are the cornerstone of every household should be improved and the regulation of the size of the nuclear family, through family planning, cannot be overemphasized (Lai, 2000). There has been a lot of discrimination against the female gender. In fact, people just see them as breeding machines, in spite of the availability of family planning. The dissemination of appropriate and relevant information would lead to the acquisition of knowledge skills and women empowerment. This can help in breaking the intractable poverty cycle which many Nigerian families have come to be associated with due to ignorance of family planning devices and the attitude of many women towards the application of such devices.

ATTITUDE OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY SOCIAL STUDIES UNDERGRADUATES TOWARDS USE OF FAMILY PLANNING DEVICES