ATTITUDE OF PREGNANT WOMEN TOWARDS SAFE MOTHERHOOD INITIATIVES IN ORLU URBAN IMO STATE

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Table of Contents

Title Page        –             –           –           –           –           –                       i

Approval Page       –           –           –           –           –           –           –                       ii

Certification    –       –           –           –           –           –           –                       iii

Dedication      –                  –           –           –           –           –                       iv

Acknowledgements    –          –           –           –           –           –                       v

Table of Contents       –        –           –           –           –           –                       vi

List of Tables            –           –           –           –           –                       xi

Abstract          –            –           –           –           –           –           –                      x

CHAPTER ONE               –           –           –           –           –           –           1

 Introduction          –           –           –           –           –           –           1

Background to the Study               –           –           –           –           –           1

Statement of the Problem                –           –           –           –           –           3

 Purpose of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           3

Research Questions          –           –           –           –           –           –           4

Hypothesis      –      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           4

Scope of the Study     –    –           –           –           –           –           –           6

CHAPTER TWO     –        –           –           –           –           –           8

Review of Related Literature           –           –           –           –           8

 Conceptual Framework              –           –           –           –           –           –          8

 Concept of pregnancy             –           –           –           –           –           –           8

 Safe motherhood initiative          –           –           –           –           10

 Attitude towards safe motherhood initiative               –           –           15

 Measurement of attitude of pregnant women towards safe motherhood initiative –            16

 Demographic variables associated with attitude towards SMI     –           17

 Theoretical Framework               –           –           –           –           –           18

 Cognitive dissonance theory  –           –           –           –           18

  Balanced theory        –      –           –           –           –           19

  Principle of Congruity         –           –           –           –           –           19

Empirical Studies on Safe Motherhood Initiative      –           –           –           20

Summary of Literature Review          –           –           –           26

CHAPTER THREE

Methods          –     –           –           –           –           –           –           28

Research Design            –           –           –           –           –           28

Area of the study          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           28

Population for the Study               –           –           –           –           –           –           29

Instrument for Data Collection               –           –           –           –           –           29

     Validity of the instruments     –            –           –           –           –           –           30

            Reliability of the instrument           –           –           –           –           30

Method of Data Collection      –           –           –           –           –           –           30

Method of Data Analysis            –           –           –           –           –           –           30

CHAPTER FOUR        –           –           –           –           –           –           32

Results and Discussion       –           –           –           –           –           –           32

Summary of Major Findings   –       –           –           –           –           –           39

Discussion of findings         –           –           –           –           –           40

      Pregnant women attitudes toward components of safe motherhood initiatives  –           40

 CHAPTER FIVE                                                                              44

Summary Conclusion and Recommendations    –           –           –           44

Conclusions     –           –           – –           –           –           –           –           46

Recommendations      –          –           –           –           –           –           46

Limitations of the Study         –   –           –           –           –           –           –           47

Implication of the study                    –           –           –           –           –           47

Suggestion for further studies            –           –           –           –           –           48

References      –           –           –     –           –           –           –           –           49

Appendices    –           –              –           –           –           –           –           56

a.   Bar chart showing attitude of pregnant women towards safe motherhood initiative components in ORLU urban of Imo state Nigeria .Research questions 1-6                   56

  • Pie chart showing attitude of pregnant women towards safe motherhood initiative components in Orlu urban Imo state of Nigeria .Research questions 1-6                       57
  • Chart showing attitude of pregnant woman to safe motherhood initiative based on   level of education (n = 232) .Research question 6                                                 58
  • Pie showing attitude of pregnant woman to safe motherhood initiative based   on level of education (n = 232)                                 59
  • Bar chart showing attitude of pregnant woman towards safe motherhood initiative   based on level of education (n = 232) .Hypothesis one                                                       60
  • Pie chart showing result of hypothesis                                                  61
  • Pregnant women’ Attitude towards safe Motherhood Initiative Components   Questionnaire (PMATESQ)                                62
  • Attitude Of Pregnant Women towards Safe Motherhood Initiative in Orlu          Urban Imo State                                                                                                                 63
  • Pregnant woman’s attitude towards safe motherhood questionnaire (PMATSQ)           65
  • Reliability Analysis of the Questionnaires                                                                        69

List of Tables

Tables

Table 1: Attitude of pregnant women towards prenatal and ante-natal care (n= 232)           32

Table 2: Attitude of Pregnant Women Attitude towards Nutritional care (n= 232)              33

Table 3 Attitude of pregnant women towards personal hygiene (n= 232)                             34

Table 4: Attitude of pregnant woman towards essential obstetric care (n= 232)                   35

Table 5: Attitude of Pregnant Women towards Child car (n= 232)                                       36

Table 6: Attitude towards safe motherhood initiative based on level of education (n= 232) 37

Table 7: Summary of ANOVA verifying the pregnant women attitude towards safe

              motherhood   initiative components based on level of education (n=323).            38

Abstract

The study was designed to determine attitude of pregnant women towards safe motherhood initiatives, in Orlu Urban of Imo State in Nigeria. The cross sectional survey design was used in the study. Data were collected using questionnaire. The six research questions were answered using mean and the null hypothesis was tested and analyzed using ANOVA. The population of the study consisted of 232 pregnant women who registered in all fifteen health facilities in Orlu urban. The study showed that: pregnant women had positive attitude towards prenatal/ante-natal care. Pregnant women had positive attitude towards nutritional care.  Pregant women had negative attitude towards personal hygiene. Attitude of pregnant women towards essential obstetric care is positive. Pregnant women attitude towards child care is negative. Study further showed that based on the level of their education that there is no statistical significant difference in the attitudes towards all the component of SMl based on their level of education. Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted. The recommendations are: state ministry of health should formulate a reliable and valid program for evaluating the impact of positive attitude of pregnant women towards safe motherhood initiative components in all urban, communities and local governments of the federation. Appropriate training, seminars and workshops be organized regularly for women of reproductive age to be aware of the importance of having positive attitudes toward accepting internalizing and adopting high positive attitude for their safe motherhood education. This will help to develop positive attitudes towards their safe delivery. Safe motherhood initiative components should be inculcated in the school curriculum. There should be laws against pregnant women who patronize TBA’s and delivering in the homes of TBA’s

CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction

Background to the Study

Maternal morbidity and mortality (MMM) is as old as the history of child bearing. It is a deceased state and death of a woman within 42 days after the termination of pregnancy, or within the pregnant period from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management (Sach 1987, Rowley 1987).

 The rate at which pregnant women die due to pregnancy complications presently is quite alarming and it is a source of worry to the bereaved orphans, families, communities and the nation, World Health Organisation ( WHO, 2006). Due to the fact that child bearing is essentially a healthy and welcome process, traditional societies have managed, accept the risks as being unavoidable (Royston and Armstrong, 2006).

 Indications are that maternal morbidity and mortality (MMM), globally every year, reaches over half a million (WHO; 2006). Most of the deaths from pregnancy related conditions are found in urban and rural areas of developing countries (Chiwuzie,Braimoh, Unuige 1985).

           MMM rates in Nigeria are among the world highest, ranging from 800-1500 per 10,000 lives births. Despite the observation that traditional societies appear to have accepted the high MMM as unavoidable, researchers have shown that MMM and other pregnancy related problems are preventable (Royston and Armstrong 1989).

In the same vein, many researchers have analyzed the issue of MMM, and problems attributed to child bearing both in developed and developing countries. The conclusions are that they are preventable.  

In a bid to find a lasting solution to increasing rate of MMM, governments, international agencies such as (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund, (UNICF), and non- governmental organisations (NGOs) lunched the worldwide Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI) at the International Conference in Nairobi in 1987(Onuzulike, 2006).  SMI is a global effort to reduce MMM in developing countries (Weston, 1986). The components of safe motherhood initiatives are prenatal care, ante-natal care, nutrition, family planning, personal hygiene during pregnancy, essential obstetric care, emergency care, postpartum care, post abortion care, prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI’s), prevention of mother – to- child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and AIDS  and child care. The targets of safe motherhood initiatives are to reduce maternal mortality (deaths)   to the lowest rate by the year 2015 in line with Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, for this present study the SMI in consideration are: prenatal/ante-natal care, nutritional care, personal hygiene while pregnant, essential obstetric care, child care and the pregnant women’s attitudes towards SMI based on level of education. The respondent’s educational level has link with attitude hence education brings changes in attitudes and enhances the quality of pregnant woman’s lives towards SMI.

ATTITUDE OF PREGNANT WOMEN TOWARDS SAFE MOTHERHOOD INITIATIVE S IN ORLU URBAN IMO STATE