1.1     Background of the Study

The idea of establishing a radio programme as any other mass media programme is to educate, entertain, inform, and socialize the people. The emphasis largely has to do with creating awareness, surveillance of the environment, and correlation of the parts of the society in responding to its environment and the transmission of cultural heritage (Mcquil, 1998). It also helps in providing individual reward, relaxation and reduction of tension, which makes it easier for people to cope with real life problems and for societies to avoid breakdown (Mendelson, 1966). That radio has had a tremendous social impact, affecting attitudes and behaviour is undeniable.

In recognition of the unique nature of radio in terms of simplicity, wider coverage bringing the world to those who cannot read, its immediacy (Mcleish, 1978), its transmission in various local languages (Moemeka, 1981) as well as its contribution to the development of a nation, it is still the most credible source of news and enlightenment in most part of Africa (Okigbo, 1990). This made radio one of the most appropriate means of communication in any society, beating literacy barriers (Moemeka, 1981). In addition, radio has that personal touch that lends urgency to change.

Basically, communication is the process through which one person (the communicator) elicits responses from another person (the communicant) by the use of symbols (Hall, 1967). In radio programme, the communicator is far more apt to be a group than an individual. He is almost always a member of a large group – the audience. Audiences are made up of people who are different from each other, in a great many respects. These differences may be social, educational economic, psychological, cultural, ethical, religious, political, physical or intellectual. This wide diversity of backgrounds, skills, attitudes, produce problems for radio programmers. Hence, the subject matter of this work – Perception of AKBC radio programme “Esa Iban” on Social development of women in Essien Udim LGA.
The success of any communication is determined by response behaviour of the listener. The contribution a radio programme can make in social development of women depends largely on the contents of the message in the programme. In the past i.e. in the 1930s, when media were well developed in the developed countries, they were credited with considerable power to shape opinion and belief, change habit of life, mould behaviour actively more or less according to the will of those who could control the media and their contents (see Bauer and Bauer in Mcquil, 1993). Over time, this assumption was dated. Researchers in media effects subsequently indicated that there are intervening variables relating to and from personal contact and social environment that affects the influence of media in

attitudes and behaviour change (Mcquil, 1993).

Producing a radio programme is a mixture of the ideal and the expedient (Chester,, 1978). Thus, the programme must have the ability to capture the mind’s eye of its audience. The producer has to have a deep knowledge and understand the people and the community he is directing the progrmame to. By this, we can produce a programme that his audience can feel it might help them in taking decision about their life. Sociologists believes that people of different social positions will share similar demographic characteristics and would exhibit similar reaction to messages. Variables as gender, age, education, income, ethic background and religion have influence on the kind of information selected. Social categories theories ‘takes account of the fact that the audience is stratified according to such variables of social position as life cycle, occupation, class, religion, sex etc.” (Deflewer, 1970). Members of a particular category will select more or less the same content and will respond to it in roughly equal ways.


1.2     Statement of the Study

A good understanding of people’s culture, religion, income, and educational background is needed in planning interventions to change their attitudes and behaviour change. It is not easy to change the pattern of a woman who is used to disrespect men, does not satisfy with her husband, lacks moral upbringing etc. These issues are very foreign to her. In the light of the above the study intends to investigate how socially benefited from the  programme “Esa Iban”. Essien Udim is an Annang speaking local government area in Akwa Ibom State. It was created on the 8th of may, 1989, by the Ibrahim Babangida administration with its headquarter at Afaha Ikot Ebak. Details of the population show that there are 102,012 males and 90,656 females in the local government are. Therefore Essien Udim is one of the largest Local Government Area but in an interior part in the State. This makes majority of women uneducated and as such is difficult for them to accept change.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The objectives are:

  1. Determining whether women in Essien Udim are aware of the AKBC radio programme “Esa Iban”.
  2. Determine whether they listen to AKBC radio programme “Esa Iban”.

iii.      Determine how they perceive the programme.

  1. Find out how the programme affect their social life.



1.4     Research Questions

                   The study have the following research questions:

  1. Are women in Essien Udim aware of the AKBC radio programme “Esa Iban”?



  1. Do they listen to AKBC radio programme “Esa Iban”?


iii.      How do women in Essien Udim perceive the programme?

  1. How does the programme affect their social life?


1.5     Scope of the Study 

The research on the audience perception of radio programme “Esa Iban on social development of women in Essien Udim seven (7) clans in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

1.6     Significance of the Study

The significance of this study lies in the fact that it will help to highlight audience perception of radio programme “Esa Iban on social development of women in Essien Udim in order to see the need of similar programme.

It will provide useful guide to other researchers especially students who may be undergoing future research on similar topic.

1.7     Limitations of the Study

In the cause of this research, it was not easy for the researcher to get information directly from some respondents because they did not understand. The researcher had time constraint because of other academic activities.