INFLUENCE OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN BASIC JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YENEGOA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 statement of problem
1.2 research questions.
1.4 purpose of study
1.5 significance of the study
1.6 scope of the study
1.7 research design
2.0 review of related literature
2.2. Theoretical frame work
2.3. General instructional materials
2.3.2. Instructional resources for primary and secondary schools
2.4. Concept of audio-visual aids
2.5. Types of audio-visual aids
2.6. The importance of audio-visual aids in teaching-learningprocess
2.7. Academic achievement
2.8 concept of comprehension
2.9. Concept of demonstration
2.10. Concept of cooperation
2.11. Empirical studies
3.0 research methodology
3.1 research design
3.2 area of study
3.3 population of the study
3.4 sample and sampling
3.5 method of data collection
3.6 method of data analysis
4.0 Results and discussion
4.1 testing of hypotheses
Conclusions and recommendations
This study investigated the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies in juniorsecondary schools in Yenogoa local government area of Bayelsa state. The research was guided with four purposes, four research questions and hypothesis. Survey design was adopted and both students and teachers constituted the population for study. A sample of hundred subjects was drawn from five schools and was administered questionnaires. Data collected was analyzed using simple percentage (%) for research question and chi square for hypothesis. However, the four hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance and were all rejected. The study revealed that selection of relevant instructional materials, availability and ability of the teacher to improve all had significant relationship with the teaching and learning of social studies in Yenogoa local government area.
Learning and teaching is the concern of trained teachers. Though learning is a complex process, it can however, be defined as a change in disposition, a relatively permanent change in behavior overtime and this is brought about by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, facts, principles, new information at hand etc. (Adeyanju, 1997) Learning can be reinforced with instructional materials of different variety because they stimulate, motivate and as well as arrest learners’ attention for a while during the instruction process. Instructional materials are learning aids and devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools. According to Akamobi, (1998) instructional materials are those materials used in classroom or workshops for instruction or demonstration purpose by students and teachers. Chauha (1973) saw them as actual equipment used as “hands on” process by learners in order to develop the degree of skills sought by the course of requirement. Examples of instructional materials include visual aids, audio aids, audio-visual aids, real object and many others. The visual aids in form of wall charts illustrated pictures, pictorial materials, textbooks etc. thus audio instructional materials refer to those that make use of the sense of hearing only like the radio, audio tape recorder etc. an audio visual instructional material therefore is a combination of devices which appeals to the sense of both hearing and seeing such as television, motion pictures and computers. From the above definitions of instructional materials, we may gather that social studies as an area of education deals with instructional problems and solutions through the use of various visual, audio and audio-visual materials and equipment. There is the problem of inadequate preparation of teachers to carry out reading instruction (Bello, 1980). This inadequacy translates in poor reading performance in social studies and by implication other subject areas. Students in our various secondary schools equally lack the basic textbooks and other important materials that will support them in the learning of social studies at that level. Teaching social studies without relevant instructional materials leads to poor performance in other subjects.
Teaching and learning activities are interesting when visual aids are used effectively and efficiently in a classroom-teaching situation. It is necessary for the teacher in the learning of English in Nigeria to use visual aid material as instructional tools in order to make their teaching more interesting that is to arouse the learning interest, sustain their attention for effective learning. But the problem in many secondary schools in OSUN State as elsewhere in Nigeria is that of the instructional material like audio/visuals are not available and even where they are, the teachers do not use them effectively.
The reason for this attitude may be because teachers engage themselves in so many other relevant or irrelevant activities. The desire and haste of some teacher to cover the syllabus or scheme of work instead of making their teaching more meaningful and imparting. Often time some teaching goals depend on material for planning and utilization of instructional material for some teacher the production of instructional material is only for passing their examination the training college and not for actual use in the classroom.
There is also problem of non-availability of audio/visual for which teachers alone may not be blamed. The heads often do not motivate the teacher in terms of providing instructional materials.Furthermore, most school lack of funds and as a result, they find it difficult to purchase the required audio/visual aid.Generally, failure to use audio/visual material in the teaching of Social studies result in lack of interest among student in learning activities which affect performance in school and pupils not being able to assimilate lesson at their own rate and pace.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
For quite some times now, the teaching of social studies has suffered in the hands of un-resourceful and un-motivated teachers, especially at the secondary school level. Many teachers at this level feel that social studies lesson does not necessarily need to be accompanied by the uses of instructional materials. There has been general outcry of poor performance of learners in social studies in secondary school in the state. This poor performance stems from the mare fact that there are inadequate instructional materials or resources that will facilitate the teaching of the basic concept of social studies. Jiya, (1998), and Kojo (2006) have noted the above mentioned.
1.To what extent would the use of instructional material influence the students’ performance in the teaching and learning of Social Studies?
- To what extent would the selection of relevant materials influence the teaching and learning of social studies?
- To what extent are instructional materials available to students of social studies in Yenogoa Local Government area of Bayelsa State?
- To what extent do teachers improvise instructional materials to facilitate the teaching and learning of Social Studies.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
For the purpose of this study, the following questions were posed.
- Are audio/visual aid provided for use in the teaching of English in school?
- Is it through the government provision that the aid are made available, or is it the school authority concerned that make the provision?
In order to give answers to the research questions, the following null hypothesis were formulated.
There is no significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and the overall performance of student in the teaching and learning of Social Studies.
- There is no significant relationship between the selection of relevant materials and their usage in the teaching and learning of Social Studies.
- There is no significant relationship between the availability of instructional materials and effective implementation in the teaching and learning of Social Studies.
- There is no significant relationship between the teaching and learning of Social Studies where there are no abstract and difficult for the learners as they used their sense only. It has been observed the social studies teachers find a very herculean task to accompany their lesson with relevant instructional materials such as audio aids, visual aids, visual and audio-visual aids. This is perhaps due to lack of textbooks or resourcefulness or lack of innovativeness or gross incompetents of the teachers. Whichever is the case, this lack of instructional materials constitutes a great deal of problem for effective teaching and learning of the subject.
1.4 Purpose of Study
This study focuses primarily on the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Yenogoa local government Area of Bayelsa state. Specifically, the study set out to achieve the following objectives.
- To determine the effect of instructional material on students performing in social studies.
- To find out why secondary schools teachers find it difficult to select relevant instructional material toward the teaching and learning of social studies.
- To find out to what extent instructional materials are available in teaching and learning of social studies.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The essence of any research endeavor is an addition to the academic satisfaction, to find solution to the numerous problems confronting man in his attempt to actualize himself in the context of the society. Instructional materials stimulate critical and creative thinking in learners which is an important cornerstone of the Social Studies philosophy. They also help the learners to develop the skill of analytical enquiry, motivate to produce their own materials and provide experience that are not easily obtained within the classroom environment. The research will be of help to the younger generation researchers who wish to conduct similar research in the field. It will served as a material to curriculum planners, educational policy makers, writers of social studies textbook and teachers of social studies in various secondary schools. Finally, this research will be useful to government as findings of this studies as well as recommendations could be used by the ministry of education as frame work to organize seminars and workshop to train secondary school teachers on how to teach social studies effectively.