BAKING OF BREAD USING BLEND OF WHEAT FLOUR AND FERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOUR

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CHAPTER ONE
PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAD USING BLENDS OF WHEAT AND FERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOURs
INTRODUCTION
1.1     BREAD: Bread is the loaf that results from the baking of dough which is obtained form a mixture of flour, salt, sugar, yeast and water. However, other ingredient like milk, sugar and egg etc may be added. Due to increasing population, urbanization and change in food habits, consumption of leavened bread has increased tremendously in developing countries in recent years (Eggleston, 2005) It is however relatively expensive being made from wheat which is as a result of climatic reasons does not grow well in the tropics and has to be imported ( Edema, Etal 2004) efforts has been made to promote the use of composite flour in which flour from locally grown crops and high protein seeds replace a portion of wheat for use in bread. Thereby decreasing the demand for imported wheat and producing protein enriches bread ( Giami, etal 2004). Although wheat flour is the indispensable ingredient in leavened bakery products flours and meals from many other grains are frequently used as ingredients for the purpose of enhancing flavour or colour and improving nutritional aspect ( Samuel, 2004). The predominance of wheat flour for baking of  levened breads due to the properties of its elastic gluten protein, which helps in producing a relatively large loaf volume with a regular finely crumb structure. If the wheat flour used in bread making is to be substituted with flour produced from other crops, they must be milled to acceptable baking quality. However such products  cannot compare favourably with wheat flour product and therefore can only be referred to as non- wheat bread  or named after their flour sources ( Opara Etal 2005).    
1.2     NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF BREAD per 100g
Carbohydrates                    41g 
Dietary fiber                         7g 
Fat                                         3g 
Protein                                 13g 
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)        0.4mg(35%) 
Riboflavin ( Vitamin B2)    0.2mg(17%) 
Niacin (Vatamin B3)            4.7mg(31%) 
Sodium                                472mg(31%)  
1.3     TYPES OF BREAD
We have two main type of bread White Bread Brown Bread 
–        White Bread: Is made from flour containing  only the central core of the grain ( endosperm). 
–        Brown Bread: Is made with endosperm and 10% brain ( pieces of grain husk separated from flour after milling. It can also refer to white bread with added colouring often caramel colouring) to make it brown e.g. wheat bread .  
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BAKING OF BREAD USING BLEND OF WHEAT FLOUR AND FERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOUR