Historically, Borno State, which was founded in 1976, initially comprised the present Borno and Yobe State. Prior to the advent of insurgency, it has been a relatively peaceful, multicultural and dynamic State in Nigeria. The State is fortunate to have human and natural resources, which have created many opportunities for its indigenes and other Nigerians to live in harmony. Borno State started experiencing the global trend of insurgency from 2009 (Adamu, 2014). Which led to the gruesome killings of innocent Nigerian citizens perpetrated by an insurgent group called Boko Haram (Adamu, 2014). Since 2009, they have disrupts educational system in Borno State with huge negative effect on basic education. The insurgent group dislikes children attending schools, and also committed criminal oences ranging from kidnaping of school pupils and attacking teachers in schools (Adeyemi, 2014). There is major destruction of school activities in the state. Recent past, they used under-age girls to carry out suicide bombing of major shopping mall, cinema halls and bus station. Moreso, Abduction of school children and the elderly were also common in their recent styles of mindless attack. Geographically, according to Borno State Government (BSG, 2012) the State is the largest State in Nigeria in terms of land mass territory which covers 69,435 square kilometers, which is located in the north eastern corner of Nigeria. Educationally, the State is a center for education to all its international and national neighbors such as the northern part of Cameroun, the southern part of Chad and Republic of Niger. Many students from Adamawa, Gombe and Yobe State in Nigeria had also benefited from the State basic education program.
The major tribe in Borno State is called “Kanuri” which constitute the higher hierarchy in the management of basic education in the state. Occupationally, majority of the people in Borno state are famers, fishermen and herdsmen but also send their children to the basic schools. The State is having a conventional university known as University of Maiduguri, a polytechnic, colleges of education, many senior secondary schools as well as many basic schools. The Nigerian National Policy on Education (FGN, 2004) defined basic education as the type of education received at primary school level up to junior secondary school level. According to the Universal Basic Education Commission, the objectives of the basic education are as follows: a) Provision of scholarship to drop out of school children through the basic education programme. b) Ensure the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, manipulative and life skills (as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying the foundation for life-long learning. c) Develop the entire citizens with a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its education d) Provide free, compulsory, universal basic education for every Nigerian students of school age group. e) Reduce drastically, drop outrage from the formal school system through improved relevance and efficiency curriculum. Universal Basic Education is the transmission of knowledge to all Nigerian society from generation to generation.
It has two main components— Universal and Basic Education. Universal means a programme that is meant for all arms of the society such as the poor and the rich, the physically challenge and all the school dropouts people in Borno State. While Basic Education means the beginning of acquisition of desirable skill, knowledge and attitude in a formal school system. The purpose of this paper is to examine the eect of insurgency on universal basic education in Borno State and make appropriate solution to the challenges of basic education in the State.
1.1 Background of Study
Since the inception of President Goodluck Jonathan administration in Nigeria, security challenges has become an issue in discourse hence Boko Haram. Its philosophy stands for outright rejection of Western education, Western culture and modern science and advocates the propagation of strict adherence to Islam in its purest form. Boko Haram represents the vision and mission of a fundamentalist Islamic movement in Nigeria. The sect known as Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (people committed to the propagation of the prophet’s teachings and Jihad) seeks to Islamize Nigeria by whatever means at its disposal and at whatever human cost. So far the dastardly activities of this sect have been confined to churches, security operatives and public buildings in the Northern states and the Federal Capital Territory but now have shied to schools especially in Brono, Yobe and Adamawa state of Northern Nigeria.
The atmosphere of insecurity currently pervading the nation is now worsened by the allegation of complicity among high-ranking security personnel, executive cabinet which president Good Luck Jonathan openly said Boko Haram have infiltrated his government. The spate of bombing now is targeted at primary schools, secondary schools and tertiary institutions respectively; killing and maiming students, teachers, lecturers as well as burning school building at will which forced majority of schools to close down in the North especially Borno, Yobe and Adamawa state respectively. The trend of insecurity in the country especially with activities of the dreaded Islamic sect popularly known as Boko Haram has become a major concern for every Nigerian. Significant stakeholders in the country have offered suggestions on the need to check the new security challenges posed by the dreaded Islamic sect in the country. While some suggested that amnesty be offered to the group; others called for collaboration with world leaders and international organizations as strategies to rid the country of Boko Haram terrorists. Some also suggested the need for strengthening of internal security to combat sect. It is against this background that this paper tends to stress the eect of Boko Haram Insurgency on education system especially in the Northern states of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa state respectively. More of the Boko Haram Insurgency will be discussed with events and date in the next chapter.