1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There are so many indicators in the literature that examination is one of the most controversial matters in our contemporary society Hence due to its nature, it attracts very many critics this situation has given rise to where a part of the critics believes that examination as the last resort Categorically, examination is clearly knows to render very useful help in the field of education meanwhile, Stephen (1969) views that there are numerous examples in all countries of the world while are in reality and frequently in name, also, competitions designed to eliminate the majority of candidates and allocate the reminder to certain know vacancies for example the civil service in secondary schools in colleges or universities. In the real fact examination is usually employed to mark either pass or fail is constantly applied to a collection of students. It collaborate the view of Stephen where he declares that history as to back up the view setting children against one another in trials and competition has always been a respectable means of inciting them to deal because examination is used to measure the academic performance of every students. With this mind, they have always strived to pass. In the same vein, it also encourages a kind of competition within a collection of students who will aim at the attainable highest mark in classes.
Apart from the foregoing examination as still used for giving grades to the individual students. By casting our minds into past, the West Africa councils issued resulted on the basis of some grading where students where placed in stratification one, two, three, respectively secondly the relevant practices of the Nigeria teaching institute is that students are given certificates in the ground of distinction, credit, and good classification and either of those where marked through examinations By the standard of the National Certificate Education, students are by custom grouped into first, second, further subdivided into upper and lower or third class degree having successful undergone a rigorous set of examination. Consequently, all those situations have been put together to exert influence on the child’s attitude which have always had a way of bringing about negative desire or success in any given examination with or without adequate and necessary preparations. However, it is good to note that examination goes beyond the four walls of the school system. Hence, Nwama (1979) observed that “in business sector, the more theoretical examinations one passes, the better the chances of advancement even of productivity does not increase. According to him, this is the social and even candidates operate. Examination still more, could be used as a medium for issuing licensed. A paragonised paragon by the view of Stephen is driving test and here he declared “no one so far wishes to put a limit to computing against each other in a series of proficiency test designed to unlock out all but a small earlier determined quantity of top grade performance.
The authority has every desire to ensure that those who handle cars are capable of doing so with at least a minimum of efficiency. The essence of an examination before written before the issuance of driving license is just to answer that life is made safer for the majority of the populace using our highways. Furthermore, he believes that examination is a weapon normally used for social engineering and he puts it thus, it is used in breathing through social class barriers and quickening social mobility. Therefore, the imperative of examination because we cannot cope one form of examination of the other, there is constantly emphasized by people on the need to pass since it tells who should have a given job at the expenses of on the spot mouth (oral) test. In whichever form an examination takes, we must note that it is always competitive. Meanwhile, the outcome of any given test is not governed by a complete standard of performance but by the degree of excellence of the contestants. Also, in the civil service sectors, results are guided by the number of vacancies to be occupied. It is worthwhile to note that in the school system, every child has to write a series of tests in the secondary school.
There are in the form of class terminal and session examination and to go long way to determine whether he will reach the final year class. Therefore, the next examination to be taken will be either the national examination, which is the final year class. These are respectively organized by the NECO and WAEC. It is essential to place on record that success at either of this examination helps to determine the success made in the six years spent in the secondary school. So higher marks attained in any of them becomes one of the yardstick to institutions of higher learning while having to write other sets of consecutive competitive examination with the JAMB to mention but a few.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has become an idea from the background of this work that examination plays a very useful role in our education and society at large. It is a very rare phenomenon to see where honest examinations are conducted. However, as early as 70s examination malpractices have been reported in our education cycle. With action in mind, those who involved themselves in examination malpractice usually introduce systematic and sophisticated method in overshadowing even clever and watchful invigilators. Malpractice has been a nationwide scourge and of which Edo State is also inclusive. For this reason is made to investigate the extent it has gone in the area of the study have and why it happens mainly in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.