This study – student’s poor performance in shorthand and typewriting – causes and suggested remedies – A comparative study of three selected educational tertiary institutions in Enugu College of Education Metropolis was undertaken with a prime objectives on how to improve student’s poor performances in shorthand and typewriting. This focus is in the areas of taking down notes speedily as well as transcribing and producing accurate neat work in both academic and oice works. It is also meant to create awareness on the usefulness of shorthand and typewriting in day-to-day activities in all aspect of the economy. In order to get genuine facts and information, related literature were reviewed, eliciting views and opinions of dierent specialists and experts. In addition, some selected institutions were sampled and a total of 100 copies of the questionnaires were administered to both students and lecturers. During the course of research, some problems were identified which range from students attitude towards the subjects, inadequate knowledge of the use of English Language, lack of concentration, inadequate equipment and improper representation of shorthand outlines insuicient guidance and counseling. The researchers are therefore of the view that all the recommendations outlined in chapter five of this study such as the authorities of every institutions making eort to provide the students with adequate shorthand and typewriting facilities, if accepted and implemented will help to reduce and or solve the students poor performance in shorthand and typewriting subjects generally.



1.1 Background of the Study

According to American Encyclopedia International (1956:356), “shorthand has come a long way from the days when dictation was taken by making signs on clay tablets or stones. Greeks and Egyptians used shorthand in speed writing contents, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries John Robert Cregy Published shorthand boot light Inc phonograph (1888) and sir Isaac Pitman (1837) together with other inventors of shorthand books, brought about the recognition of shorthand all over the world. As human beings tend towards civilization, the need for effective communication cannot be over emphasized, communicating with one another has been found to make the world move round communication as Herbert (1976 :53) said is the act of transferring meaning or knowledge from one persons to another, (the link, 1992). All human organizations live by communication.

Without communication no organization can exist or survive for it, it is the tool of management and co-ordination. It is almost a general consensus that the various changes in technological advancement in form of recording, writing and processing can only complement the duty of a confidential secretary in matters of urgency and acute necessity. It does not follow that these media per se can fully substitute the work of confidential secretaries hence the drive for shorthand writers, typists and secretaries in all aspects of business world. Shorthand is the art of writing rapidly and legibly by means of characters or signs in place of the conventional letters or worlds. The oxford English Mini Dictionary (1995) defines shorthand as “a method of writing rapidly with quickly made symbols”. It is said that shorthand is one of the cornerstone subjects of business education system of shorthand, were based on the alphabetical spelling of words, in contemporary shorthand, which are generally phonetic and based on speech, sounds, dateline circles, dashes and other easy way to write characters for recording sounds, syllabus and phrases frequently used. There are many inventors of shorthand namely Sir Isaac Pitman, Thomas Allen, Emily D. Smith (B. Sc) to mention but few. Sir Isaac Pitman invented the art of representing spoken sound phonographic in 1837. Isaac Pitman found out that letters could be written faster in shorthand than in longhand, the purpose of pitman shorthand is the most widely used international system today because the pitman’s involves a lot of memory load in its mastery, a modified system known as the pitman 2000 shorthand is gradually being adopted by most colleges of education and other tertiary institutions at present to make shorthand much easier and enjoyable to master and apply. Thus Emily D. Smith (B Sc) Economics and holder of the unparalleled speed of 250 words per minute also contributed her quote to the development of shorthand writing.

TYPEWRITING: Typewriting is a mechanical (both manually and electrically) ways of transcribing shorthand and other manuscripts into readable and neater form, making use of the keyboard devices. The first known functional manual typewriter was invented by Christopher Sholes 1920. Even though it was the deficiency of typing only in capital letters yet the credit of first typewritten document went to him. The manual typewriter as the name implies, is the type of typewriter that is manually operated without the use of electricity. It has keyboard, which contains letters, A – Z, figures 0 – 9 and other functional keys which causes resultant eect as other keys when depressed.

ELECTRIC TYPEWRITER: The International Business machine (IBM) was the first producer of electric typewriter in 1934. Three dierent types of electric typewriters are: (a) Standard type: Bar Electric typewriter. (b) Single Element typewriter. It was first introduced into the market by IBM electric in 1961. Both alphabets, figures and special symbols are embossed on the face of the sphere. (c) Proportional: Spacing typewriter. The machine produces copy that closely resembles print of materials In essence, both shorthand and typewriting are subject in secretarial studies or administration. Shorthand is a subject of its own that is meant to take down spoken words as fast as possible. It deals with sound rather than the actual longhand English spelling of words. Typewriting deals with speed and accuracy in operating the keyboards, efficiency in using the machine for the production of neat and properly arranged words for effective communication. It also deals with mastering of a mass of related technical information and improvement of the learner’s language skills. The skill attainable by a given student depends on his innate learning ability motor coordination, aggressiveness, and many other personal characteristics.