CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES FROM SALMONELLA ASSOCIATED WITH INVASIVE SALMONELLOSIS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

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CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES FROM SALMONELLA ASSOCIATED WITH INVASIVE SALMONELLOSIS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

Salmonellae are Gram negative, non-sporing, motile, and non-lactose fermenting rods. They belong to the phylum Proteobacteria, class Gamma-proteobacteria, order Enterobacteriales, family Enterobacteriaceae and genus; Salmonella. With the exception of Salmonella Pullorun and Salmonella gallinarumall Salmonellae are motile, also with the exception of Salmonella typhi all are non-capsulated. The genus was named in honor of Daniel Elmer Salmon an American Veterinary Pathologist (Graham 2009 ; FDA/CFSAN, 2009).

Salmonellae can be divided into two major groups for the purpose of understanding of the genus. Group one includes the members of the genus that involved the most invasive salmonellae which cause enteric fever/typhoid fever (Typhoidal Salmonellosis) and group two are the Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) (Graham 2009).

An infection (salmonellosis) is caused by ingesting salmonellae in food that has been contaminated with animal or human intestinal sources directly or indirectly (Redmond and Griffith,2003). Common sources of the infection are contaminated foods such as poultry meat and meat products, eggs and eggs products or water (Udezeet al.,2010). Once the bacteria are in the body, the incubation period is only about 8 to 48 hours(Willey et al., 2008). The disease results from a true food borne infection because the bacteria multiply and invade the intestinal mucosa where they produce an enterotoxin that destroys the epithelial cells. Abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fever are the most prominent symptoms, which usually persist for 2 – 5 days but can last for several weeks (Willey et al.,2008). During the acute phase of the infection as many as one billion salmonellae can be found per gram of faeces. Most adult patients recover, but the loss of fluids can cause problems for children and elders, blood and mucous may be present in faecal specimen (Al-jurayyanet al., 2004). Salmonellae can be isolated from stool, food, blood, urine, bone narrow and duodenal aspirates. From blood the organisms can be detected in about 75-90% of patients during the first ten days of infection, and in about 30% of patients during the third week. From faeces, organisms can usually be isolated from about 40% to 50% of patients during the second week of infection and about 80% of patients during the third week (Cheesborough, 2002).

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CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES FROM SALMONELLA ASSOCIATED WITH INVASIVE SALMONELLOSIS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA