CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME LESSER KNOWN WILD FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN AYAMELUM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

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ABSTRACT

The study identified some edible fresh wild green leafy vegetables and fruits and determined their nutrients, antinutrients and food toxicants content. The proximate, micronutrients, antinutrients and food toxicants contents of these fruits (Olax viridis (“Osenga”), Gongronema species (“Aado”), Ficus carpensis (“Akankolo”), Napoleona/imperialis (“Ukpodikili”), Afromonum species) (“Okwocha”) and vegetables Vitex doniana (“Uchkulu”) and Ficus carpensis) were determined using standard  methods. The moisture content of the  fruits ranged from 59.83 to 75.40% in Olax viridis (“Osenga”) and Gongronema species,  (“Aado”) respectively. Olax viridis (“Osenga”)fruits had high levels of protein (6.52%),ash (12.52%),and fibre (13.58%).Fiscus crapensis (“Akankolo”)fruit contained appreciable quantities of ascorbate (36.mg).Gongronema species fruit is rich in iron (23.50mg), phosphorus (44.66mg), copper (14.06mg) and zinc(12.43mg). The fruits equally contained high levels of phytate (12.60-108mg) in Gongronema species (“Aado”) and Olax viridis (“Osenga”). Afromonum species (“Okwocha”) had high oxalate (127.22mg).  Tannins and saponins levels of the fruits were low (0.05-0.12mg and 0.02-0.30mg), respectively. Ficus carpensis (“Akankolo”)leafhad high moisture (60.44%) and lowprotein (2.18%), fat (3.42%), ash (10.5%),fibre(8.91%) .Vitex doniana (“Uchakulu”) had less than 50% carbohydrate (35.74%) and high fibre(11.45%). Vitex doniana (“Uchakulu”) leaf contained appreciable amounts of β-carotene (67.83mg), and  Fiscus carpensis (“Akankolo”) leaf had lower B-carotene (27.94mg) relative to that of Vitex doniana (“uchakulu”).07.83mg. The ascorbate level (67.83mg) was high in Vitex doniana. Vitex doniana leaf had appreciable quantities of phosphorus (28.63mg) and high oxalate level (128.56mg). Saponins (0.02mg) and tannins (0.12mg) were low in the two vegetables. The edible lesser-known wild fruits and vegetables can contribute much more nutrients especially micro nutrients to the diet of families in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra State. The antinutrients phytate, oxalate, tannin and saponin levels of the fruits and vegetables were at safe levels. Increased consumption of these foods is advocated.                  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        —          —          —          —                   —          —          i

Approval page —          —          —                —          —          —          —          ii

Certification    —          —          —          —                  —          —          —          iii

Dedication      —          —          —          —         —          —          —          —          iv

Acknowledgement      —          —          —          —     —          —          —          v

ABSTRACT   —          —          —          —          —     —          —          —          vi

Table of contents        —          —          —      —          —          —          —          vii

List of Tables  —          —          —          — —          —          —          —          xi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION           —          —          —     –          —          —          –1

1.1 Background of the study  —          —                 —          —          —          1

1.2 Statement of the problem —          —        —          —          —          —          2

1.3 Objectives of the study     —          —       –          —          —          —          3

1.4 Significance of the study  —          –    —          —          —          —          3

CHAPTER ONE

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW            —          —   –          —          —          —          –4

2.1 Micronutrients       —          —          —          —      —          —          —          4

2.2 Importance of fruits and vegetables in diet          —          —          5

2.3 Mineralizing effect            —      —          —          —          —          —          7

2.4 Laxative effect      —          —             —          —          —          —          7

2.5 Vegetables            —          –        —          —          —          —          —          8

2.5.1 Leaves of the annuals and shrubs          —   —          —          —          9

2.5.2 Leaves of trees   —          —          —      —          —          —          9

2.6 Green leafy vegetables      —          —            —          —          —          9

2.7 Nutrient composition of green leafy vegetables   —          —          —          10

2.8 Composition and nutritional quality of vegetables     –          —          10

2.8.1 Carbohydrate     —          —          —       —          —          —          —          11

2.8.2 Moisture —          —          —             —          —          —          —          11

2.8.3 Energy    —          —          —          –          —          —          —          —          11

2.8.4 Protein    —          —          —          —           —          —          —          11

2.8.5 Ether extract      —          —         —          —          —          —          —          12

2.8.6 Mineral composition      —      —          —          —          —          —          12

2.9 Vitamins in vegetables      —          —          —          —          —          —          12

2.10 Antinutrient content of green leafy vegetable    —          —          —          13

2.10.1 Phytate —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          13

2.10.2 Oxalate —          —             —          —          —          —          —          13

2.10.3 Tannins —          —         —          –           —          —          —          —          14

2.10.4 Saponins             —          —          —          —          —          —          —          14

2.11 Some commonly consumed vegetables in Nigeria        —          —          15

2.11.1 Fluted pumpkin: (Telferia occidentails)           —          —          —          15

2.11.2 Water leave      —          —                 —          —          —          —          15

2.12 Fruits       —          —        —          —          —          —          —          —          17

2.13 Nutrient composition of fruits    —             —          —          —          —          17

2.13.1 Protein  —          —          —          —          —          —          —          18

2.13.2 Moisture           —          —           –           —          —          —          18

2.13.3 Fats      —          —    —          —          —          —          —          —          18

2.13.4 Fibre     —          —     –          —          —          —          —          18

2.13.5 Minerals          —          —          —          —          –           —          18

2.14 Vitamins in fruits               —          —          —          —          —          18

2.15 Commonly used fruits          —          —          —          —          —          19

2.15.1 Guava   —          —          — –          —          —          —          —          —          19

2.15.2 Pineapple          —          —      —          —          —          —          —          21

2.15.3 Mangoes           —          —      —          —          —          —          —          25

2.15.4 Pawpaw           —                 —          —          —          —          —          28

2.15.5 Orange —          —          —        —          —          —          —          28

2.15.6 Avocado          —          —                —          —          —          —          30

2.15.7 Apple   —          —          —            —          —          —          —          33

2.15.8 Banana —          —           —          —          —          —          —          34

CHAPTER THREE

3.1  MATERIALS AND METHODS–       —          —          —          -39

3.2 Pilot Study            —                    —          —          —          —          —          —          39

3.2.1 Identification of samples                    —          —          —          —          39

3.2.2   Preparation of materials              —          —          —          —          45

3.3    Chemical analysis           —          —          —            –           —          45

3.3.1    Fat determination        —            —          —          —          —          45

3.3.2    Moisture determination           —             —          —          —          46

3.3.3   Ash determination       —          —              —          —          —          46

3.4    Crude fibre determination         –   —          —          —          —          47

3.4.1   Method            —          —          –       —          —          —          —          —          47

3.5   Crude protein determination          —          —          —          —          —          47

3.5.1     Digestion        —     —          —          —          —          —          48

3.5.2   Distillation       —                —          —          —          —          —          48

3.5.3   Titration           —          —          —       —          —          —          48

3.6    Carbohydrate determination      –          —          —          –           —          48

3.7    Determination of iodine, iron, copper, calcium and zinc, phosphorus   —          —          49

3.8   Pro-vitamin A (RE) determination                —          —          —          49

3.8.1   Principle           —          —         —          —          —          —          49

3.8.2      Method         —          —             —          —          —          —          50

3.8.3   Calculation       —          —          —            —          —          —          50

3.9   Ascorbic acid determination       —         —          —          —          —          50

3.10   Determination of antinutrients  —          —          —          —          51

3.10.1    Phytate          —          —              —          —          —          —          51

3.10.2  Tannins            —         –          —          —          —          —          51

3.10.3   Saponins         —          —    —          —          —          —          —          51

3.10.4   Oxalate determination                 —          —          —          —          51

3.11   Statistical analysis                         —          —          —          —          52

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS —          —          —          —          —        —          —          53

4.1 Proximate composition of fresh wild fruits               —          —          53

4.2 Vitamin composition of fresh wild fruits             —          —          —          54

4.3 Mineral composition of wild fruits               —          —          —          54

4.4 Antinutrient composition of fresh wild fruits           —          —          55

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION–   —          —          —          —    –          —          —          59

5.1 Proximate composition of wild fresh fruits              —          —          59

5.2 Vitamin composition of wild fresh fruits     —          —          —          —          60

5.3 Mineral composition of wild fresh fruits —       —          —          —          61

5.4 Ant nutrient composition of wild fresh fruits            —          62

5.5 Vitamin composition of lesser-known fresh wild green leafy vegetables            —          64

5.6 Mineral composition of fresh wild green leafy vegetables     –          —          64

5.7 Antinutrient composition of fresh wild green leafy vegetables    –          65

Conclusion      —          —          —          —          —          —     —          —          —          65

Recommendations      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          65

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study      

Micronutrient deficiency is still a public health problem in Nigeria despite the effort that has  been made to eliminate it. World Health Organization (WHO) (2002) reported that about 30% of the population in developing countries suffer currently from one or more of the multiple forms of nutritional deficiencies, especially that of micronutrient. Nnanyelugo (1983) stated that incidence of malnutrition is higher in the rural areas than urban slums, particularly protein and micronutrient deficiencies.

Onyezili et al., (2005) observed that in most developing countries three micronutrient deficiencies are common. These are vitamin A deficiency (VAD); iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and iodine deficiency disease (IDD). Nnanyelugo (1983) observed that deficiency diseases were caused partly because of the food gap seasonality in which people experience food abundance, especially vegetables during the rainy season and severe scarcity during the dry season.

Fruits and vegetables provide people with a range of compounds, many of which have more than one role, being involved both with immediate good health and with protection against disease that can develop over a long period of time, such as cancer, heart conditions, stroke, hypertention, birth defects, cataracts and diabetes.(Tenny and Barrett, 1997). Fruits and vegetables are generally acceptable as good sources of nutrient and supplement for food in a world faced with scarcity .They are known to be excellent source of nutrients such as minerals and vitamins (Nhar et al., 1990) The high incidence of malnutrition, especially in children has been seen as the core cause of major forms of anemia in children and pregnant /nursing mothers (that is nutritional deficiency and haemolytic anemia) (Trumb and Yates, 2001). Pamploma-Rogres (2004) stated that fruits and vegetables have been linked to the management of anemia because of they are rich in vitamins and minerals. Some of these vitamins are not directly involved in red blood cell production but they promote the absorption of other important minerals, example ascorbic acid promotes the absorption of iron from the small intestine.   

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME LESSER KNOWN WILD FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN AYAMELUM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE