The Civil Service is a body or organ which enjoys continuity of existence. Civil Service Commands a pool of experience and know-how for implementing government policies. A Civil Servant is required to assist in formulating and implementing the Policies approved by Government irrespective of his or her personal or private opinions or attitude on the issue. The Civil Service is indispensable, irrespective of the type of regime, whether military or civilian.

Recruitment of Federal Civil Servants is vested on the Federal Civil Service Commission whose establishment is provided for, in the constitution. The Federal Civil Service Commission has no power for the appointments that are the exclusive responsibility of the Head of Service or other Arms/Functionaries of Government. e.g. A Judge of the Supreme Court of Nigeria and any officer in the Nigeria police force, Principal Representative of the Republic of Nigeria Overseas such as Ambassadors and High Commissioners. From time to time, the Federal Civil Service Commissioner delegates the authority in respect of appointments, promotions and discipline of specified staff to Minister/Extra-Ministerial Department.
The Civil Service Commission can delegate some of its power to Ministerial-Extra Ministerial Departments. To be eligible for appointment into the Federal Civil Service, every applicant must: Not be less than 18 years and not more than 50 years of age. Possess such minimum qualification as may be specified from time to time including computer literacy. Be certified by an authorized Health Care provider as medically fit for Government service; and Possess a testimonial of good conduct from last employer or if not previously employed from the last school or college attended; and Possess requisite qualifications as provided for in the Scheme of Service. No Officer shall be appointed into Civil Service without authorization for appointment from the office of the Head of Civil Service of the Federation and Supervisory Board in the case of parastatals.

Officers on probation will be required to serve for two years before being confirmed in the service. This period may be reduced to not less than six months by deduction of any previous period of Civil Service rendered satisfactorily in post of cognate status involving similar duties. The period of probation shall not exceed two years unless an extension is approved by the Federal Civil Commission.

A contract appointment is a temporary appointment (which does not provide for the payment of a pension) to a post or the level to which appointment is made by the Federal Civil Service Commission for a period.
Transfer: Is the permanent release of an Officer from one scheduled service to another or from one class to another.
Secondment: means the temporary release of an officer to the service of another Government, approved body or any recognized international organization or body for a specified period.
Senior post: Transfer from one senior post to another or from one class to another within the Federal Public Service require the prior approval of the Federal Civil Service Commission and an officer must have served for a minimum period of 6 months in his original Department before seeking transfer to another Department.
Junior Post: Transfer from one junior post to another within the Federal Public Service from one Department to another may be arranged, with the consent of officers being considered for transfer, at the mutual-discretion of their Permanent Secretaries/Head of Extra-Ministerial Office.
PROMOTIONS: The Minimum number of years that an officer must spend in a post before being considered eligible for promotion shall be as follows:
Grade Level of staff Number of years in post
01 – 06 Minimum of 2 years
07 – 14 Minimum of 3 years
15 – 17 Minimum of 4 years
Promotions shall be made strictly on the basis of competitive merit from amongst all eligible candidates.
GL. 06 and below by the Ministry/Extra Ministerial Office
GL. 07 – 14 by the Ministry/Extra Ministerial Office or the relevant staff pool subject to confirmation by Federal Civil Service Commission.
Ministerial Office or the relevant pool routed through the Head of the Civil Service.

There is, therefore, a need for enhancing the image and the future of the service and in doing this the following points should be borne in mind:
Discipline: The Civil Service must be well disciplined. Rules and regulations should be adhered to and the interests of the Service must be paramount.
Senior Officers should prescribe codes of conduct which they themselves can and should comply with. Those who wish to lead other people should always remember that effective leadership involved exemplary character, hard work and transparent integrity. Junior Officers should be familiar with Government Regulations and rules regarding good conduct. They must learn to obey lawful orders and established authority.
Loyalty: Civil Servants should be loyal to the Government which has given the opportunity to service it.
Honesty: Civil Servants should be honest in doing their duties and in their dealings with the public. They should realize that they are paid salaries for the duties which they perform.
Courage: Courage is one of the greatest assets to the best civil Servants.
Courtesy: It costs nothing to be polite to your colleague and the general public served by you. Polite instructions are usually more easily obeyed. Members of public always cherish courtesy and consideration from Civil Servants.
Cooperation: All the staff in the section of a Ministry should cooperate as a team in order to realize the overall purpose of the section. The Officers and staff of a Ministry should work together to attain the goals of the Ministry.
Tact: Tact means skillfulness in handling a difficult situation without being offended to the people involved. That is very necessary in the service.
Industry: In this sense, industry means useful hard work. You have been engaged to serve your Ministry or Department in some way. In turn your Ministry or department serves the Government and Members of the Publics.
Tidiness: Civil Servants should keep their offices tidy not only because visiting members of the public served by them are thereby more favorably impressed but also because an orderly office gives an idea of the state of minds of its staff. Workers should also ensure that they are properly dressed to do their duty in the office or work place. It is a good idea to dress in a business – like manner, not as if one were going to a formal party or beauty queen parade.
Helpfulness: You may have heard many people alleged that it is now difficult for people to get help from those they do not know.
Kindness: Being kind does not imply that you should give to people what they are not entitled to. Kindness involved respecting the privileges and rights of officers, employees and members of the public; irrespective of the fact that those concerned are unknown to you.
Attitude to public funds:
• Do not waste funds. If you are frugal in spending your money, you should be equally frugal in spending public fund.
• Collectors of Government Revenue should be conscientious in doing their duty. They should not make any rebates as a favour to anyone. In this regard, it is not kindness to reduce the revenue due to Government on your own account or at your own level. Justify every expenditure and ensure that economy is insisted upon, e.g. `discourage wasting public funds on ill-advised purchases near the end of the financial year.
• As a good citizen and a good civil servant, discourage financial abuses by making suitable reports through the correct channel.
• Made-in-Nigeria goods should be preferred to imported counterparts.
National Consciousness/patriotism: The ideas held by people influence their actions. Therefore, Civil Servants should aim at inspiring, any good idea without being unrealistic. One Nigeria is by far and always superior to any town or clan or ethnic group in the Federation. Therefore the interest of any group should not be pursued at the expense of what is best for Nigeria.
A Good Image of the Service: The Government of the Federation is the largest employers of labour. The Civil Services, therefore, have a leading role to play in the social and economic affairs of the country.
Efficiency: The level of efficiency can be improved upon. Training-consciousness will help in this regards. In the national interest, training institution in the federal service should be open to Civil Servants in the State. As a matter of policy, staff may attend training courses in the states. It would be extremely rewarding if the training of some Federal and State personnel could be held jointly to promote a community of experience of such trainees. The amenities provided by Governments should be equitably distributed among the people without reference to political parties, ethnic and religious groups. As Civil Servants are paid from various taxes collected from the people, government servants should help to ensure that;
• Equal opportunity for employment is provided for all job seekers
• Under no circumstance should bribes and gift be taken from applicants for jobs. Interviews for employment should always be conducted by a duly constituted panel. It should never be left in the hands of a single person. Proper record should be kept of the interview for future reference.
• Nepotism or any other form of preferential treatment should be avoided.
• In the service, privileges should be granted only those who are qualified for them.
• Civil Servants should never dispense private or personal favour with public fund and property.
• Justice and fair play should be extended to all concerned
• Ensure that public business is always discharged in accordance with existing laws, rules and regulations of government and with expedition.
• Discourage discriminatory practices to individuals and groups
• All irregularities reported should be investigated and corrective action promptly taken.
The Federal Civil Service has undergone some reforms and reviews. Despite all these well meaning efforts, by the late 1980s, the Nigeria Civil Service was far from being ideal. It was tradition-bound, somewhat ponderous and showing signs of deterioration and several undesirable characteristics of which the following were the most prominent: over centralization, incessant conflicts between cadres, little emphasis on result and concrete performance, counter-productive, separation of authority from responsibility at the topmost hierarchy, dangerously low staff morale and productivity, inappropriate staff development practices. Indeed at that point in time the civil Service was displaying a patent inability to cope effectively with the challenges of modem, complex and development-hungry society.
Little wonder then that the Government in 1988, through the Civil Service Re-organization Decree No. 43, Instituted Civil Service Reforms. The Reforms were designed to ensure the following; enhanced professionalism, alignment with the presidential system of government, decentralization and delegation, combination of authority with responsibility, enhanced accountability, enhanced checks and balances, general modernization, enhanced effectiveness, efficiency and speed of operation.
The Office of the Heads of Civil Service was abolished; the Minister, in addition to being the Chief Executive also becomes the Accountability Officer in place of the Permanent Secretary; the post of Permanent Secretary was also abolished. In its place, a new political post of Director General was created. The Director-General then held office at the pleasure of the President, and would vacate office with the Government which appointed him unless re-appointed by an incoming administration. The Civil Service was professionalized in order to stimulate specialization and expertise. In this regard, an officer was expected to make a career in a particular Ministry or Department. Each Ministry was restructured along departmental lines to reflect the basic functions and areas of concern of the Ministry, each department was sub-divided into Divisions, each Division was sub-divided into Branches, and Branches were sub-divided into sections. Each Ministry or Extra-Ministerial Department was allowed to have three common services departments, viz department of personnel Management, Department of Finance and Supplies and Department of Planning, Research and Statistics and not more than five operations department.

However, it later became clear that the Civil Service Reforms had some limitations. There was inadequate knowledge about the provisions of the Reforms on the part of some Civil Servants and top Government Functionaries. There was absence of strong commitment on the part of top Government functionaries to the implementation of the reforms partly as a result of misconception that full implementation will erode their powers. There was also the problem of human resistance to change and fear of the unknown on the part of many Civil Servants. It was, therefore, not surprising that Government decided to set up a Civil Service Review Panel, popularly known as the Arida Review Panel which recommended the abrogation of the Civil Service Re-organization Decree No. 43 of 1988. It also recommended a return to what the Civil service was before the introduction of the reforms, it should however, be noted that some parts of the reforms have survived.

Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. An employee is “A person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed.” An employee contributes labour and expertise to an endeavor of an employer and is usually hired to perform specific duties which are packaged into a job. In most modern economies, the term “employee” refers to a specific defined relationship between an individual and a corporation, which differs from those of customer or client. Contract of employment” means any agreement, whether oral or written, express or implied, whereby one person agrees to employ another as a worker and that other person agrees to serve the employer as a worker; “Employer” means any person who has entered into a contract of employment to employ any other person as a worker either for himself or for the service of any other person, and includes the agent, manager or factor of that first – mentioned person and the personal representatives of a deceased employer.

An employer’s level of power over its workers is dependent upon numerous factors, the most influential being the nature of the contractual relationship between the two. This relationship is affected by three significant factors: interests, control, and motivation. It is generally considered the employers’ responsibility to manage and balance these factors in a way that enables a harmonious and productive working relationship. There are different types of employment. (a) Test employment (b) Time limited employment and (c) Normal employment, which has no time limit (except for retirement etc.) It can still be ended by personal reason, crime, lack of work tasks, etc.

It is a category of contract used in labour law to attribute right and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. The main object of labour law has been, and will always be a countervailing force to counteract the inequality of bargaining power which is inherent and must be inherent in the employment relationship. A contract of employment usually defined to mean the same as a “contract of service”. A contract of service has historically been distinguished from a “contract for services”, the expression altered to imply the dividing line between a person who is “employed” and someone who is “self employed”. The purpose of the dividing line is to attribute rights to some kind of people who work for others. This could be the right to a minimum wage, holiday pay, sick leave, fair dismissal, a written statement of the contract, the right to organize a union, and so on. The assumption is that self employed people should be able to look after their own affairs and therefore, the work they do for others should not carry with it an obligation to look after these rights. Employment contracts are written agreements that detail the workplace duties and responsibilities of the employee and the compensation that the employer provides in return. Employment contracts typically lay out the wages, bonuses, vacations, medical leaves (including maternity), stock options, and other benefits and compensation that the worker receives for fulfilling his/her obligations to the employer. These obligations are also specified in the contract, as is the duration of the worker-employee arrangement, the authority of the employee, ownership of intellectual property, and dispute resolution mechanisms. They also include termination provisions, and they may also include post-employment confidentiality, non-compete, and non-solicitation clauses. Section 7 (1) of Labour Act: No later than three months after the beginning of a worker’s period of employment with an employer, the employer shall give to the worker a written statement specifying the name of the employer or group of employers, and where appropriate, of the undertaking by which the worker is employed; the name and address of the worker and the place and date of his engagement, the nature of the employment; if the contract is for a fixed term, the date when the contract expires; the appropriate period of notice to be given by the party wising to terminate the contract, due regard being had to section 11 of this Act; the rates of wages and method of calculation thereof and the manner and periodicity of payment of wages; any terms and conditions relating to hours of work, or holidays and holiday pay, or incapacity for work due to sickness or injury, including any provisions for sick pay; and any special conditions of the contract.
If after the date to which the said statement relates there is a change in the terms to be included or referred to in the statement of the employer – shall, not more than one month after the change, inform the worker of the nature of the change by a written statement; and if he does not leave a copy of the statement with the worker, shall preserve the statement and ensure that the worker has reasonable opportunities of reading it in the course of his employment, or that it is made reasonably accessible to the worker in some other way. A statement under subsection (1) or (2) of this section may, for all or any of the particulars to be given by the statement, refer the worker to some other document which the worker has reasonable opportunities of reading in the course of his employment or which is made reasonably accessible to the worker some other way. If the employer, in referring in the said statement to any such document, indicates to the worker that future changes in the terms particularized in the document will be entered in the document (or recorded by some other means for the information of persons referred to in the document), the employer need not under subsection (2) of this section inform the worker of any such change which is duly entered or recorded not more than one month after the change is made.
Business owners who are considering introducing employment contracts into their operation should consider the following: Employment contract that are imposed unilaterally, rather than by genuine mutual agreement between worker and employer, are at substantial risks in the courts. If the employee is found to have entered into the contracts under duress, the agreement will be struck down. Employment contracts are an effective means of mitigating the risk of business damage at the hands of ex-employees. Consider collaborating with the employee in order to create a comprehensive contract. Determine whether termination of the contract is “at will,” (i.e. either the employer or the employee can end it at any time), or “for cause,” (that the agreement between the parties can be terminated only if the employee is found to have committed a legal offence or other stipulated act of dishonesty, fraud, etc.). Consultants typically urge businesses to make certain that the language of the contract conveys at “at-will” message throughout, thus avoiding legal potential entanglements that can arise if the arrangement is seen as a permanent job. Examine the regulatory/legal environment; make sure that the employment contract adheres to pertinent laws before you introduce such agreements. Use employment contracts only for legitimate business relationships. Compensation for services rendered should be reasonable and should be distributed only when they are in fact completed. Employment contracts are not “one-size-fits-all.” Severance arrangements should be reviewed on a regular basis to determine their suitability for inclusion in employment contracts. Dispute resolution mechanisms are often incorporated into them.

A “work made for hire” is—- a work prepared by an employee within the scope of his or her employment; or – a work specially ordered or commissioned for use as contribution to a collective work. The determination of whether an individual is an employee for the purposes of the work made for hire doctrine is determined under the common law in which a court looks to a multitude of factors to determine whether an employer-employee relationship exists. In determining whether a hired party is an employee, we consider the hiring party’s right to control the manner and means by which the product is accomplished. Other factors relevant to this inquiry are: the skill required; the source of the instrumentalities or tools; the location of the work; the duration of the relationship between the parties; whether the hiring party has the right to assign additional projects to the hired party; the extent of the hired party’s discretion over when and how long to work; the method of payment; the hired party’s role in hiring and paying assistants; whether the hiring party is in business; the provision of employee benefits; etc.

A job description is a list that a person might use for general tasks or functions, and responsibilities of a position. It may often include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications or skills needed by the person in the job, or a salary range. A job description is usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis considers the areas of knowledge and skills needed for the job. The job description might be broadened to form a person specification or may be known as Terms of Reference. A job description may include relationship with other people in the organization: Supervisory level, managerial requirements, and relationship with other colleagues.
A job description needs not be limited to explaining the current situation, or work that is currently expected; it may also set out goals for what might be achieved in future. Prescriptive job descriptions may be seen as a hindrance in certain circumstances. Through technology, the workplace is changing, and identified basic skills that employees must have to be able to change with it: General skills (Learning to learn & Foundation Skills), Basic skills competence (reading, writing, or computational standards), Communication skills – Oral & Listening, Problem-solving & Creative thinking, Self-esteem, Motivation/goal setting, Employability/career development, Group effectiveness and Interpersonal, Negotiation and teamwork, influence, organizational and leadership. Person specification is an extension of the job description that profile the type of person needed to do a job. Elements include attainments, specialized skills, interests, personality, etc.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND AGREEMENT: Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employers and the representatives of a unit of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions. It consists negotiations between representatives of a union and employers (generally represented by management,) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions, training, health and safety, overtime, etc. The rights to procedures and responsibilities of trade unions. A collective agreement functions as a (group) labour contract between an employer and one or more unions. “Collective bargaining” is the process of arriving or attempting to arrive at a collective agreement.
Employees are expected to act in a professional manner at all times and to treat co-workers and members of the public with respect and dignity. These work rules are fundamental standards of conduct for all employees. They do not supersede any applicable collective bargaining obligations. A violation of these work rules may result in disciplinary action. Employee handbook contains these rules including references to and/or dress code, confidentiality policy statement, code of ethics, drug free workplace policy, etc. Employee Handbook is more than a rule book; it gives the opportunity to communicate the company’s mission and culture together with setting expectations. It contains a roadmap to assist in business decisions which impact employees.

Evidence is information that may be presented to persuade the court/enquiry panel of the probability of the truth of some fact asserted in the case, i.e. information by which facts tend to be proved or disproved. Examples of facts that may need to be proved are: the identity of the defendant; that the defendant is an employer; that an employee was ‘at work’ at the time of incident say when he/she was injured. The elements of an offence will appear as items on the evidence matrix that is submitted to the Approval Officer as part of the prosecution report. A trial is a fact-finding exercise and, with its verdict, the panel makes a decision as to whether all elements of the offence have been proved. There are rules that govern the conduct of these rules of evidence and of procedures.
EVIDENCE: Evidence is that which demonstrates, makes clear, or ascertains the truth of the very fact or point in issue. Evidence may be considered with reference to the nature of the evidence, the object of the evidence, the instruments of evidence and the effect of evidence, the object of evidence is next to be considered; It is to ascertain the truth between the parties. It has been discovered by experience that this is done most certainly by the adoption of the following rules, which are now binding as law: The evidence must be confined to the point in issue. The substance of the issue must be proved. The affirmative of the issue must be proved.
CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE: The proof of facts which usually attend other facts sought to be, proved; that which is not direct evidence. The facts are directly attested, but they only prove circumstances. This is of two kinds, namely, certain and uncertain.
CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE: That which, while un-contradicted, satisfies the judge and jury. It is also that which cannot be contradicted. The record of a court of common law jurisdiction is conclusive as to the facts therein stated.
DIRECT EVIDENCE: Applies immediately to the “fadum probandum”, without any intervening process.
EXTRINSIC EVIDENCE: External evidence, or that which is not contained in the body of an agreement, contract, and the like. It is a general rule that extrinsic evidence cannot be admitted to contradict, explain, vary or change the terms of a contract or of a will, except in a latent ambiguity, or to rebut a resulting trust.
NATURE OF EVIDENCE: As to its nature, evidence may be considered with reference to its being Primary evidence, Secondary evidence, Positive, Presumptive, Hearsay and Admissions. It is a rule that the best evidence, or that proof which most certainly exhibits the true state of facts to which it relates, shall be required, and the law rejects secondary or inferior evidence, when it is attempted to be substituted for evidence of a higher or superior nature. When primary evidence cannot be had, then secondary evidence will be admitted, because then it is the best.
FORMS OF EVIDENCE: Witnesses, Expert Witnesses, Hearsay, Authentication and Identification, Polygraph Tests, Voice Stress Tests, etc. The Best-Evidence Rule, Judicial Notice. Some matters that are relevant to a trial are so obvious that it will not require evidence to prove them – for example, that it is dark outside at midnight, or that April 30, 1995, fell on a Sunday. Past Bad Acts
WITNESSES: Credibility depends on whether the witness accurately perceived what he or she described; whether the witness retained an accurate memory of that perception; and whether the witness’s narration accurately conveys that perception. In order to be allowed to testify, the witness generally must take an oath, must be personally present at the trial, and must be subjected to cross-examination. These conditions promote the factors that lend themselves to the witness’s credibility. Witnesses must only give evidence of facts observed by them, and not evidence of their opinion (i.e. evidence of inferences drawn from those facts). However, witnesses may give evidence of opinion as a means of conveying relevant facts observed by that witness. For example, an assertion that a person was drunk may be a convenient way of describing what the witness saw, heard or smelt which led him or her to form that opinion. The proceeding will allow such statements as long as no special expertise is necessary.
EXPERT WITNESSES: “If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will help the Trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness who is qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education, may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise”
HEARSAY: Hearsay is a statement, made out of court, offered in court to prove the truth of the matter asserted. The statement may be oral or written, or it may be non-verbal conduct intended as an assertion, such as pointing to a crime suspect in a police line-up. The act of pointing in response to a request for identification is the same as stating, “He did it.” Not all non-verbal conduct is intended as an assertion, of course. Sometimes, statements made out of proceedings are not hearsay because they are not offered for the purpose of proving the truth of the matter asserted. The general rule is that any statement, other than one made by a witness while giving evidence in the proceedings, is inadmissible as evidence of the facts stated; there is otherwise an opportunity to test whether the person that made the original statement is telling the truth.
AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION: Evidence is not relevant unless its authenticity can be demonstrated. A letter in which the defendant admits her guilt in a tax-fraud trial is inadmissible unless the prosecution at first show that the defendant actually wrote it. Objects that are not readily identifiable often must be authenticated through chain-of-command testimony.
THE BEST-EVIDENCE RULE: The Best-evidence rule is a misleading name for the preference for original writings, recordings, and photographs over copies, when the contents are sought to be proved. The purpose of this rule at common law was to avoid the potential for inaccuracies contained in handmade copies.
PAST BAD ACTS: Evidence of past bad acts by a criminal defendant is not admissible to prove that the defendant is a bad person and therefore committed the crime charged. Evidence of past bad acts will, however, be admitted for other purposes such as; -to show motive, -intent, -preparation, -plan, -knowledge, -identity, or -absence of a mistake or accident.
THE BURDEN OF PROOF: The burden of proof is the obligation to shift the accepted conclusion away from an oppositional opinion to one’s own position. The burden of proving the guilt of the defendant lies on the prosecution, who must prove the particulars of the offence beyond reasonable doubt. In conflict resolution, a key question for consideration is which party has the obligation (‘the burden’) to prove particular facts in issue. The burden of proof is often associated with the Latin Maxim “semper necessitas probandi incumbit ei qui agit,” the best translation of which seems to be: “the necessity of proof always lies with the person who lays charges.” He who does not carry the burden of proof carries the benefit of assumption, meaning he needs on evidence to support his claim. Fulfilling the burden of proof effectively captures the benefit of assumption, passing the burden of proof off to another party. When the burden of proof is on the defendant to establish a particular issue, it is often referred to as a ‘reverse burden’, because it reverses the normal situation in which the prosecution must prove the facts beyond reasonable doubt. The incidence of burden of proof is affected by common law, statute and procedure.
PRESUMPTION: A presumption is where a ‘trial’ treats a fact as having been proved, notwithstanding that no (or insufficient) evidence has been presented to establish it. A presumption can help the prosecution to prove a particular fact by requiring the defense to disprove it. For example, it will be presumed as a matter of law that: a properly addressed and posted letter, not returned, has reached its destination; and a person acting in an office was properly appointed. These facts will be ‘presumed’ unless the defense presents sufficient evidence to the contrary to rebut the presumption.
STANDARD OF PROOF: The “standard of proof” is the level of proof required in an action to discharge the burden of proof that is to convince the panel that a given proposition is true. The degree of proof required depends on the circumstances of the proposition. Beyond a reasonable doubt -the highest level of proof, used mainly in criminal trials. Clear and convincing evidence -an intermediate level of poof, used mainly in civil trials. Preponderance of evidence -the lowest level of proof, used mainly in civil trials; typically means more likely than not.
RELEVANT AND ADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE: Evidence may be proved by: -calling witnesses (witness evidence); producing documents (documentary evidence); producing things (real evidence). In considering the evidence needed to ensure a conviction, you should be concerned with: Relevance; if it logically goes to proving or disproving some fact at issue. Admissibility; if it relates to the facts in issue, or to circumstances that make those facts probable or improbable, and has been properly obtained. Weight; reliance that can properly be placed on it.
DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE: Documentary evidence is any evidence introduced at a trial in the form of documents. Although document is most widely understood to mean writings on paper (such as an invoice, a contract), the term actually include any media by which information can be preserved. Photographs, tape recordings, films, and printed emails are all forms of documentary evidence. Evidence contained in or on documents can be a form of real evidence. For example, a contract offered to prove the terms it contains is both documentary and real evidence. When a party offers a document into evidence, the party must authenticate it the same way as any other real evidence, either by a witness who can identify the document or by witnesses who can establish a chain of custody for the document.
PAYROLL EVIDENCE: Oral testimony given by a witness; verbal confirmation, verbal explanation of facts admitted at trial, verbal proof, verbal proof of facts. Also called oral evidence. Payroll Evidence Rule prohibits the introduction of any oral or written agreement that contradicts the final written agreement. For example, an insurance contract containing clauses and provisions is in writing, and as such this contract cannot be contradicted or modified by any oral statements or agreements that are admissible. When parties put their agreement in writing, all previous oral agreements merge into the written agreement. The written agreement cannot be contradicted by oral testimony, unless there was a mistake or fraud. The payroll evidence rule does not apply to written integrated contracts in some instances such as clerical or typographical errors found in the written agreement.
They may be changed because the incorrect term does not represent the true agreement between the parties. Some exceptions to the payroll evidence rule: Extrinsic evidence can always be admitted for the following purposes: To aid in the interpretation of existing terms. To show that in light of all the circumstances surrounding the making of the contract, the contract is actually ambiguous, thus necessitating the use of extrinsic evidence to determine its actual meaning. To resolve an ambiguity in the contract. To disprove the validity of the contract. To correct mistakes. To show wrongful conduct such as misrepresentation, fraud, duress, unconscious ability or illegal purpose on the part of one or both parties. To show that consideration has not actually been paid. To identify the parties, especially if the parties have changed names. To imply or incorporate a term of the contract.

Contract of Employment: A contract of employment usually defined to mean a person who enters into a contract of employment with an employer. The legislation on employment matters in Nigeria is the Labour Act. The contract of employment will include some or all of the under listeds: An employer is obliged to provide an employee with a written statement of terms of employment within the first three months of the commencement of employment which specify among other things as follows:
• A description of the parties to the contract of employment.
• The nature of the service or services to be rendered under the contract of
• The tenure of the contract including its probation period.
• The remuneration which must be paid in the legal tender of the country where the contract is entered into.
• The hours of work.
• Mandatory holiday with paid leave.
• Rules with regard to periods of incapacity to work due to sickness or injury.
• Maternity leave.
• The appropriate period of notice to be served before the contract can be terminated.
• Possible grounds for dismissal of the employee without notice, etc

Types of contract of employment
Contract of employment determinable by notice and Contract of employment stipulating no notice of termination.
A. Voluntary termination
Voluntary termination is a decision made by the employee to leave the job. Such a decision is commonly known as “resignation”, “quitting”, “leaving”, or “giving notice”. Some common reasons for voluntary termination include: Personal dissatisfaction with the job, employer, hours or working conditions, or in more severe cases, burnout. Factors in employee’s personal life not related to the job that makes holding or performing the job impossible or more difficult. These may include family obligations, education, health, or moving to a new location. Hire at a new job with better working conditions, better hours, a shorter distance to work, better pay, graduation, career progression or preparation for entry into a new career, or a career change. Feared or anticipated involuntary termination. The employee may wish to take matters into his/her own hands in order to leave more honorably – either completely on their own initiative, or as an offered alternative to layoff. (This is also known as mutual consent in some parts). Retirement: This may be as a result of the employee’s age (which may vary, depending on job type and benefits available following retirement) or else an injury, disability, or other medical condition forcing early retirement.

B Involuntary termination
Involuntary termination is the employee’s departure at the hands of the employer. There are two basic types of involuntary termination, known often as being “fired” and “laid off”. To be fired, as opposed to being laid off, is generally thought of to be the employee’s fault, and therefore is considered in most cases to be dishonorable and a sign of failure. Often, it may hinder the new jobseeker’s chances of finding new employment, particularly if he/she has been fired from earlier jobs. Jobseekers sometimes do not mention jobs which they were fired from on their resumes; accordingly unexplained gaps in employment and refusal to contact previous employers are often regarded as ‘red flags’. Being successively fired from several jobs has the possibility of preventing jobseekers from obtaining gainful employment for a long time.
C Termination of a contract: In all cases of the termination of a contract of employment, neither party is obligated to provide any reason for terminating the contract. Also, the motive of the party that terminates the employment contract is equally irrelevant provided that the provisions of the employment contract in relation to its termination are complied with by the terminating party.

TERMINATION NOTICE: A termination notice must be properly “couched”. (1) It must be in writing – Clearly written termination notice. (2) States facts behind the decision – i.e. identifies an objective reason for disciplining the employee and document the case.
Note: Most termination litigation occurs when an employer cannot demonstrate objective reasons for action. An employer who wants to discipline an employee without risk of litigation has to document a valid objective reason for the termination. There are three (3) valid objective reasons for terminating an employment, but only two (2) of them are grounds for discipline:
A Reduction in force (or Lay off)
B Pitfalls for employee engaged in layoff is the choice of selection criteria
C Violation of company rules
D Inability or failure to perform.

Breach of Employment Contracts – compensation: The fundamental basis for assessing damages in breach of contract cases is the compensation which the injured party would have been deprived of if the contract was not unlawfully terminate. Thus, in the case of an unlawful termination, the court will only award as damages the compensation of such period of salary that the terminating party would have been paid in lieu of the giving of the proper notice of termination. For wrongful dismissal without notice, the measure of damages will be the amount the injured party would have earned had he continued with the performance of the contract until the contract is lawfully terminated. Nigerian law does not recognize claims for injured feelings, physiological trauma or such similar claims when considering the amount to award as damages for breach of any employment contract. This is particularly as the injured party is required to mitigate whatever loss he or she may have suffered by getting another employment or securing another employee’s services.
DISMISSAL: Dismissal is where the employer chooses to require the employee to leave, generally for a reason which is the fault of the employee. The most common colloquial term for dismissal is “getting fired” or ‘getting the sack’. In some cases an employer is entitled to opt for the dismissal of its employee’s contract, instead of the termination of a contract of employment, where the conduct of its employee “…… is of some grave and weighty character that it undermines the relationship of confidence which must exist between a master and a servant”. Examples of conduct which could be considered to be of a grave and weighty nature include cases of stealing, fraud, bribery, corruption, falsification of records, gross insubordination, dereliction of duty, sleeping at work, verbal or physical violence, fighting, assault and battery, working under the influence of illegal drugs, conflict of interest, competition with the employer’s business, conversion of company’s property for private use without the employer’s permission or consent, etc.
CONCLUSION: An insufficient appreciation of the difference between a termination of an employment contract with a dismissal of an employee from employment is a major factor of most litigation. In all cases of termination of contract of employment, neither party is obligated to provide any reason for terminating the contract. The motive of the party that terminates the employment contract is irrelevant, provided that the provisions of the employment contract in relation to its termination are complied with by the terminating party. Whereas in dismissal cases the employer must state a reason for dismissing the employee. However, it is important that the supervisor/manager consult the company’s lawyer before issuing a letter of Termination or Dismissal.
Conflicts are defined as any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions or behavior lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties. Estimates show that managers spend about 21% of their time dealing with conflicts that is the equivalent of one day in a week. Conflict management skills are a major predictor of managerial success.
TYPES OF CONFLICTS: Not all conflict is bad. Some conflicts encourage new solution to problems and enhance the creativity in the organization. Managers should stimulate functional conflicts and prevent or resolve dysfunctional conflicts. This is the key to conflict management.
FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT: Is a healthy, constructive disagreement between two or more people. Functional conflict can produce new ideas, learning and growth among; individuals. When individuals engage in functional conflict, they develop a better awareness of themselves and others. Functional conflict can improve working relations because when, two parties work through their disagreement, they feel they have accomplished some things together by releasing tensions and solving problems in working together, morale is improved. Functional conflicts can lead to innovation and positive change for the organization because it tends to encourage creativity among individuals. This positive form of conflicts can translate into increased productivity among individuals. A key for recognizing functional conflicts is that, it is often cognitive in origin, that is, it arises from someone challenging old policies or thinking of new ways to approach problems.
DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICTS: Is an unhealthy destructive disagreement between two or more people. Its danger is that it takes the focus away from the work to be done and place the focus on the conflict itself, and the parties involved. Executive conflict drains energy that could be used productively. Diagnosing conflicts as good or bad is not easy.
Leads to new ideas Diverts energy from work
Stimulates creativity Threatens psychological wellbeing
Motivates changes Wastes Resources
Promotes Organizational Vitality Creates a negative climate
Helps individuals and groups establish identities Break down group cohesion
Serves as safety to indicate problems behavior Can increase hostility and aggressive
CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN ORGANIZATIONS: Conflicts are pervasive in organization. To manage it effectively, managers should understand the many sources of conflicts. They can be classified into two broad categories. Structural factors which stem from the nature of the organization and the way in which work is organized and personal factors which arises from differences among individuals.
Specialization Skills and Abilities
Independence Personalities
Common Resources Perceptions
Goal Differences Values and Ethics
Authority Relationships Emotions
Status Inconsistence Communication Barriers
Jurisdiction Ambiguities Cultural Differences

SPECIALIZATION: When jobs are highly specialized, employees become expert at certain tasks. E.g. highly specialized jobs can lead to conflict because people have little awareness of the task that others perform. A classic example of conflict of specialization is one between sales people and engineers. Engineers are technical specialist responsible for product design and quality. Sales people are marketing experts and liaisons with customers. Sales people are often accused of making delivery promises to customers but engineers cannot keep because the sales force lacks the technical knowledge necessary to develop realistic delivery deadlines.
INTERDEPENDENCE: Work that is interdependence required groups or individuals to depend on one another to accomplished goals. Depending on other people to get work done is fine when the process works smoothly. However, when there is problem, it becomes very easy to blame the other party and conflict escalates. In a garment manufacturing company for example, when the fabric cutter gets behind in their work, the workers who sew the garment are delayed as well. Considerable frustration may result when workers at the sewing machine feels their effort are being blocked in the cutter slow pace.
COMMON RESOURCES: Anytime multiple parties must share resource, there is potential for conflict. This potential is enhanced where the shared resources become scarce. One resource often shared by managers is secretarial support. It is not uncommon for a secretary to support two or more managers each of whom believes his or her work is most important. This puts pressure on the secretary and leads to potential conflicts in prioritizing and scheduling work.
GOALS DIFFERENCES: When work groups have different goals, these goals may be incompatible e.g. in one cable television company, the sales person’s goal was to sell as many new installations as possible. This created problem for the services department because its goal was timely installations. With increasing sales, the services department workload became backed up, and orders were delayed. Often these types of conflicts occur because individuals do not have knowledge of another department’s objectives.
AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIP: The nature of a traditional boss-employee relationship brings to mind a vision or hierarchy, of a boss who is superior to the employee. For many employees, the relationship is not a comfortable one because another individual has the right to tell them what to do. Some people resent authority more than others and obviously this creates conflict. In addition, some bosses are more autocratic than others. This compounds the potential for conflicts in the relationship. As the organization moves toward the team approach and empowerment, there should be less potential conflict from authority relationships.
STATUS INCONSISTENCIES: Some organizations have a strong status differences between management and non-management workers. Managers may enjoy privileges such as flexible schedule, personal telephone call at work and longer lunch hours that are not available to non-management employees. This may result in resentment and conflict.
JURISDICTIONAL AMBIGUITIES: Have you ever telephone a company with a problem and had your call transferred through several different people and department? This situation illustrates jurisdictional ambiguity that is unclear lines of responsibility. Workers tend to pass the buck or avoid dealing with the problem. Conflicts emerge over responsibility for the problem.
PERSONAL FACTORS: The causes of conflict that arises from individual differences include skills and abilities. It may be positive for the organization but it also hold potentials for conflicts, especially when job are interdependent. Experienced, competent workers may find it difficult to work alongside new and unskilled recruits. Workers can become resentful when their new boss, fresh from college, knows a lot about managing people but unfamiliar with the technology with which they are working.
PERSONALITIES: Individuals do not leave their personalities at the doorstep when they enter the workplace. Personality conflicts are realities in organizations. To expect that you will like all of your co-workers may be a native expectation, as would be the expectation that all will like you. One personality trait that many people find it difficult to deal with is abrasiveness. An abrasive person is one who ignores the interpersonal aspects of work and the feeling of colleagues. Abrasive individuals are often achievement oriented and hardworking, but their perfectionist, critical style often leaves others feeling unimportant. This style creates stress and strain for those around the abrasive person.
PERCEPTIONS: Differences in perception can also lead to conflicts. One area in which perceptions can differ is the perception of what motivates employees. If managers and worker do not have shared perception of what motivates people, the reward system can create conflicts. Managers usually provide what they think employees want rather than what employees really want.
VALUES AND ETHICS: Differences in values and ethics can be sources of disagreement. Older workers for example, value company loyalty and probably would not take a sick day when they were not really ill. Younger workers value mobility, like the concept of Mental Health Days or calling in sick to get away from work. This may not be true for all workers, but it illustrates that differences in values can lead to conflict. Most people have their own sets of values and ethics. The extent to which they apply these ethnics in the workplace varies. Some people have strong desires for approval from others and will work to meet others ethical standards. Some people are relatively unconcerned with approval from others and strongly apply their own ethical standards, still others operate seeming without regards to ethics or values. When conflicts over values or ethics do arise, heated disagreement is common because of personal nature of the differences.
EMOTIONS: The mood of others can be sources of conflicts in the workplace. Problems at home often spill over into work arena, and the related mood can be hard for others to deal with.
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS: Communication barriers such as physical separation and language can create distortions in messages and these can lead to conflicts. Another communication barrier is value judgment, in which a listener assigns a worth to a message before it is received. For example, suppose a team member is a chronic complainer, when the individual enters the manager’s office the manager is likely to devalue the message before it is even delivered. Conflict can then emerge. Many other communication barriers lead to conflicts.

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES: Several strategies can be used to manage conflicts in organizations;. There are both effective and ineffective ways of managing conflicts.
EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES: There are effective conflicts management techniques. These include appealing to super-ordinates goals, expanding resources, changing personnel, changing structure and negotiating.
(1) SUPER ORDINATE GOALS: An organizational goal that is more important to both parties in a conflict than their individual or group goals is a super ordinate goal. Supper ordinate goals cannot be achieved by an individual or by one group alone. The achievement of these goals require cooperation by both parties. One effective technique for resolving conflict is to appeal to a super ordinate goal, in effect to focus the parties on large issues on which they both agree. This helps in the realization of their similarities rather than differences. In the conflict between services representatives and telephone installer, appealing to super ordinate goal would be an effective techniques for resolving the conflict. Both departments can agree that superior customer services is a goal worthy of pursuit and that this goal cannot be achieved unless telephone are installed properly and in a timely manner and customer complaints are handle effectively. Quality service requires that both departments cooperate to achieve the goal.
(2) EXPANDING RESOURCES: This is one conflict resolution technique so simple that it may be overlooked. If the conflicts resources are common or scarce, providing more resources may be a solution. Of course, managers working with tight budgets may have the luxury of obtaining additional resources. Nevertheless, it is a technique to be considered. The solution to the conflict among managers over secretariat support would be to hire secretaries.
(3) CHANGING PERSONNEL: Sometimes a conflict is prolonged and effort at resolution fails. In such cases, it may be appropriate to change personnel. Transferring or firing an individual may be the best solution but only after due process.
(4) CHANGE STRUCTURE: Another way to resolve a conflict is to change the structure of the Organization. One way of accomplishing this is to create an integrator role. An Integrator is liaison between groups with very different interests. In severe conflicts, it may be best that the integrator be a neutral third party. Creating the integrator role is a way of opening a dialogue between groups that have difficulty in communicating. Using cross-functional terms is another way of changing the organizations structure to manage conflicts. In the old methods of designing new products in organizations, many departments had to contribute and delay resulted from difficulties in coordinating the activities of the various departments. Using a cross-functional team made up of members from different departments improved at the same time rather than sequentially. The team approach allows members from different departments to work together and reduce the potential for conflict.
(5) CONFRONTING AND NEGOTIATING: Some conflicts require confronting and negotiation between the parties. Both strategies require skill on the part of the negotiator and careful planning engaging in negotiations. The process of negotiating involves an open discussion of problem, solutions and the outcome often is an exchange in which both parties work towards a mutually beneficial solution. Negotiation is a joint process of finding a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict. Negotiating is a useful strategy under the following conditions:
 There are two or more parties. Negotiations are primarily an interpersonal or inter group process.
 There is a conflict of interest between the parties such that what one party wants is not what the other party wants.
 The parties are willing to negotiate because they believe they can use their influence to obtain a better outcome than by simply taking the side of the other party.
 They prefer to work together than to fight openly, give in, break off contact or take the dispute to a higher authority.

NON ACTION: Is doing nothing in the hope that a conflict will disappear. This is not generally a good technique because most conflicts do not go away and individuals involved on the conflicts react with frustration.
SECURITY: Trying to keep a conflict out of view of most people only creates suspicion. An example is an organizational policy of pay secrecy. In some organizations discussion of salary is enough ground for dismissal, when this is the case employees suspect that the company has something to hide.
ADMINISTRATIVE ORBITING: Is delaying action on a conflict by buying time usually by telling the individual involved that the problem is being worked on or that the boss is still thinking about the issue. Like in non-action this techniques leads to frustration.
DUE PROCESS IN ACTION: Is a process set up to address conflicts that is so costly, time consuming or personally risky that no one will use it. Some companies sexual harassment policies are example of this technique. To file a sexual harassment complaint, detailed paper work is required, the accuser must go through appropriate channels and the accuser risks being branded a troublemaker thus the company has a procedure for handling complaints but no one uses it (non action).
CHARACTER ASSASSINATION: Is an attempt to label or discredit an opponent. Character assassination can backfire and make the individual who uses it appear dishonest and cruel.
Before looking at essentials of the topic, let us take a peep into the phenomenon of the he-goat and the pig. The he-goat, as we all know has an offending odour that repels people, even the she-goat. So people normally drive the he-goat out of their presence, to avoid its path as much as it is possible to do so. Yet the same persons will readily consume many plates of a he-goat pepper soup, and do indeed fall over each other at parties to have a plate of the delicacy. Also a pig in its natural state smells so badly that whenever people pass a pig farm they close their nostrils. And nobody has ever used a pig as a pet. People simply detest its appearance. But people whose religion and culture permit to eat pig meat will tell you that it is a special culinary luxury. They enjoy its tick skin, which they say makes the meat more pleasant and tasteful to eat.

So what is wrong with the he-goat and the pig? What is wrong is their offensive appearance occasioned by their odour. Because of that nobody desire them while they are living, but they have some values. Unfortunately, their values are only appreciated by people when they are dead and in the pots of soup. Many persons are unfortunately like that. They have great potentials, but people do not like to have anything to do with them, neither can they achieve much because of their repelling appearance, attitudes and behaviours. They simply lack the skill for personal effectiveness, which would have attracted them to persons and places where their potentials would have been realized while still kicking.

Personal Effectiveness: Collins English dictionary defines the word “effective” as (a) having result (b) very interesting and pleasant in appearance. Having these definitions in mind, we can attempt a working definition of personal effectiveness as the display of positive personal attitudes, behaviours and appearance that can make one interesting, pleasant and result oriented. So a person manifests personal effectiveness if his/her attitude, behaviours and appearance are such that makes him/her achieve results.
Attitude: Attitude refers to the way a person thinks. Superstitious, very suspicious, self-centered, cowardly, or does he think the other ways round?
Behaviour: Behaviour refers to the way a person acts. Does he act with confidence, is he trust worthy, is he honest, is he dull, etc.? Note that because behaviour is informed by attitude, the two are almost always seen as one. But they are not. Attitude is of the mind, while behavior is the manifest action produced by the workings of the mind.
Appearance: This refers to the outward look of a person as judged by his physique, dressing, hair-do, teeth, general body neatness and in some cases his environment, etc.

How to Achieve Personal Effectiveness
As defined above, personal effectiveness refers to the display of positive personal attitudes, behaviours and appearance, which make the individual interesting, pleasant and result oriented. From this definition, we can therefore say that a person can achieve personal effectiveness by exploiting certain positive attributes that can make him become an interesting person to deal with, a pleasant person to relate with and a dependable person in terms of work results. A person that desires to be effective in life, must be ready to acquire positive values in attitude, behavior and appearance. Some of the ways to achieve this includes;
(a) Personal Cleanliness: Personal effectiveness begins with the grooming of one’s personal physical appearance. Neat hair do, clean fingernails, unstained teeth, neat dressing (including underwears and stockings), etc. are some of the indications of personal cleanliness. Generally, people like neat persons. Just like nobody wants pigs in his parlour or bedroom, most people hate squalid individuals.
(b) Environmental Neatness: It is not enough to be neat in your physical appearance; your Environment must also be kept neat. Your table in the office, your office, your home, your car, your bags, etc must also be kept neat always.
They all add up to attract certain person to you.
(c) Pleasant Attitude: is very important in personal effectiveness. Positive attitude such as frankness, politeness, self-belief, vision, openness, trust, honesty, empathy, etc will go a long way in enhancing our interpersonal relation with others. And with good interpersonal relationship, we attract ourselves persons that can recognize our values and help us improve our lives in various ways. Negative attitudes repel and hinder the possibility of good relationship that can help us improve.
(d) Positive Action/Behaviours: How we act towards others help us to form positive relationship with colleagues and others that can help us achieve our goals. Positive behaviours such as punctuality to office, dedication to duty, loyalty to authority, hard work, regard for others, etc. will attract others to us who will help us achieve results in our various endeavours.
(e) Knowledge of our Business/Profession: We must devote time and energy to become masters of our professions. With such knowledge, we become more confident in ourselves and attract others to ourselves. The combination of all these will lead us to achieve our various goals and be indispensable to others.
(f) Effective Time Management: Time, unknown to many is one of the most non-renewable resources. How we spend our time in private and in office determine the result we can achieve. Effective time management will not only make us achieve results, but also make us more useful to our employers and ourselves. This last point will lead us to the next segment of this discussion, which is time management.

TIME MANAGEMENT: Whether at home or in our places of work, time is a very valuable resource. Most people believe that time is the most valuable of all resources. Yet most people do not take time management very seriously. But the truth about time is that whether in our private lives or in our offices everybody can benefit more from time by developing new attitudes in effective and efficient use of time.
ATTITUDES TO TIME: People’s attitudes towards time are complex and variable. If you want to use time efficiently to accomplish all that you need to do at work and at home, you need to be aware of current habits and attitudes that shape your use of time. Our attitudes to time are constantly changing. Many of these changes are due to the advent of new technology, which affects our work, travel, and communication. Presently the Internet, the e-mail, the telephone have made the exchange of information almost instantaneous. Travel, especially over long distances, has become faster and more affordable. The increase in options available in all these areas has made it possible for all of us to do more in a day, but has also increased the pressure on our time. This makes it all the more important to use time in the most efficient and productive ways.
ANALYZING THE USE OF TIME: Few of us will readily admit that large parts of our working day are wasted. The only way for you to make better use of your time is to analyze how you will use it now, and then to consider ways in which you can reallocate it in a more effective way. There are always competing demands of your time. It is very easy to spend too much time on routine things, such as reading E-mail, at the expense of high-priority and productive tasks. How do you divide up your day at the moment? Do you prioritize your work so that you tackle important and urgent projects first? Or do you concentrate on completing enjoyable tasks first? Are you distracted by phone calls, or do you have a system for dealing with them? Do you waste a lot of time on less important issues?
MAKING EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT USE OF TIME: Now that we know what a minute of our time cost our employers, it is necessary that we begin to think of how to use our time more effectively and efficiently. Effective and efficient use of time can be simple or complex depending on whether employees concerned possess good time-management skills. The skills for effective and efficient time use include:
1. Keep a time log of your daily activities. Split your working day into chunks of 30 minutes and assign activities to each chunk. Time log provides you with a starting point from which you can assess areas that needs to improve. How long you can keep a time log is dependent on the nature of your work. If you work on a monthly circle, keep the log for a couple of months. If you work on a weekly circle, a two or three log should suffice.
2. Form the habit of breaking down tasks into categories such as routine, on-going projects, or planning and development. Experts are of the opinion that to be most effective in your job, you should spend about 60% of your time on planning and development; 25% on on-going projects and 15% on routine tasks. Unfortunately most people allocate their time the other way round.
3. Learn to delegate most of your routine tasks if you are a manager. This will leave you with more time to focus on development activities. It also gives you opportunity to help your subordinates utilize their time more effectively.
4. Set aside time each day to review and prioritize demands on your time. Once you form the habit of prioritizing your time, you can use your time more efficiently whether in your private or official capacity.
5. Always take small chunks of difficult tasks and deal with them straight away in piecemeal.
6. On your way to work always think through the day activities. That way you get it clear in your head what you need to do at every segment of day.
7. Learn to keep note of events and planned schedules. Memory can fail and so leaves you struggling to recall what has been planned so make use of a jotter note.
8. Adjust and update your what to do list several times a day to take care of emergencies.
9. Take note of your work patterns and pinpoint the areas you are not happy with. In particular look for any bad habits you have slipped into and make conscious efforts to remedy them.


INTRODUCTION: Industrial Relations have become increasingly concerned with the sociology and politics of power in the work place. Industrial Relations exist between men at work at different levels of the power hierarchy. (Benson Eluwa 1998.148). In this discussion our aim will be to define the term Industrial Relations, talk about its basic Principles, discuss the industrial relations concept, etc.
DEFINITIONS: Walker, (1958) cited in (Benson Eluwa 1998.148) defined Industrial Relations as the relationship that exists between workers, employers and government for the purpose of determining the conditions under which work is done. Akpala onwuchekwa (1995) is of the view that Industrial Relations is the regulation of the employment relations in any employment situation by employer, the workers’ organizations and a third party, usually government or its agencies acting as “umpire” or controller, the purpose of which is joint decision-making for establishing job rules and for co-operation of manpower resources for the attainment of the objectives of the enterprise, the trade union and the state. Levin (1958) defined industrial relations as respective rules of management, labour and government in process which relates workers to employers, workers to work. Armstrong, (1969) was of the opinion, “that the substance of industrial relations is the intervening activities of trade unions, employers and the state. As for Dunlop (1958), Industrial relations is a collective function continuously being discharged by a group of actors which is always in confrontation within an environmental context, that is workers, employers, the government and its agencies etc. Elaborating further Benson Eluwa explained that the actors constitute the basic units for the conduct of industrial relations and the hierarchical ordering of each of these basic units or elements suggests association of people.

Imaga and Ewurum in their contribution posited that in formal work organization, individuals are combined in socio-technical relationships for the purpose of achieving set goals. The way they interact to achieve their purposes has, according to them, been a subject of great interest in the world of business and management. This issue, they stressed, is addressed by the discipline of industrial relations or labour/management relations. Industrial relations, according to this view, are perceived by different people in different ways. Some regard it as class conflict between the “owners of capital and the working class”. Others suggest, it is the process of interest accommodation, by which conditions of employment are fixed, relations regulated and power shared in the context of employment. Hyman (1975:12-13) observed that Industrial Relations is the study of processes, those involving collective worker organization and action of particular concern.
From all these numerous definitions, it is obvious that industrial relations involve three actors:
A hierarchy of managers and their representatives; A hierarchy of workers and any spokesperson; and Specialized Government Agencies.
In the views of Okogwu (1985) industrial relationship encompasses problems of organizing human co-operation for production and services that takes place within the context of: Economic and social condition; The nature of labour force; The organization of production; Laws, public policy, international labour standards and established practice; Institutions (including trade unions), employers’ organization, the state, management, collective bargaining and joint consultation. It is, therefore, within these institutional frameworks, that is, organized labour or unions; employers’ organization; the state, management, collective bargaining and joint consultation that we intend to discuss the concept of industrial relations.
ORGANIZED LABOUR: Organized labour, as we already noted connotes the coming together of workers with a view to regulating terms of employment or conditions of service as these affect members. When such workers collectivity is recognized by their employers, it is referred to as organized labour or trade union or labour union. Organized labour, also includes employers’ organization or association. As employees form themselves into unions so also the employers organize themselves and create employers’ association for uniform dealings with labour organizations. This is in line with the provision of the trade union decree of 1973 which defines trade union as a combination of workers and employers, the purpose of which is to regulate terms or conditions of employment of workers, etc. As already observed, labour unions, employers and government are involved in tripartite interactions in order to find solutions to industrial relations problems which are as follows:

Industrial relations problems-
• The problems of employment and job security.
• Remuneration, certainty and frequency of wage payment and allowances.
• Grievances and conflicts management between employee and employer.
• Employee training and development.
• Hours of work, shift holidays and all aspects of working conditions.
• Social life of employee, social security, sickness, compensation during sickness and for work hazard, leave-maternity leaves, benefits and gratuity.

These problems are often solved through collective bargaining and joint consultation.
Collective bargaining – Collective bargaining has been defined as negotiations about working condition and terms of employment between an employer or group of employers, on the one hand, and representative of workers’ organizations, on the other, with a view to reaching an agreement (ILO 1973:73). In the absence of representative of workers’ organization, representatives of the workers duly elected and authorized by them in accordance with the extant national laws, rules and regulations, may be parties to collective agreements. Beal and Begin (1982:14-15) are of the opinion that collective bargaining is a set of activities within the industrial relations activities, consisting of interaction between unions and managers. It can only take place within limits of formal rules, accepted practices, laws and conventions. Its purpose and result is the regulation of relations between an organization under management, and its workers. The actors in this industrial relations system aim at establishing and maintaining mutually acceptable, mutually beneficial substantive rules and practices to guide their conduct in day-to-day operations and in their work related, mutual, and reciprocal claim and obligations. Collective bargaining is therefore a behavior – a set of activities and also relationships. It occurs when unions enter the industrial relations system. (Beal and Begin Ibid). From all the above definitions we can say that collective bargaining must result in collective agreement which in turn contains the following: Current detailed settlement of wages and conditions of service; and specification of the procedures to be adopted in the event of dispute. Collective bargaining in this regard, does not only entail reaching agreement on terms but also extends to their subsequent interpretation and administration in the day to day relationship of the parties involved. Thus, collective bargaining is regarded as a form of industrial democracy and industrial government. As in the legislature, management and union representatives sit down at the bargaining table, where they deliberate, persuade, try to influence, argue and haggle and eventually reach agreement which they record in the form of a labour/management agreement or contract. Thus, through due process of negotiation, constitutional rules, methods of ensuring discipline, and administration machinery to ensure compliance of the agreed upon rules, are set. The objectives of collective bargaining are: Distribution of economic wealth or setting the price of labour, rule-making in the work place. The rules could be substantive rules, procedural rules, disciplinary rules and employment regulation rules. The concept of collective bargaining requires that the employer recognizes the worker and accept their participation in management decision-making processes. However, recognition of the unions or the worker is easier said than done. As Imaga and Ewurum put it” union recognition is a knotty issue”. Fear of union militancy, is responsible for employers refusal to recognize or negotiate with them.
Conditions for collective bargaining: The worker-management relations represented by collective bargaining, is a crucial and very important function. Its serious nature imply that great care should be exercised in its practice. Negotiation is not something that should be handled haphazardly. Therefore, some condition must exist to guarantee effectiveness in collective bargaining.
Recognition: The trade union must be recognized by the employer as duly qualified workers’ representatives for the purposes of collective bargaining.
Freedom of Association: Freedom of Association allows worker to join unions of their choice and employers organize themselves into associations.
Power of Relationship: This will ensure that no one party assumes the posture of superiority and begin to bluff the other during the negotiation process. For instance, should the employer consider himself powerful and thus disregard the demands of the union without due consideration, the unions can call its members out on strike. So also, if the union becomes obstinate and refuses to yield grounds during bargaining, the employer has right not only to counter their action by means of lockout, but could give them a general summary dismissal. This was the case in the stand-off between the Lagos Stage Government and doctors under its employ in year 2013 until all parties came to full realization of their roles before the dispute was resolved amicably.
Joint Authorship of Rules: A collective agreement reached after due process of negotiation must be ratified by both parties.
Established Channel for Dispute Settlement: A good collective bargaining calls for the right caliber of persons on the negotiation table. Should wrong people be elected to represent the parties in negotiation, the whole exercise will run foul. Negotiation is a diplomatic exercise, and it calls for knowledge, intelligence, patience, humour, stamina and level headedness.
Collective Agreement: When management and labour negotiate on various conditions of employment, the decisions reached are referred to as collective agreement or bargaining agreement. Therefore, collective agreements represent product of collective bargaining.
Types of Collective Agreement: There are two main types of collective agreements. They include Recognition agreement and substantive agreement. Recognition agreement covers matters which do not change from time to time but states the principles and procedures which regulate the relationship between management and union. Mostly contains the following; The preamble (or an introduction, giving its reasons and purpose); The parties to the agreement; Definition of terms; Matters related to negotiations; Joint Consultation; Union Security; How to deal with check-offs; Redundancy agreement; Discharge terms etc.
Substantive Agreement is concerned with terms and conditions of employment. Such matters which we have already listed above as areas of concern for industrial relations, such as; Wages and salaries, including incentive schemes; Hours of work etc. Annual leave, leave pay, sick leave etc. Ubeku (1983:198-200).
Stages of collective bargaining: The following stages of collective bargaining are identified by Micrnyk (1965:304) and discussed by Imaga and Ewuru Ibid: 103);
The stage of welfare: This marks a period of bitter resistance to unionism in unorganized companies.
Grudging recognition: the law requires that if majority of the workers in the bargaining unit vote to be represented by the union, managements are bound to recognize the union and begin to negotiate and bargain coming as a result of long period of disagreement between union and management, the relationship is likely to be strained. Bargaining during this stage might be hectic.
Accommodation: during the period of grudging recognition, there may be feeling of ill-will on both side of the bargaining table. As anger cannot last forever, there will be gradual cooling-off of ill -will on both sides resulting in both parties working together on a more amicable basis. Thus, collective bargaining becomes a process of give and take.
Acceptance: This is a situation where management accepts the union wholeheartedly and completely. A collective bargaining relationship reaches a stage when management will be unwilling to give up its relationship with the union even if it has the opportunity to do so. Once the union feels that they have been accepted by the management the whole relationship changes from a contest to problem solving.
Legal Status of Collective Agreement: In some countries of Europe, including France collective agreement is legally binding. That is, disputes arising from the collective agreement can give rise to a legal action. However in Great Britain and USA, the parties are free to negotiate on most matters that affect employment and the agreement are not legally enforceable. In Nigeria, Ubeku (1995) says that collective agreements did not have legal backing prior to 1968 when the trade dispute (emergency provisions) Decree No. 21 was promulgated. The law provided that the minister of labor may, on receipt of the collective agreement, make an order specifying that the provisions of the agreement or any part thereof as may be stated in the order shall be binding on the employers and workers to whom they relate. It follows that all provisions or part thereof in the order may be enforceable. Or perhaps recourse may be made to the common law of contract that the parties must show an intention to establish legal relations. In other words, it must be apparent that the parties intended to be legally bound by the terms of the agreement must show their intention. Unless this intention is shown, the agreement may be unenforceable in law. Benson Eluwa Ibid. Unless this basic element of the general law of contract can be established, it will just be “nudum patum” and the common Law does not enforce such agreement. Collective agreement can only be enforced if it is registered or by ministerial order or by general common law elements. (Akintunde Emiola 1979:185).

Relationships between Management and Unions
Industrial peace and harmony are engendered when management willingly recognizes and accepts the union or unions in her organization. Acceptance of the union is the terminal or the end stage in labour-management relationship. At this point the relationship is friendly, and there is a strong spirit of cooperation. Some of the factors that may lead to industrial peace are as stated here under:
• Full acceptance by the management of the collective bargaining process and of unionism as an institution.
• Where unions fully accept private ownership and operation of the industry and recognize that the welfare of its members depends on the successful operation of the business.
• Strong, responsible and democratic union is bound to lead industrial peace.
• Non-interference of management in the internal affairs of unions.
• When mutual trust and confidence exists within the parties.
• Wide spread union/management consultation and information sharing.
• Prompt settlement of grievances.
Trade Disputes and their Settlement
Although many of the most important issues concerning the terms of employment will be settled in collective settlement, controversies will continue to arise over its meaning and application. Grievances may arise from the following: Outright violation of the agreement, Disagreement over facts, Dispute over meaning of the agreement, Dispute over method of applying the agreement and Arguments over the fairness or reasonableness of the actions. Methods of dispute resolution are by: (a) Mediation (b) Arbitration (c) National Industrial Court (d) Joint Consultation. When dispute arose between workers and management, the matter may be settled through mediation. A mediator is a third party neutral who is jointly appointed by both parties to the dispute. Mediation is an internal arrangement. However when mediation fails, dispute is taken to arbitration panel. The industrial arbitration panel is usually the arbitrator. The IAP after listening to the case makes an award which the minister of labour is required by law to publish and allow the disputants to raise objection within 21 days. If no notice of objection is given to the minister within stipulated time, the minister will publish in government Gazette a notice confirming the award and making settlement at the arbitration stage, then the matter moves to the industrial court whose ruling is binding and final.
Joint Consultation: Beyond the grievance procedure outlined above, management and union members interact to resolve or nip conflicts in the bud and to find ways of ensuring steady and peaceful flow of work. One of such methods of interaction is joint consultation. In joint-consultation the members of management and workers representatives meet to discuss issues that affect them. Joint consultation is, therefore, a weapon for resolution of conflicts and for ensuring continuity of collective bargaining.

Conclusion: Industrial Relations involve the interaction among employers, organized labour or unions and government agencies to achieve their goals by ensuring industrial peace and harmony. In other to join the process of this interaction, workers must overcome their bargaining inferiority by unionizing and trade unions play important role in determining the nature and level of cooperation in labor/management relations.

Collective bargaining is the culmination of management/labour relations. Workers representatives and management come together around a bargaining table to deliberate on, and formulate a set of substantive, procedural, disciplinary and employment relation rules. Workers and management interact through joint consultation at planning level. Finally, government intervenes in union management interaction through arbitration, judicial and legislative process to ensure industrial peace and harmony and thus engender economic development of the society.

2.3 Performance Management
What is Performance Management? Performance management is a process that provides both the manager and the employee (the person being supervised) the chance to determine the shared goals that relates to the overall goals of the organization by looking into employee performance.
Why is it important? Performance Management establishes an outline for employees and their performance managers to assess and to come to an agreement on certain concerns and aims that are in accordance with the overall structure of the company. This enables both parties to have clear objectives that would help them in their work and their professional growth.
Who conducts Performance Management? Performance Management is carried out by those who oversee the performance of other people – work/team leaders, supervisors, managers, directors, or department chairs. Many writers and consultants are using the term “performance management” as a substitution for the traditional appraisal system. I encourage you to think of the term in this broader work system context. A performance management system includes the following actions.
• Develop clear job description.
• Select appropriate people with an appropriate selection process.
• Negotiate requirements and accomplishment-based performance standards, outcomes, and measures.
• Provide effective orientation, education, and training.
• Provide on-going coaching and feedback.
• Conduct quarterly performance development discussions.
• Design effective compensation and recognition systems that reward people for their contributions.
• Provide promotional;/career development opportunities for staff
• Assist with exit interviews to understand WHY valued employees leave the organization
Employee Assistance Programs (EAP): are designed to resolve problems concerning health, marriage, family, fiancés, alcohol, drugs, law, stress or other things that may affect an employee’s work performance. EAP programs are usually provided at no cost to employees and their dependents. The field of performance management can comprise two separate types of management. In one aspect of performance management, an analyst may view the performance of a company as a whole, and also evaluate the effectiveness of the managers and head of organizations in reaching goals. In another sense, performance management may be a system of evaluating employees to help them reach reasonable goals and thus ensure that the organization performs better. This discussion will focus on the latter definition.
Performance management of individual employee. It generally includes the following: planning work, setting goals, offering feedback and reviews, offering opportunities to learn more in one’s field, and rewarding employees who perform well. Employee performance management works best when work is planned and goals are consistent. This may mean having a clear way to communicate regarding work expected at the moment and upcoming work. Planning also includes defining expectations of the employee so that he or she is not broadsided by evaluation criteria not included in planning. Planning and setting goals in performance management also creates a system of predictable rewards for good performance, and consequences for poor performance. This way the employee can reasonably assume the consequences of work performance, whether good or bad. Performance management also involves giving feedback to employees on a more consistent basis than the average annual review. Instead, an employee’s ability to exceed or failure to meet goals may be monitored on a monthly basis. This provides the employee with either the opportunity to receive compliments and rewards fairly, regularly or to make behavior changes sooner if performance is not up to par. Often employees feel that end of the year reviews contain criticisms of work in the past year that were never openly discussed with the employee. The employee benefits from a more consistent model of performance management evaluation, since this gives a person time to address issues and change problem situations.

In a performance management model, employees must also be given ways to grow and develop in their field. This means giving opportunities to work on harder projects, pairing less-skilled employees with expert employees, and offering team models where employees can direct and make decisions. Greater responsibility and opportunities to advance in one’s field are essential to maintaining happy and productive employees. Rewards are also a huge part of performance management. The greatest part of this is rewards of monetary nature, either in bonuses or raises, when employees perform well. As well, employees who actually are now qualified to work in a high level of their field should be placed in positions of greater responsibility, and receive a greater share of pay. Performance analysis should focus as much or more on positive performance than it does on negative performance. Rewards for positive performance must be real and tangible, or else the organization runs the risk of becoming a “negative action” organization only. Employee performance management may be taught to organizations who have difficulty maintaining performance of employees or who have a long history of unhappy employees and turnaround. Organizations may hire experts in performance management to learn how to model its concepts.

The overall purpose of performance management is to contribute to the achievement of high performance by the organization and its people. ‘High performance’ means reaching and exceeding stretching targets for the delivery of productivity, quality, customer service, growth, profits and share holder value. Specifically, performance management aims to make the good better, share understanding about what is to be achieved, develop the capacity of people to achieve it, and provide the support and guidance people need to deliver high performance and achieve their full potential to the benefit of themselves and the organization. Performance management is concerned with under-performers, but it does this positively by providing the means for people to improve their performance or make better use of their abilities.

A. Requires a shared responsibility between supervisor and employee.
B Clarifies and aligns performance objectives with the organization and unit goals and institutional values.
C. Includes feedback and coaching concerning job performance.
D. Identifies training and professional development needs.
E. Measures and documents performance.
F. Provides input for human resource decisions (e.g. compensation, recognition, etc.).
Fact: People work an average of 45 hours a week but consider about 17 of those hours to be unproductive, according to an office productivity survey of more than 38,000 people in 200 countries conducted by Microsoft. The most common productivity barriers reported were unclear objectives, lack of team communication and ineffective meetings, followed by unclear priorities and procrastination.

The principles of performance management
• It translates corporate goals into individual, team, department and divisional goals.
• It helps to clarify corporate goals.
• It is a continuous and evolutionary process, in which performance improves over time.
• It relies on consensus and co-operation rather than control or coercion.
• It creates a shared understanding of what is required to improve performance and how it will be achieved.
• It encourages self-management of individual performance.
• It requires a management style that is open and honest and encourages two-way communication between superiors and subordinates.
• It requires continuous feedback.
• Feedback loops enable the experiences and knowledge gained on the job by individuals to modify corporate objectives.
• It measures and assesses all performance against jointly agreed goals.
• It should apply to all staff.
• It is not primarily concerned with linking performance to financial reward.

It could be added that performance management is about providing support as well as direction.
There are ten maxims through which these principles should be applied:
1. ‘A management tool which helps managers to manage’
2. ‘Driven by corporate purpose and values’
3. ‘To obtain solutions that work’
4. ‘Only interested in things you can do something about and get a
Visible improvement’
5. ‘Focus on changing behavior rather than paperwork’.
6. ‘It’s about how we manage people – it’s not a system’.
7. ‘Performance management is what managers do: a natural
process of management’.
8. ‘Based on accepted principles but operates flexibly’
9. ‘Focus on development, not pay’.
10. ‘Success depends on what the organization is and need to be in its performance culture’.
Performance Management Cycle: Performance management processes taking place in this cycle are:
Plan: agreeing objectives and competence requirements; identifying the behaviours required by the organization; producing plans expressed in performance agreements for meeting objectives and improving performance; preparing personal development plans to enhance knowledge, skills and competence and reinforce the desired behaviours.
Act: carrying out the work required to achieve objectives by reference to the plans and in response to new demands.
Monitor: checking on progress in achieving objectives and responding to new demands; treating performance management as a continuous process – ‘managing performance all the year round’ – rather than an annual appraisal event.
Review: holding a review meeting for a ‘stocktaking’ assessment of progress and achievements, and identifying where action is required to develop performance as a basis for completing the cycle by moving into the planning stage.
Performance Management and Performance Appraisal: The terms ‘performance management’ and ‘performance appraisal’ are sometimes used synonymously, but they are different. Performance management is a comprehensive, continuous and flexible approach to the management of organization, teams and individuals which involves the maximum amount of dialogue between those concerned. Performance appraisal is a more limited approach which involves managers making top-down assessments and rating the performance of their subordinates at an annual performance appraisal meeting.
Top-down assessment Joint process through dialogue
Annual appraisal meeting Continuous review with one or
more formal reviews
Use of ratings Ratings less common
Monolithic system Flexible process
Focus on quantified objectives Focus on values and behaviours
as well as objectives
Often linked to pay Less likely to be directly linked to pay
Bureaucratic – complex paperwork Documentation kept to a minimum
Owned by the HR department Owned by line managers
Most organizations have some type of employee appraisal or review system and are experiencing the short comings of manual Appraisal systems. In talking about Employee Performance Management, the question we are asked most often is ‘what is the difference between Appraisal systems and Performance Management”.

The following is a process diagram that provides a graphical view of the major differences between the processes:
Work Effort
Start of Year End of Year End of Year

Face to Face Planning
Set Objectives
Set Development Plan
Competency Review
Work Effort
Internal Review Work Effort

Performance Diary Notes
End of year


Performance Management Systems Typically are:
1. A definition of what you want an employee to do for the next performance period (normally the next quarter, half year or full year). The definition includes specific objectives for the period, backed up by a job description which includes the normal expectations for that position.
2. A review of remuneration/ bonuses if these objectives are met
3. A review of the personal development objectives
4. Formally performed quarterly, half yearly or annually but with input all year round
5. Typically fully automated where the information is accessible to all participants at any time
6. Content rich if the automated performance management system has features such as a performance diary

Linked to organizational performance: If performance management is implemented correctly with specific objectives tied to the strategic and operational plan, organizational performance outcomes should increase. For example if the CEO asked for a 3% increase in profit, these objectives would be carried down to every department, team and individual who can influence the increase in profit Those who are successful at achieving this objective will get a favorable review, those that could not will get an unfavorable review in the absence of extenuating circumstance. The process of performance management therefore drives organizational performance outcomes. Employees that achieve the organizational goals are rewarded with favourable reviews and bonuses in line with their performance and contribution to the organization.
Lower Stress: The employee and manager communicate more frequently and agree on hanged objectives to suit continuing changes in conditions and priorities. This is an inclusive and collaborative process, which ensures that the employee has input and does not feel they have wasted the year. The employee works to specific objectives that have been thought about and are relevant. If the organization is using a Performance Management product that has Performance diary, both the manager and employee attend the review meeting with copies of their performance Diary. This contains content from the Performance period about to be reviewed. Given that both have content, they feel much better prepared and stress is lower than if attending a meeting and waiting for surprises.
Moderate to High Levels of Confidence: Where there is a well-structured Performance Management System that is well communicated, both the employee and manager enter the process with better levels of confidence as there are “rules” that clearly spell out what is being assessed and how. Employees are assessed on achievement of objectives that have been clearly spelled out and agreed to. Managers have a better framework to assess the employee. The outcome is that both individuals have an informed discussion and focus on achievement of both personal and business objectives, not on issues that are not relevant.
If the organization has a system with a Performance diary, then both parties are very well prepared with relevant content to discuss. They have diary notes that relate to performance during the entire performance period. This raises confidence and reduces stress and both parties know they can have a content rich and factual discussion about performance.
Focused on performance: Given that these performance reviews happen more frequently, the discussion centers on performance of objectives rather than being dominated by the employees’ needs. The employee’s needs are talked about more frequently as are the needs of the business to achieve specific performance outcomes. This means both the employee and manager communicate more effectively and achieve better outcomes. Emotionally charged discussions tend to be displaced by business focused discussions on achievement of objective outcomes.
Aligned to the corporate plan: As expectations are modified when a performance Management System is introduced. Most organizations switch to defined performance periods. This means that strategic and operational objectives are set at the beginning of the performance period. Formal performance reviews are conducted quarterly or half yearly and enable management to direct and fine tune effort in relation to the objectives.
High Visibility: By performing frequent performance Reviews, visibility is increased dramatically. Areas of non performance receive much more focus and attention and problems can be acted upon much quicker. Most performance Management systems provide reporting as to who has or has not achieved their objectives (departments and individuals).
Planning: By reviewing more frequently, all managers and staff start to plan and execute well thought out objectives. This results in better resource management, less fire fighting and enables managers to work on the business, not in the business.
Human Capital Development: Given that most Performance Management Systems require that managers and employees commit to a Development Plan, employees experience real personal development and become more engaged with the organization. They feel part of the organization and start to understand that they and the organization are interdependent. The organization is developing the employee and the employee is working towards developing the organization by achieving its goals.
Compliance: Most Performance Management Systems are able to provide graphical compliance reports. Therefore, the setting of objectives and a development plan for employees can no longer be ignored. Employees see real planning, are involved in setting meaningful objectives and have input into personal development plans which benefit both themselves and the organization as well. In all, this results in a more engaged workforce who are more committed to achieving real outcomes for the organization.
Strategies for People and Performance Management: Keeping your eye on the business and improving employee performance at the same time can be a challenge; that is why performance management is so important in organizations. By its very definition, performance management contributes to the development of individuals and teams in order to achieve higher levels of organizational performance.
• Do you have the skills and ability to coach employees towards peak performance?
• Are employees clear on what is expected of them, do they have the tools to continuously upgrade their skills and develop their potential?
Employees may never reach their full potentials until you first learn how to establish performance goals, clearly communicate expectations, identify the gaps between where an employee is today, the gains that are needed, and design a plan for how to get there. Performance management cannot be a one-a-year event to be ceremoniously concluded by the completion and filing of a form. What good does it do an organization to have completed forms that only document lack-luster performance? True performance management is more than tracking and monitoring what is. It must become an everyday conversation and relationship building process that managers initiate to create what can be. The power of the process is realized when employees are clear about what’s expected of them and managers use it as a collaborative tool to reach goals, and optimize performance.

There are 7 performance enhancing strategies that you might try in service to the employee. Ultimately they are responsible for their actions but they also need you to:
1. Assess performance, identify competency gaps, and then define performance objectives in precise and demonstrable terms.
2. Communicate expectations, roles, and responsibilities through performance discussions that simultaneously build relationships, improve performance, commitment and accountability.
3. Coach employees in a way that corrects performance deficiencies, reinforces appropriate behaviours, teaches new skills, and inspires them to higher levels of performance.
4. Diagnose performance problems early and remove any barriers that may impede employee performance.
5. Collaborate with employees and others to identify performance goals, support systems, and improvement strategies that will improve both today’s performance results and the skills needed for tomorrow’s challenges.
6. Document all performance-related discussions quickly, confidently and legally.
7. Retain your most talented performers; recognize all employees for their efforts, and reward great performance.

INTRODUCTION: We shall endeavour to understand what ethics means, its relationship with code of conduct in an office and finally, a look shall be taken on some desirable and undesirable work habits.

MEANING OF ETHICS: First let us understand some difference between law and ethics. For instance what is legal may not be ethical what is ethical may not be legal. Graham Tucker says that the law is “mainly concerned with the minimum regulation required for public order, whereas ethics attempts to achieve what is ‘best’ for both the individual and society’. Acting ethically means acting intelligently (as opposed to being carried away by one’s urges and emotions) and taking interests of others into account (as opposed to acting in a purely egoistic manner). Really it means, do to others as you will want done to you. In the office environment, therefore, there are some behaviours that are demanded of participants.
OBJECTIVES OF OFFICE ETHICS: In an organization, human beings from diverse backgrounds are brought together to work towards the achievements of the objectives of the organization. There is, therefore, the need for the enumeration of certain minimal standards of behaviours expected to be imbibed and displayed both in interactions with fellow staff and with customers from outside. Some behavior attributes are already covered by the laws of the land while some are not. Those not covered by law, particularly should be emphasized as necessary and communicated to all workers. Such ensures that an organization can be distinguished from the way its people go about their business on a daily basis. It clearly conveys to workers acceptable and unacceptable behavior; Office ethics ensures predictability in the actions of both the workers and the management acting on behalf of the organization;
ETHICAL STANDARD: Ethical standards in organizations are usually conveyed in the corporate code of conduct. Professional bodies generally have ethical standards which are encapsulated in their professional code of conduct, which members are obliged to abide by: The ethical standard clearly shows the boundaries of acceptable behaviours and attitudes below which sanctions shall be imposed. The ethical standards of an organization should, therefore, be seen in its code of conduct as written, implemented and complied by all and sundry.
CODE OF CONDUCT: As earlier mentioned codes of conduct, corporate codes, or core values are used as vehicles to implement the ethical policy of an organization/office/department. It should be mentioned equally that code of conduct forms an essential part of a modern system of internal control in an organization. According to Brooks (1995), “effective ethical codes help to create an ethical culture in which employees believe doing what is right is expected and bringing forward concerns over unethical behaviours will not result in ethical martyrdom”. Contents of a typical code of conduct is examined as follow.
CONTENTS OF A TYPICAL CODE OF CONDUCT: Most codes start with an introduction proclaiming their lofty ethical intentions and expectations that all employees shall abide by, basic principles of ethical and lawful business conduct. Most codes will contain clear statements on the following issues: -Adherence or compliance to all laws of the land by all employees; – Use of Company’s assets for personal gain or benefits; – Misuse of confidential information for personal gain; -Conflict of interest; -Outside business activities of employees which deprive their employer of the time and attention required to properly perform their duties; -Gifts from customers or suppliers; – Gifts to customers or suppliers, -Illegal payment to public officials -Proper record keeping -Human relations – respect for staff and customers -To be successfully implemented, a code of conduct should have certain critical features.
CRITICAL FEATURES FOR THE PROPER IMPLEMENTATION OF A CODE OF CONDUCT: Top management endorsement and support; Should emphasize general principles instead of specific rules; Reasons for the code should be given so that employees can understand and interpret them in the absence of specific guidelines. -A fair and confidential hearing process should be ensured or whistleblowers will not come forward.- All employees should have a copy of the code;-Training in support of the code should be entrenched;-Encouragement, monitoring and facilitation of the reporting of wrongdoing.
DESIRABLE WORK HABITS: Desirable work habits promote interpersonal relationships in an office; some of these habits are: – Punctuality, Due respect to all, Proper and neat dressing, Constructive criticism, Ability to keep company secrets and Good body hygiene.
UNDESIRABLE WORK HABITS: There are anti-social behaviours and attitudes that do not make good interpersonal working relationships. Some of these habits, which we stand to avoid are: – Pettiness, back biting and jealousy; – Use of uncouth language; – Making personal calls during work hours-Lousy attitude to work; – Improper dressing, especially, scanty dressing by ladies; -Amorous relationship with co-workers; – Lack of time consciousness; – Lack of co-operative spirit; – Spreading negative rumours – Telling lies.
CONCLUSION: The creed in the office environment should be to do that which will ensure harmony and co-operative working spirit. Do unto others as you will want them to do unto you. Do not demand of people what you are not capable of giving. Those who complain a lot most often than not exhibit in greater portion of those things they complain about! Endeavour to understand the expected dos and don’ts in your office and to abide by them. It is in the interest of the business and all the stakeholders!

Overview: Organizations need to develop strategic HR goals that are aligned with the overall organizational vision, mission values and objectives. People are the main resource that organizations have for delivering services. Planning how your organization will meet its current and future HR needs and how people will be supported and nurtured within your organization is critical for success. HR planning is a complex, growing area of Human Resources (HR).
Strategic HR Planning: Strategic HR Planning is an important component of strategic HR management. It links HR management directly to the strategic plan of your organization. Most mid-to large sized organizations have a strategic plan that guides them in successfully meeting their missions. Organizations routinely complete financial plans to ensure they achieve organizational goals and while work force plans are not as common, they are just as important. Even a small organization with as few as 10 staff can envelop a strategic plan to guide decisions about the future. Based on the strategic plan, your organization can develop a strategic HR plan that will allow you to make HR management decisions now to support the future direction of the organization. Strategic HR planning is also important from a budgetary point of view so that you can factor the costs of recruitment, training, etc. into your organization’s operating budget.
STRATEGIC HR MANAGEMENT IS DEFINED AS: Integrating human resource management strategies and systems to achieve the overall mission, strategies, and success of the firm while meeting the needs of employees and other stakeholders.
Introduction to strategic HR Planning
The overall purpose of strategic HR planning is to: Ensure adequate human resources to meet the strategic goals and operational plans of your organization – the right people with the right skills at the right time. Keep up with social, economic, legislative and technological trends that impact on human resources in your area and in the sector. Remain flexible so that your organization can manage change if the future is different than anticipated.
Strategic Human Resources Planning predicts the future Human Resources Management (HRM) needs of the organization after analyzing the organization’s current human resources, the external labour market and the future Human Resources Environment (HRE) that the organization will be operating in. The analysis of Human Resources Management (HRM) issues external to the organization and developing scenarios about the future are what distinguishes strategic planning from operational planning. The basic questions to be answered for strategic planning are:
• Where are we going?
• How will we develop Human Resources strategies to successfully get there, given the circumstances?
• What skill sets do we need?
The Strategic Human Resources Planning Process: The strategic Human Resources planning process has four steps:-
• Assessing the current Human Resources capacity
• Forecasting Human Resources requirements
• Gap analysis
• Developing Human Resources strategies to support organizational strategies
Assessing Current Human Resources Capacity: Based on the organization’s strategic plan, the first step in the strategic HR planning process is to assess the current Human Resources capacity of the organization. The knowledge, skills and abilities of your current staff need to be identified. This can be done by developing a skills inventory for each employee. The skills inventory should go beyond the skills needed for the particular position. List all skills each employee has demonstrated. For example, recreational or volunteer activities may involve special skills that could be relevant to the organization. Education levels and certificates or additional training should also be included. An employee’s performance assessment form can be reviewed to determine if the person is ready and willing to take on more responsibility and to look at the employee’s current development plans.
Forecasting Human Resources Requirements: The next step is to forecast HR needs for the future based on the strategic goals of the organization. Realistic forecasting of human resources involves estimating both demand and supply. Questions to be answered include:
• How many staff will be required to achieve the strategic goals of the organization?
• What jobs will need to be filled?
• What skill sets will people need?
When forecasting demands for Human Resources, you must also assess the challenges that you will have in meeting your staffing need based on the external environment. To determine external impacts, you may want to consider some of the following factors:
• How does the current economy affect our work and our ability to attract new employees?
• How do current technological or cultural shifts impact the way we work and the skilled labour we require?
• What changes are occurring in the Nigerian labour market?
• How is our community changing or expected to change in the near future?
• Why diversity at work matters

Gap Analysis: The next step is to determine the gap between where your organization wants to be in the future and where you are now. The gap analysis includes identifying the number of staff and the skills and abilities required in the future in comparison to the current situation. You should also look at all your organization’s Human Resources management practices to identify practices that could be improved or new practices needed to support the organization’s capacity to move forward. Questions to be answered include:
• What new jobs will we need?
• What new skills will be required?
• Do our present employees have the required skills?
• Are employees currently in positions that use their strengths?
• Do we have enough managers/supervisors?
• Are current Human Resources management practices adequate for future needs?
Developing Human Resources Strategies to support organizational strategies
There are five Human Resources strategies for meeting your organization’s needs in the future;
• Restructuring strategies
• Training and development strategies
• Recruitment
• Outsourcing strategies
• Collaboration strategies
1. Restructuring Strategies: This strategy includes; Reducing staff either by termination or attrition, Regrouping tasks to create well designed jobs and Reorganizing work units to be more efficient If your assessment indicates that there is an oversupply of skills, there are a variety of options open to assist in the adjustment. Termination of workers gives immediate results. Generally, there will be costs associated with this approach depending on your employment agreements. Attrition – not replacing employees when they are sick or dead is another way to reduce staff. The viability of this option depends on how urgently you need to reduce staff. It will mean that jobs performed in the organization will have to be reorganized so that essential work of the departing employee is covered. Careful assessment of the reorganized workloads of remaining employees should include an analysis of whether or not their new workloads will result in improved outcomes. It is important to consider current labour market trend (e.g. the looming skills shortage as baby boomers begin to retire) because there may be longer-term consequences if you let staff go. Sometimes existing workers may be willing to voluntarily reduce their hours, especially if the situation is temporary. Job sharing may be another option. The key to success is to ensure that employees are satisfied with the arrangement, that they confirm agreement to the new arrangement in writing, and that it meets the needs of the employer. Excellent communication is a prerequisite for success.

Your analysis may tell you that your organization may have more resources in some areas of the organization than others. This calls for a redeployment of workers to the area of shortage. The training needs of the transferred workers needs to be taken into account.
Training and Development Strategies: This strategy includes; Providing staff with training to take on new roles and Providing current staff with development opportunities to prepare them for future jobs in your organization. Training and development needs can be met in a variety of ways. One approach is for the employer to pay for employees to upgrade their skills. This may involve sending the employee to take courses or certificates or it may be accomplished through on-the-job training. Many training and development needs can be met through cost effective techniques.
Recruitment Strategies: This strategy includes;
• Recruiting new staff with the skill and abilities that your organization will need in the future
• Considering all the available options for strategically promoting job openings and encouraging suitable candidates to apply.
For strategic Human Resources Planning, each time you recruit you should be looking at the requirements from a strategic perspective. Perhaps your organization has a need for a new fundraiser right now to plan special events as part of your fundraising plan. However, if your organization is considering moving from fundraising through special events to planned giving, your recruitment strategy should be to find someone who can do both to align with the change that you plan for the future.
Outsourcing strategies: This strategy includes; Using external individuals or organizations to complete some tasks. Many organizations look outside their own staff pool and contract for certain skills. This is particularly helpful for accomplishing specific, specialized tasks that don’t require ongoing full-time work. Some organizations outsource HR activities, project work or book-keeping. For example, payroll may be done by an external organization rather than a staff person, a short term project may be done using a consultant, or specific expertise such as legal advice may be purchase from an outside source. When deciding to outsource to an individual, ensure you are not mistakenly calling an employee a consultant. This is illegal and can have serious financial implications for your organization. Each outsourcing decision has implications for meeting the organization’s goals and should therefore be carefully assessed.
Collaboration Strategies: Finally, the strategic Human Resources Planning process may lead to indirect strategies that go beyond your organization. By collaborating with other organizations you may have better success at dealing with a shortage of certain skills.
Types of collaboration could include;
• Working together to influence the types of courses offered by educational institutions.
• Working with other organizations to prepare future leaders by sharing in the development of promising individuals.
• sharing the costs of training for groups of employees
• Allowing employees to visit other organizations to gain skills and insight.
Example: ABC Social Services provides support services to families in need. It has reviewed and updated its strategic plan. As part of the strategic planning process the Board Planning Committee learned that 15% of their social workers are planning to retire over the next two years and recruitment of social workers has become increasingly competitive.
Outcome of the strategic planning process: One strategy developed by the Board Planning Committee is to make ABC Social Services a preferred employer among organizations in the area.

Possible Human Resources Planning strategies to meet this organizational strategy are:
• Develop a recruitment and retention strategy based on discussions with the social workers. Items to consider are: flexible work arrangements; contracting with a counselor for the social workers on an as-needed basis (give them someone to talk to about the stresses of the job); provide professional development opportunities that give them increased skills for dealing with the issues their clients face.
• Tie the pay scale of the social workers to the pay scales of social workers working for the municipality (the appropriate percentage to be determined. For example, the pay of social workers in the organization may be tied at 90% of the pay at the municipal level).
• Provide placements for social work students and show them that ABC Social Service would be an excellent employer after graduation.
• Decide the unique strategies that you will use to position yourself as an employer of choice, based on needs of your employees and potential candidates.
Documenting the strategic Human Resources Plan: Once the strategies for Human Resources in your organization have been developed they should be documented in an Human Resources plan. This is a brief document that states the key assumptions and the resulting strategies along with who has responsibility for the strategies and the timelines for implementation.
Implementing the Strategic Human Resources Plan: Once the Human Resources strategic plan is complete the next step is to implement it:
Agreement with the Plan: Ensure that the board chair, executive director and senior managers agree with the strategic Human Resources plan. It may seem like a redundant step if everyone has been involved all the way along. But it is always good to get final confirmation.
Communication: The strategic Human Resources Plan needs to be communicated throughout the organization. Your communication should include:
• How the plan ties to the organization’s overall strategic plan
• What changes in Human Resources Management policies, practices and activities will be made to support the strategic plan
• How any changes in Human Resources Management will impact on staff including a timeframe if appropriate
• How each individual member of staff can contribute to the plan
• How staff will be supported through any changes
• How the organization will be different in the future
It is impossible to communicate too much (but all too easy to communicate too little), especially when changes involve people. However, the amount of detail should vary depending upon the audience.
Legislation and Mandate: Ensure that the actions you are considering are compliant with existing laws, Regulations and the constitution and bylaws of your organization.
Organizational needs: Whether you are increasing or reducing the number of employees, there are implications for space and equipment, and on existing resources such as payroll and benefit plans.
Evaluation: Human Resources Plans need to be updated on a regular basis. You will need to establish the information necessary to evaluate the success of the new plan. Benchmarks need to be selected and measured over time to determine if the plan is successful in achieving the desired objectives.
Operational Human Resources Planning: All organization engages in HR planning at an operational level- even those that do not have a strategic plan. At the operational level, good HR planning is in part based on thinking ahead about the organization. At an operational level, organizations put HR management practices in place to support management and staff in achieving their day-to-day goals whether it’s determining how many staff are needed to deliver services over the next two or three years or how performance will be monitored. HR management practices and activities need to be planned to answer the question: “where is our organization going and how will it get there?” If your organization already has good HR management practices in place they should be reviewed on ongoing basis, every two to three years, to ensure that they still meet organizational needs and comply with legislation.
At an operational level, organizations also need to be aware of the interdependencies between operational decisions and HR management practices. Decisions made on one aspect of human resources often have an impact on another aspect of Human Resources management.
Example: Operational objectives: Expand the services offered over the next two years Human resources requirement: Five new staff members
Operational decision: Hire recent graduates or others with little direct work experience to reduce hiring costs.
Implication for Human Resources Management Practices: The operational decision to hire new graduates will impact on practices such as:
• Supervision – there will be a need for more supervision
• On-the-job training – there will be a need for increased training
Example: Operational objective: Reduce staffing costs Human Resources Requirement: Reduce staff by two full time equivalents
Operational decision: The reduction in staff will be made by not renewing the contract for two term employees
Implications for Human Resources Management Practices: The operational decision not to renew two contract positions will impact on issues and practice such as:
• Staff morale – the work of contract employees will have to be assessed to determine which positions to terminate so that the impact on the clients and organization is minimized; support may be needed for the employees who remain
• Job design – other positions will need to be reviewed to determine which staff, if any, have the knowledge and skills to take over the essential work of the positions that are being eliminated; changes to the duties for existing staff will need to be negotiated
• Training – training will need to be provided to staff taking on new duties, if appropriate
• Termination process and cost – the termination process will need to be planned to ensure that it complies with policies and legislation and there will likely be a cost for notice and severance pay
In the absence of a strategic plan your organization can still take a proactive approach to HR management. By developing good HR management practices and thinking ahead, you can create a good work environment where staff can be productive and focus on providing the best possible service.

Overview: When most people hear the term compensation they think about “What a person is paid”. Although this is true, it is only one aspect of a complex topic. Compensation includes not only salary, but also the direct and indirect rewards and benefits the employee is provided with in return for their contribution to the organization. The more aligned the compensation system is with the organization’s strategic goals and objective – the more fair it is perceived to be. When all these aspects are considered, the term total compensation is commonly used. Getting and keeping qualified employees is a common goal of most employers. While many non-profit organizations struggle in offering competitive compensation packages, and understanding that wages are a key consideration, it is important to remember that other factors such as quality of life and organizational culture are becoming more important to today’s employee. In an execution survey conducted by Robert Half International, corporate culture rivaled employee benefits in importance for candidates during job interviews. Many front-line staff considered professional development and advanced opportunities as important as salary. Considering flexible and creative strategies while ensuring that your staff is treated in an equitable and well thought-out manner are keys to both getting and keeping the right people.
Compensation Systems: Design and Goals: The design process is started by identifying desired outcomes and goals for your organization. This is often referred to as developing your compensation philosophy. Your philosophy is formed by considering a number of factors. The balance of direct/indirect rewards, the complexity and responsibility of a role and the candidate or employee filling it, as well as your focus on internal versus external equity are just few factors explored in this section. It is the ability to achieve results that is critical to organizational success.
Compensation defined: Compensation can be defined as all of the rewards earned by employees in return for their labour. This includes:
• Direct financial compensation consisting of pay received in the form of wages, salaries, bonuses and commissions provided at regular and consistent intervals
• Indirect financial compensation including all financial rewards that are not included in direct compensation and can be understood to form part of the social contract between the employer and the employee such as benefits, leaves, retirement plans, education, and employee services
• Non-financial compensation referring to topics such as career development and advancement opportunities, opportunities for recognition, as well as work environment and conditions. In determining effective rewards however, the uniqueness of each employee must also be considered. People have different needs or reason for working. The most appropriate compensation will meet these individual needs. To a large degree, adequate or fair compensation is in the mind of the employee.
Equity: Equity or fairness has been mentioned as a key component in creating a successful compensation system. It can be defined in the following three ways:
• Workplace equity refers to the perception that all employees in an organization are being treated fairly
• External pay equity exists when employees in an organization perceive that they are being rewarded fairly in relation to those who perform similar jobs in other organizations
• Internal pay equity exists when employees in an organization perceive that they are being rewarded fairly according to the relative value of their jobs within an organization. Perceived inequity or unfairness, either external or internal, can result in low morale and loss of organizational effectiveness. For example, if employees feel they are being compensated unfairly, they may restrict their efforts or leave the organization, damaging the organization’s overall performance.
Internal Equity: “Internal equity exists when employees in an organization perceive that they are being rewarded fairly according to the relative value of their jobs within an organization”. Another way of stating this is to say that a person’s perception of their responsibilities, rewards and work conditions is seen as fair or equitable when compared with those of other employees in similar positions in the same organization. Factors such as skill level, the effort and the responsibility of the role, as well as working conditions are considered. An internal equity study can determine if there is pay equity between like-positions and if all roles in the organization are governed by the same compensation guidelines. Usually each role is assigned a pay range with corresponding criteria that outlines how to determine where an employee should be placed in the range.
External Equity: “External equity exists when an organization’s pay rates are at least equal to the average rates in the organization’s market or sector. Employers want to ensure that they are able to pay what is necessary to find, keep and motivate and adequate number of qualified employees. Creating a compensation structure that starts with competitive base pay is critical. Employees also compare their roles and pay to roles ad pay in other organizations. Unfortunately they do not always compare with similar types of organizations or even in the sake sector. Generally, employees consider much more than base pay in determining external equity. For some more emphasis may be placed on employee benefits, job security, physical work environment or the opportunity for advancement in deciding if external equity exists. The use of salary surveys is critical in your ability to determine if your compensation and benefits are comparable to similar roles in other organizations. It is important to ensure that they key responsibilities and goals of the roles being compared are similar; as is the sector the organization is aligned with.
Organizational strategy: There are a number of components that need to be addressed when developing your compensation systems to ensure they align with your organizational strategy and objectives. One key to remember is that your compensation strategy must help to create the work culture you want. How you structure your systems and manage the internal and external equity issues, will directly inform the culture of your organization.
Develop a compensation philosophy: A compensation philosophy is developed to guide the design and complexity of your compensation programs; this is done by identifying your goals and objectives, considering your competitiveness in attracting and retaining employees, your emphasis on internal and/or external equity, and whether performance is tied to increases. Understanding what balance you want to achieve between direct salaries and indirect benefit is critical in developing your overall total compensation approach. A consistent philosophy provides a strong foundation for both the organization and the employee. Without a philosophy, leaders often find themselves unsure of what to offer as a starting salary for a new employee. This can lead to offering too high a total compensation package for a new employee in relation to existing employees, or being unable to successfully hire because the total compensation offer is too low to be competitive. Your philosophy should be consistent with the size of your organization. If you have a small to mid-size employee base, keep your strategy simple and easy to administer. Ensuring your compensation guidelines are clearly communicated and consistently administered is a key to success.
Components: Once you have developed the over-arching philosophy aligned with your strategic plan and organizational culture, it is important that you determine if any difference should exist in pay structures for management, professionals, or front-line staff.
• Objectives: What do you want your compensation program to do to help your organization succeed?
• Have a greater emphasis on generous benefits versus top salaries?
• Be considered an employer of choice in your type of organization?
• Do you want to tie compensation to performance? Why, why not?
• Offer great flexibility in works hours, shifts, and education support?
• Market competitiveness: will you compare your compensation components against the market in which you function or against other internal roles?
• Does your organization strive to pay at market, above or below market?
• Do you want to have your salaries above average, average or below average? Will your benefits/incentives balance for salaries?
• What do you want to offer to distinguish you from others in your sector?
• How do you want to be viewed by your stakeholder
• How generous should your benefit program be compared to cash compensation?
• Components: What will be the components of your compensation program?
• Do some earn hourly wages and others salary? Why, why not?
• Are hours of work different for one group over another? Why, why not?
• Is their ability to earn: flex time, lieu time, over time, different for one group over another? Why, why not?
• Flex time refers to time that an employee has earned by working a longer week than required. Example: an employee is required to work 37.5 hours per week and chooses to work 40 hours per week instead. After 3 weeks, they have earned 7.5 hours of “flex time”. This often is the structure behind a person getting every third Friday off. Compressed workweeks are often used to offer employees reduced hours during the summer months.
• Overtime is time that a person works in excess of their scheduled and required time. For hourly paid staff, this may be paid out to them at 1.5 times their normal salary. For management staff, an overtime agreement is usually in place that identified that salaried employees do not receive pay for their overtime hours, but “lie time” calculated at a straight hour for hour basis.
• Lieu time is time that an employee earns by working in excess of their scheduled hours due to the demands of the job /day/situation. Lieu time is typically calculated as hour for hour. Example: an employee is required to work an extra 2 hours to complete an urgent project. They accumulate 2 hours of “lieu” time to be taken off work with pay at a time negotiated with their immediate supervisor.
• How will employees receive increases?
• How often will the role be evaluated against the established comparative group(s)? Will you develop a salary scale and criteria to advance; what place do qualifications and academic accreditation play?
Legal compliance: Compensation systems must be consistent with the existing legislation in the areas of Labour Standard, equal pay, Human Rights, Employment Insurance, pension or retirement benefits, labour relation and Occupational Health and Safety. Regularly reviewing the HR Toolkit, key government websites, and connecting with an HR and/or legal professional can help you ensure your organization’s compensation practices are in compliance with current legislation in your jurisdiction.
Wages and Salaries: When determining what your organization will pay for wages and salaries, it is important to understand the economic conditions of the region in which you function, the volume of potential employees and the legislative requirements in place. When determining what to pay, the first consideration is the placement of the role organizationally and the second consideration is the skill and experience of the applicant.
Deciding what to pay: They are many situations in which you will be faced with deciding what to pay an employee.
• A new hire
• An existing employee due for an increase
• An existing employee moving into a new role, or
• A valuable employee who is considering leaving because of compensation.
It is important to ensure that the approach taken is guided by the compensation philosophy and is applied consistently. Ensuring that established guidelines are followed will prevent offering a compensation package so tailored to a person that the organization is jeopardized by having too heavy a financial burden or that flexible arrangements actually hinder the critical work from being completed. It takes a carefully crafted balance between the organizational needs and the individual considerations to arrive at the correct compensation structure.
Answering these questions will help to formulate the appropriate balance:
From the organization’s perspective:
• Will you hire employee or a contractor?
o Do you understand the difference?
o Which would be more cost effective?
• What role will they be doing?
o How much responsibility will they have?
o How specialized are the skills required to do the job?
o Are there others doing the same work? Are their title and responsibilities established? Is there alignment?
• How many people could potentially apply?
o Can you find a comparable job in a salary survey or on a job-posting websites?
o How would this role create impacts in your business?
o What is your range for role? How does it compare to other roles already in place?
o How critical is the achievement of organizational goals?
• What is the cost of living in your region? What is minimum wage?
o Have they been considered in your compensation strategy?
About the incumbent:
• How much responsibility will they have?
o How specialized are their skills?
o How much experience do they have?
o Are there others with the same experience? Are their title and responsibilities similar?
• What benefits and incentives can you offer instead of cash compensation?
o Are you able to provide some special training or professional development?
o Are you able to assist them in attaining accreditation or credentials?
o Can you offer flexible work arrangements?
o How generous are your benefits?
• What impact would not having this person have on your organization and how much is that impact worth to you?
Approaches and techniques to determining base pay: Determining base pay is directly linked to your compensation philosophy. Having a clear understanding of what role the position plays in the organization, including the complexity of the required responsibilities and tasks, is factored into the equation along with data on market and sector comparatives. Organizations that take the time to ensure they have factored in all of the following components will be more effective in managing their competitiveness externally as their consistency and credibility internally.
Create Job Descriptions: Job descriptions define the requirements and responsibilities of the job. Job descriptions are an important element of your organization’s overall compensation philosophy when they are used to develop a consistent salary structure based on the relative level of duties, responsibility and qualifications of each position in the organization.
Conduct a Job Analysis: Conducting an analysis of each job by group/department to determine which tasks are being done and by who will help both in determining if you have the most effective alignment of tasks to roles and in developing your job descriptions. This is important as compensation structures are built based on the level of skill and experience required for a certain role to perform core functions. Should you find inconsistencies or inefficiencies, you should conduct a review to evaluate the appropriateness of the tasks assigned to that role. From there you determine if the job description and associated compensation warrants changing or not.
Perform Job Evaluations: Job evaluation is a process by which you rank individual jobs within and between group/departments of your organization. The process usually consists of describing the skill level, competencies, tasks and responsibility/authority of a role. Roles that are of a similar discipline or field are often grouped together and referred to as a ‘job family’. From there, levels are usually used to delineate the skills and competencies required, progressing from a junior to more senior level. For some professions, academic credentials can delineate between levels as could registration in a technical field.
Review Pay Structures: Pay structures are helpful when standardizing your organization’s compensation practices. Typical pay structures can have several grades or levels, career bands, or job families with each having a minimum or maximum salary associated. These could be identified by hourly wages or annual salaries. As in the previous example, a number of levels may exist for a role or types of roles linked together, and for each a dollar value would be associated. Creation of pay structures are based on internal and/or external data.
• Some scales are created with just one level and salary per role; all employees are started or placed at that one salary.
 this is seen as somewhat limited as employees (or potential employees) come with a variety of experience and skill and may not have the comparable skills and abilities as outlined, yet show tremendous potential and seem to be good fit with the culture of the organization.
• Other scales are created still with only level per role but provide a range for the associated salary.
 Placement in the range is based on established criteria outlining experience, skill, potential and fit
 The scale is usually created by evaluating the market comparative data. However, the placement of person in the salary range is usually based on their skill and ability against other employees in the same role.
• Criteria for moving through a salary grade must align with the compensation philosophy and be identified at the time of development.
Building a matrix that identifies the hierarchy of the job family through levels as well as skills and competencies can assist in determining the appropriate placement of a position.
Part-time employees: Compensation for part-time employees should be consistent with your overall compensation philosophy. In a lot of cases, a regular part-time employee will participate in both salary and benefit programs on a pro-rated basis of that of a full-time employee. The most important consideration is that you provide fair and equitable compensation to a part-time person as you do to one working full-time.
Purpose of minimum wage: The minimum wage is designed to impose a broad and enforceable standard on employers that would guarantee a minimum level of income for unskilled, non-unionized workers. Minimum wage standards are also designed to stop these workers from trying to undercut each other by agreeing to work for less than someone else. Some exceptions exist for those who are student employees, self-employed, independent contracts and commissioned sales people. Each province or territory has its own minimum wage guidelines and exceptions.
Pay increases: Base pay is a fixed regular payment made to an employee in exchange for performance of the duties and responsibilities of their role. When an employee receives an increase to their base pay, it is considered a pay increase. There are various reasons and methods for determining an increase, but the common factor is that the increase changes the level of ongoing base pay.
An Increase in Annual Cost of living: This is an annual increase offered to employees, regardless of performance, with the intention of increasing base pay for each role on the salary scale by a set percentage in order to combat increases in the cost of living. When this is offered regularly, employees can begin to see it as an entitlement. Cost of living increases are usually provided on an annual basis to all employees at a rate recommended by the Executive Director and approved by the Board of Directors and is contingent on the overall financial stability of the agency.
A market adjustment following a compensation review against pre-established criteria
• Market adjustments are typically made following the receipt of market survey data. This data is usually received and evaluated towards the end of either your fiscal or calendar year. Organizations will evaluate their salaries against market data and, if required, adjust base salaries for roles that are below the rage of market. Many organizations have predetermined the percent of market they want to be paying at – i.e. a decision to pay the medium, or 75th percent.
• If a type of position in the organization is significantly overpaid compared to market, some companies will notify employees and either not provide an increase or actually reduce the midpoint for that role which could cause an employee to become “red circled” (unable to qualify for any salary increases until their salary comes in line with market)
• This adjustment is usually implemented for all impacted positions early in either the fiscal or calendar year. Many small organizations are moving away from the standard cost of living increase and performing market adjustments instead.
A promotional increase: A promotion is the advancement of an employee to a position that is evaluated at a higher grade level than the position to which the employee is currently assigned. An employee who is being promoted will receive a promotional increase at the time of the promotion aligned to the appropriate point in the new salary range considering performance, qualifications, and market information. Promotion is usually based on availability and preparedness.
A merit increase: Merit increases are awarded to recognize the outstanding contribution of employees and to compensate them for their high level of performance. Performance is the key factor in awarding a merit increase and can be the factor that moves a person through the salary scale towards midpoint or greater. Merit increases can be awarded on an employee’s anniversary date following a formal performance review or at the beginning of a calendar year, depending on your compensation structure and philosophy.
Bonus payments: Bonus pay is compensation over and above the amount of pay specified as wages or salary and it is only distributed as the organization is able to pay or as outlined in an employment contract. Bonus pay is used by many organizations to improve employee morale, motivation, and productivity or as a thank you to employees who achieve a significant goal. As long as bonus pay is discretionary by the employer, it is not considered to be a contract. If he employer promises a bonus, they may be legally liable to pay it out.
Incentive plans: Incentive plans have not typically been popular in the nonprofit sector. However, leaders are starting to see a change in perspective regarding the use of incentive plans. Providing incentive plans, especially to senior level staff, can enable organizations to compete for talent they would otherwise have not been able to pursue. Incentive plans are established to reward employees for improved commitment and performance and as a means of motivation. An incentive plan is designed to supplement base pay and fringe benefits. A financial incentive plan may offer a percentage of base salary, stock options or a cash bonus, whereas a non-financial incentive plans offer benefits such as additional paid vacations or increased professional development.
Employee Benefits: Employee benefits are optional, non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. These types of benefits may include group insurance (health, dental, vision, life etc.), disability income protection, retirement benefits, daycare, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, vacation (paid and non-paid), funding of education, as well as flexible and alternative work arrangements.
The benefits of benefits plans: Although expensive, there are many intrinsic benefits to providing your employees with a comprehensive benefit plan. For most, it is the ability to find and keep highly qualified staff that is the key driver. With the sector being highly competitive and the number of new employees entering the workforce dwindling, employers are challenged to become even more creative and responsive in the design, timing and generosity of their benefit plans. The more progressive the organization, the more flexible the structure is in response to today’s challenges: i.e. like having four different generations of employees working side by side. Employers who continue to provide the more traditional and limited program, may find it more difficult to find and keep different types of employees.
Here are just a few of the advantages of offering benefits to your employees:
For Employers: By providing increased access and flexibility in employee benefits, employers can not only recruit but retain qualified employees. Providing benefits to employees is seen as managing high-risk coverage at low costs and easing the company’s financial burden. Employee benefits have been proven to improve productivity because employees are more effective when they are assured of security for themselves and their families. Premiums are tax deductible at corporation expense, which means savings for the organization.
For employees: Employees can experience a peace of mind which leads to increased productivity and satisfaction by being assured that they and their families are protected in any mishap. Employees with personal life and disability insurance can enjoy additional protection including income replacement in the event of serious illness or disability. Employees can feel a sense of pride in their employer if they are satisfied with the coverage they receive.
The basics: health and dental: Health and dental benefits are considered the foundation of any benefit program design. When considering the root issues of all absenteeism from the workplace, most employers agree that health or dental related illness is cited most as the cause. While many have not thought of dental coverage as being a key attraction point, a number of medical reports have been published recently, that indicate that many of our common virus and illnesses are actually related to poor dental health. An organization’s ability to be creative, flexible and generous in providing health and dental coverage can be a key to attracting and retaining top performers as part of the total compensation package.
Health: Even in Canada, where Government plans provide approximately 70% of all healthcare expenses, the remaining gap is still perceived as a major concern for employees and employers. Private healthcare plans are restricted by legislation to expenses not fully covered by government programs.
Organizational health expense plans are generally permitted in the following areas across Canada:
• Hospital room charges in excess of the standard rate to cover semi-private or private accommodation
• Hospital charges for emergency treatment outside Canada
• Drugs, medication, vaccines and other supplies available only by prescription
• Professional services of a physician for out-of-country medical expenses
• Professional services for private duty nursing
• Charges for special medical appliances such as crutches, artificial limbs or wheelchairs
• Non-emergency ambulance services
• Dental treatments not requiring hospitalization
• Professional services provided by licensed paramedical, such as psychologists, massage therapists, speech therapists, podiatrists, physiotherapists, chiropractors, osteopaths, or naturopaths.
• Vision care expenses including frames and lenses, contact lenses, fitting and remedial treatment, laser eye correction surgery.
 This option is one that many employers struggle to provide their employees with the number requiring vision care is so great, the cost of including this option could raise the employer’s costs by anywhere from 20 to 40%
It is common practice to include many of the above items under a single extended healthcare plan. Most benefit carriers will tailor a plan to include only those features and coverage desired. Certain items, however, are often restricted or sold in combination with other coverage’s to contain overall plan costs or to subsidize heavily utilized services. Extended healthcare plan options should be selected based on the organizations overall compensation objectives and employee needs. For small organizations, the range of coverage options may be limited if the plans are financed on a fully insured basis. These plans offer restricted flexibility to limit the occurrence of high-risk claims. These pre-packaged plans are available to small organizations through affiliation with umbrella organizations such as; Chambers of commerce, boards of trade, trade associations and professional organizations. For larger organizations, the range of options is mostly limited by cost considerations.
Dental: Dental plan design is the art of finding a delicate balance between understanding what the foundational priorities are, and allocating sufficient funds, to ensure that the coverage is perceived as being sufficient and appropriate. Although the type of dental work can differ from person to person, some common elements have been found: Most employees, their spouses and children, require basic preventive dental care and repair. Therefore, most employers elect to design the plan in such a way as to minimize the cost to employees of basic coverage. Since major restorative care and orthodontics tend to be more elective in nature and less common in need across the employee group than basic services, most plans do not provide equal coverage in all areas. For example, the plan might pay 100% of basic and 50% of the other two categories. It is also common to find deductibles, co-insurance and benefit maximums for the non-basic services to free up more funds for the necessary preventive ones. High employee deductibles and co-insurance percentages can help to limit plan disbursements because employees will be paying more of the total costs. The potential problem is that these high employee costs may, in effect, force postponement of needed dental work until the repair bill is even higher. Paying 100% of basic preventative care from day one is the overwhelming choice of employers. Having the dental plan require a “pre-treatment” evaluation for certain expenses helps control cost levels by ensuring that the plan only pays for reasonable treatments. It also avoids any misunderstanding by the employee as to what services are covered and how much he or she is required to pay. It is always preferable to ensure the employee knows what the plan will pay for and what exact dollar amount is their responsibility. A commonly asked question of benefit administrators is why the dental plan is not optional but compulsory? If the plan is optional, only those employees who are likely to need dental care will sign up. They will almost always use services that exceed their contributions, deductibles and co-insurance. Those who feel that the benefits will not cover their costs will decline. Because of this “adverse selection”, cost per employee will be so high that employers would not be perceived as competitive.
Life and Accidental Death Dismemberment: Most employers design their plans with a provision to protect the employee and/or their family in the event of Accidental Death Dismemberment (AD & D). Employers often provide basic coverage as a factor of the employee’s salary, (example: 2x the employee’s salary in the event of death or total paralysis) with additional coverage available should the employee chose to purchase it. Each employee benefit plan should include a chart that identifies what coverage is available and the associated cost.
Long-term disability: Long-term disability is an income-replacement provision. This is one provision that cannot be purchased through a spousal plan. Employees are asked to pay the total cost of the premiums in order to receive a tax-free payment should they be unable to work. Long-term disability coverage is applied for when an employee is unable to complete a certain percentage of the essential duties of their role due to illness on an ongoing basis. The structure of each plan can differ slightly, so understanding what you are trying to achieve with this program including elimination periods and termination options, is critical at the outset.
Employee Assistance Plans (EAPS): An EAP, or employee assistance program, is a confidential, short term, counseling service for employees with personal problems that affect their work performance. Studies have shown that providing confidential qualified counseling and support can reduce the stress and conflict felt by the employee, which in-turn can reduce absenteeism and ultimately turnover. One-on-one sessions are offered and online information, coaching and support services are also available. Employees turn to the EAP for help with a variety of issues, including the following: Dependent care issues, such as searching for child care information, identifying services for special needs children, obtaining advice on the college application process, or arranging for residential care for an elder. Dealing with the stress of a major life change (even a positive one), such as having or adopting a child, getting married, moving or buying a home, or getting a promotion. Serious personal or professional concerns, such as general anxiety, depression, substance abuse, burnout, coping with illness, the loss of a loved one, relationship challenges, or resolving interpersonal conflicts.
Different types of programs are available to employers to provide employee assistance. Employers can establish their own in-house programs, join a consortium of organizations to provide external services or refer employees to public and private providers of this service. The range of costs across these options can vary widely. Organizations must then decide the most advantageous approach to achieve the level of improved wellness among their employees.
In selecting the best EAP provider, several factors need to be considered:
• How accessible and convenient are the services to be provided? Location of offices and confidentially concerns are important here.
• How is the quality of services to be measured?
• How is client satisfaction to be assessed?
• How are service costs to be determined and will there be limit placed on the frequency and extent of services provided? What will the charges be per hour of service per individual?
Before choosing an EAP provider, these questions need to be answered and the answers reflected in any service proposal or contract.
Retirement benefits: A retirement plan or a pension is an arrangement by an employer to provide their employees with no income when they are longer earning a regular income from working. Retirement plans may be set up in a variety of ways but typically will have a form of a guaranteed payment. Often retirement plans require both the employer and employee to contribute money into fund while employed so that they will receive benefits upon retirement. Pension plans are considered a form of delayed income.
Pension Plans: Pension plans are usually classified as either defined benefit or defined contribution according to how the payments are determined. A defined benefit plan guarantees a predictable monthly payment at retirement, calculated by using an established formula with some combination of the employee’s salary, years of service and/or age.
A defined contribution plan will provide a payment/payout at retirement that will be determined by the amount of money contributed during the life of the plan and the performance of the stock or investments used. Registered Retirement Savings Plans: A Registered Retirement Savings Plan or RRSP is an account that provides tax benefits for saving for retirement yet is not necessarily base on the employer/employee relationship. RRSPs can provide ways to save money for retirement and defer and reduce taxes because: Contributions to RRSPs, up to established limits, may be deducted from income in pre-taxed dollars. Income earned within the account is not taxed until money is withdrawn from the plan.
RRSP accounts can be set up with as either:
• Individual RRSP
 An individual RRSP is associated with only a single individual; only they contribute money to their RRSP.
• Spousal RRSP
 The spouse of the contributor is actually the account holder. A spousal RRSP is a means of splitting income in retirement.
• Group RRSP
 An employee can arrange for employees to make contributions through a schedule of regular payroll deductions. In many organizations RRSP contributions can be used on a “matching” program. This means that the employer will put in a certain percentage or dollar amount based on the contributions the employee makes
 The employee gets to receive the tax savings immediately at the time of deduction instead of having to wait until the end of the tax year
Phased Retirement: Today’s work place is challenged with having up to four different generations working side by side. For most employers, designing a compensation and benefit structure that address the unique needs of each demographic group, is a complex task. Added to that is the shift in pension structures over the past few years. Some non-profit organizations provide their employees with a pension fund; however most tend to offer only contributions to an RRSP. This leads to an increasing number of employees not feeling able to retire. It is important that organizations understand the details of their pension plan, whether it is a defined benefit or contribution or simply an RRSP program before considering design changes. For those not hindered by a design change, one option that is gaining in popularity, especially in this sector, is providing a phased retirement program for older skilled employees.
For employees: Components of the phased program are allowing employees who might be considering retiring to delay their departure date, continue to earn a partial income that reduces the burden on their pension income, they continue to receive benefit coverage and are able to acclimate gradually continuing to reduce their bonus until they are prepared to leave.
For employers: Employers are able to develop a timely and effective succession plan without losing critical skills or intellectual capital. Organizations benefit by being able to tap into the most experienced staff at a reduced salary, while transitioning to a new team or organizational design.
Hurdles: Employees need to understand the impact continuing to work may have on pension or benefit programs; also to be considered is the timing of starting your phased approach. If an employee starts too soon, they might not have accumulated enough to compensate for the reduced salary. Employers need to be sure that the phased retirement program is structured in a way that will not diminish the work of the organization or the financial position of the employee.
Indirect non-financial compensation: Indirect compensation will look different in every organization. It is the way in which you choose to define the culture of your organization and your total compensation rewards program that will differentiate it. Of course, it is important to ensure it aligns with organizational strategic objectives. Recent studies all indicate that in today’s changing work environment it is the flexibility and creativity that draws and keep the highly skilled employee.
Benefit Perspective: From a benefit perspective, being creative and considering ways to improve the access or quality of your benefits, could look like:
• Allowing employees to access their benefit as of their hire date
• Being able to accumulate sick days to bridge to disability coverage
• Being able to use some sick days as “personal health days” to allow employees to have a break without using all their holidays or pretending to be sick
• Receiving your birthday off with pay
• Eliminating the probationary period language from contracts/offer letters
• Seeking insurance providers with vision care benefits at reasonable costs
• Allowing for some increased flexibility in personalizing benefit options; i.e. health spending accounts, vision care versus dental, and more paramedical coverage.
Although these options have a cost associated with them, the cost is significantly less than the benefit an organization can reap in return. If your insurance provider does not allow you the freedom to make some adjustments in your plan, then it might be time to research what else is available.
Other perspectives: Many articles have been written highlighting the keys to creating the best organization and to finding and keeping the best employees. In recent studies, the following were identified as key factors:
Compensation: Paying employees fairly against both the market conditions as well as ensuring internal equity was still the number one factor considered; providing clear information on the organization’s compensation structure and consistent processes were critical to an employee’s sense of commitment.
Professional Development: For many people, especially the younger generations, the ability to develop both personally and professionally was highly valued and a key consideration deciding where to work. Access to training and development on the job and through courses or conferences were listed in a study done by the Conference Board of Canada as import. Another variation of this was receiving reimbursement for courses taken on the employee’s own time – most commonly reimbursed were courses that aligned with a professional designation in the employees’ current role.
Culture: Employees who were surveyed and asked what kept them in their current role, indicated that having a culture that recognized the importance of connecting performance to rewards were key to their satisfaction. Performance management was one component that influenced the culture. Having clearly defined expectations, being able to identify goals to work towards and having their evaluation align with those agreed-to goals, contributed to higher satisfaction levels. Receiving effective and realistic feedback, both positive and constructive, increased a continuous learning environment and increases commitment to the organization because performance, both good and bad, is recognized. Succession planning when operating within an organization brings a sense of purpose and sustainability to employees. Confidence in the future and their roles on it was reported consistently by those who had been identified for a succession plan. Consider was to develop younger staff with great potential by having them be identified as a potential successor to a long-term employee. The employee wins by learning new and critical skills while feeling rewarded for their hard work to date, the more senior person feels rewarded for years of service and identified as a key contributor. The organization wins by ensuring that intellectual capital is not lost, but transitioned from one employee to another. Trust demonstrated as part of the culture of an organization is highly valued by all generations of employees. In Steven Covey’s book: “Moving at the Speed of Trust” leaders are challenged to evaluate if their organization’s culture is one of trust or mistrust. Employees who feel trusted and respected will strive harder to maintain that trust and are less likely to do something that will result in a loss of trust.
Workplace Flexibility: Alternative work arrangements are effective ways to negotiate an arrangement that meet the needs of the organization while also providing employees with what they need to balance their home and work environments. Listed below are just some of the ideas that could be explored. Finding out what your organization would value can start this process. The key is to ensure that any alternative arrangements considered do not hinder the organization’s ability to ensure that core work is being completed in the time and manner required to maintain sustainability.
Having clear expectations on both the organization and the employee’s part as to the terms and conditions of the alternative work arrangement can prevent ineffective or damaging results.
• Flexible time
 This can be establishing core hours, then allowing employees to work earlier in the day or later in the day.
 Example: Core hours are 9a.m to 2p.m. Person A starts from 7a.m and works till 3p.m, Person B works from 9a.m to 5p.m.
 Seasonal hours can be established in a variety of terms, just as flexible hours/schedule of part-time employees. Example: hiring a part-time person to work 4 days a week. But they actually work full-time for 10 months a year, and they take a combination of their time vacation of 2 hours or take a month in the summer and a month in the winter off work. They would continue to receive their salary for 12 months a year.
• Compressed work week
 Allowing an employee to work their full number of hours in less days
 Example: Core hours are 40 hours per week, the employee works 4 – 10 hours days instead of 5 – 8 hour days
• Job sharing
 Having 2 qualified employees share the duties and tasks of one position
 Both could work 2.5 days or alternative between 3 days one week and 2 the next.
 The advantage of job sharing is having 2 people who both know the role; the downside can be having a communication gap between individuals doing the role.
• Consider having an employee who is contemplating retirement job share with a more junior employee with high potential…transition knowledge, skills and commitment.
• Telecommuting
 This is the practice of allowing an employee work from their home location instead of on your premises.
 There are guidelines governing the considerations for this type of employment
 In the past ten years the number of people telecommuting has tripled with results indicating that increased productivity and effectiveness were seen from this type of working arrangement.
• Regular Part-Time Work
 Many people today are looking for meaningful work but on a part-time basis. A desire to balance work and life priorities has increased exponentially over the past decades and employers who recognize the contribution part-time employees can make, are leading their organizations forward.
• Educational Partnership
 Many employees are looking for opportunities to balance academic pursuits with employment opportunities.
 Considering how you could structure a role for a person in the final stages of their education, could result in an increased pool of potential employees, and employees who will be loyal to an organization that provided them practical experiences and the ability to create a flexible schedule.
Regardless of whether you are developing an alternative work arrangement or increasing the flexibility of your benefit program, it is important to understand what motivates employees and what culture you are building in your organization. The ability to align the two together, more successful result would be achieved.

INTRODUCTION: Since the inception of Global Resource Management and Accountability, we have been advocating for prudent resource management through public discuss, open seminars and talk at workshops and social gathering worldwide especially in developing countries. Earlier in 1998 when we commence businesses in Nigeria, we were focusing on business development, project development and management, investment advisory services , accounting and audit services. As it so happened, we discovered that one of the key aspects of all the resources which is human capital were not being effectively and efficiently developed and utilized as is the case in other countries which have the same rate of Gross Domestic Product or per capita income rate with Nigeria.
• Inefficient human capital development and utilization have been the bane of economic and social development in Nigeria. Because of the huge effects human capital have on the other resources, we as Global Managers decided in 2000 to add it to our numerous schedule of activities. In fact, it is the core area we are focusing currently in the country. We have splendidly done well and can proudly say that we have trained well over 5,000 Nigerian workers at various workshops and seminars organized by us in Nigeria, Ghana, Dubai and London. We have received good reports commendations from ABU Teaching Hospital, Zaria, FCT Area Council Service Secretariat, Abuja, FCT UBEB, FCT Education Secretariat, NAFDAC, Abuja and few others.
• In life and indeed in nearly all businesses, whether public or private, some kind of problems are encountered. These problems may be multi-various and affects some or few aspects of an individual or a corporate organization. One thing I would like everyone of you seated here to acknowledge is the fact that we all have problems or challenges that bothers us individually or as a family; it is the same with any corporate organizations.
• Sometimes, even the thought of choosing a course of action can render you helpless. You fret about the consequences, implications, and ripples that any decision-especially the wrong one-is bound to cause. And in organizational life, you are usually under pressure to get the right done. The decisions you make can set in motion forces that can have a profound effect on your company, your staff, and your own career, hence care must be taken.
• The process might be easier if choices were limited to two very different alternatives-water or wine, north or south, good or evil. But in the workplace, choices are typically far less cut and dried: We often face a daunting slate of alternatives that present a numbing range of viable possibilities.
• How do you navigate the several minefields of decision making responsibilities professionally amidst several problems? You may often be faced with the thought of leaving important decision to others, or you can make them yourself-with the valuable support and assistance of your colleagues. As the boss, you are at a cross-road and must either move the organization forward or you found yourself thrown out by the weight of problems assaulting your office. You are left with no choice than to do the ordinary thing; find solutions to them.
Corporate problems are multi-various. In particular, some of the problems would be financial, administrative or personnel related. Others may bear more directly on security and safety, labour or union crisis, and threats from competitors. The need for expansion or reduction in the size of the organization may equally come up and thus we are often surrounded by more problems that requires tactful handling or else it would lead to a big loss to the organization. Recently, the aspect of financial problems have come up more frequently for discussion among corporate executives.
A requisite skill in Creative Decision making will enable you learn how to formulate possible solutions and arrive at decisions deliberately, methodically, and confidently, without bending to pressures, and without ignoring your best instincts.
Decision making is the act of making a choice or judgment between two or more alternatives. At this juncture you might ask why do one need to acquire additional skills in creative Decision Making? The answer is not far fetched; given the myriad of problems that affects corporate organizations this millennium, there are no other alternatives than for corporate leaders and senior government officials to think creatively and probably out of the box so as to ensure that they achieve the best possible results. Below are some benefits or advantages that effective decision making can bring if we imbibe the right culture of thinking creatively.
ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS: Making smart choices determines how closely and rapidly you are able to achieve your company’s objectives. In view of the fact that corporate resources are scarce, a well thought out decision is essential for the implementation of any action or strategy which will impacts positively on the organization.
ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS: It doesn’t matter how well you’ve planned for any mishaps, business circumstances can change and take you by surprise. Making decision that takes into account future uncertainties can help to minimize any damage to your ultimate goals.
HIGHLIGHT YOUR LEADERSHIP SKILLS: Most people shirk away from making tough choices because it exposes them to others’ criticism. Managers have a lot to lose from mediocre decision. By making bold, carefully considered choices and persuading others to follow the decision, you can stand out as an effective leader.
CREATE NEW OPPORTUNITIES: Decision often arises from specific problems. Good decision making can turn these apparent into new business opportunities by sparking off new ideas which might otherwise have gone unnoticed. The best decision-makers learn to view problem as opportunities to make positive changes.
GAINING CONFIDENCE: The more often you follow a systematic approach to decision making, the easier it will become to tackle future decisions that demand courage and clear thinking. Even when the nature of a decision is very different from a previous one, you can still follow a systematic process that should eventually make you confident about tacking the most complex problems.
BECOME MORE PROACTIVE: More often than not, decision is thrust upon managers by external circumstances. Once you’ve developed a decision making style, you will become more adept at creating your own set of problems that you must resolve through smart choices. This means you, not others, taking the initiative.
Three basic types of decision making facing managers are:
1. OPERATIONAL: These decisions tend to be easier to make because they are routine and repetitive. They involve the day-to-day functions of a company that will already have procedures in place to follow, unless it is a start-up or has been taken over by a second company that has a set of completely different operational practices.
• How to allocate staff responsibilities and work schedules when a member of the team is on holiday.
• How to compensate overtime-with more holiday time or extra pay?
• How to handle customer complaints.
• Who to involve in recruiting new staff.
• How to organize the annual office party.
• How to allocate a budget.
• Issues concerning the medium- and long-term direction company are likely to be less straightforward than programmed decisions. The list of options available is going to be longer as the outcome of the decision is less certain. A greater number of people will necessarily be consulted during the decision making process, creating more need for negotiation.
• Setting productivity targets for the next six months.
• Analyzing the pros and cons of introducing a new line of products.
• Appointing a new advertising or market company.
• Finding ways of improving efficiency in a certain department
• Choosing which staff to be laid-off during a slow business period.
These decisions are complicated, like strategic choice, but there is the added difficulty that they emerge from a particular crisis and have to be dealt with almost immediately. You can’t afford the luxury of long consultations with interested parties, in-depth research, and canvass opinions. Mostly made by the senior managers or perhaps the CEO or Managing Director, these decisions also have to be implemented immediately, and there is no time to waste on the intended course action. It is appropriate to get things done right away. It is vital in such situations that everyone ‘’buys into’’ the proposed course of action, whether they accept that it is the best course or not. In such scenario, doing something is always more advantageous than doing nothing. At this point it is right to asset your position on the matter.
• How to replace a key member of staff who has resigned unexpectedly or had to take a leave of absence brought about by ill health.
• What action to take when a fault has been discovered in a company product.
• How to handle adverse publicity relating to the company, any of its officers, its goods, or its services.
• How to respond to the launch of a new competitor.
• How to deal with a supplier that result that you miss a deadline.
• How to deal with wrong-doing inside your company.
• How to deal with unforeseen problem such as a fire or flood you cannot control.
STYLES OF DECISION MAKING: In general, decision making style depend largely on the type of corporate problems which you are facing. Often, it will be made up at least one or more of the following approaches.
PROCEDURAL: This involves following a template which has been tried and tested by the company before. Used mainly for smaller, routine decision, it demands little individual input by the manager. Watch out for overreliance on what has previously worked well. Managers should ask themselves whether it has already been used.
RISK – AVERSE: Particularly established companies that haven’t seen a change of management in a long time are prone to using a risk-averse style of decision making. This can prove limited and ultimately create uncertainly because it doesn’t take into account any new developments in a particular market or industry. A lot of opportunities can be missed by sticking to old methods that haven’t been re –evaluated nor tested.
AUTHORITARIAN: is a top-down approach to decision making which is becoming increasingly outdated. There are still instances when senior managers have to make decisions rapidly without soliciting other’s opinions. In today’s more open business climate, this approach is more likely to occur at a multinational company where a decision is made at head quarters and then implemented in subsidiaries overseas.
SYSTEMATIC: is a well-researched and thought-out approach to a problem, is the method advocated in this book. A systematic style includes a precise formulation of a problem, clear goals and objectives, thought research of different options, and a detailed evaluation of the solution on offer, followed finally by the pre-emption by an efficient and swift implementation of the decision. This ideal method is most suitable to strategic decisions and to the pre-emption of problem.
INTUITIVE: The use of logic and clearly defined steps of systematic decision making does not preclude the use of emotion, imagination, and intuition or what is sometime described as having a ‘’hunch’’ or ‘’gut feeling’’ about something. A feeling that a particular choices is the ‘’right’’ one can complement or reaffirm a decision based on fact-based judgment.
Adventurous: Thinking outside the box can often provide an ingenious or a new and fresh approach to a problem. This creative way of thinking can co-exist with systematic and intuitive approaches. Bold change only turn into unnecessary risks if they are taken in isolation, without having carefully weighed the potential pitfalls.
DEMOCRATIC: With growing media scrutiny of individual manager’s practices and the increasing obligation for companies to be seen as socially responsible and caring, more companies are likely to try a democratic approach to management, where team members and subsidiaries are at least asked for their opinions through decision forums, or though a recognized system of representation. This approach is more likely to pay dividends when it is applied in long-term, strategic decisions that affect your range of products and services, and most of your employees and their work methods; it is not feasible during emergencies when swift, decisive action is called for.
WHAT IS CORPORATE PROBLEM? The first step in a systematic corporate decision making process is to define the precise nature of the problems. An accurate and considered description of the problem has a much greater chance of finding a set of solutions than a vague, unformulated problem. Corporate problems in whatever magnitude are threats to organizational survival. Corporate problems can emanate from internal operational activities or from external factors which control are beyond the immediate environment of the establishment either in private or public. According to late Dr. Emmanuel Danlami Yaroson, a Nigerian and former head of the Research unit of the British Petroleum, “when problems are encountered either in business or one’s office, they should be regard as a warning bell for us to retrace or re-affirm position and as well as our strength in the face of the glaring challenges”. As such, problems are not to be feared, rather when they are identified, it then present the decision maker an opportunity to utilize his thinking ability and as well as his or her managerial skills. The following steps can help you to arrive at a sharply stated definition of corporate problems.
METHODS OF IDENTIFYING CORPORATE PROBLEMSASK PROBING QUESTIONS: If company revenue is down, one conclusion may be that the overall market environment for the company’s products or services is suffering a downturn. “Nobody’s got the money to spend on x right now” is the popular opinion circulating in the office. The implication is that you have to bid your time until the market picks up again. But this interpretation may be the product of lazy analysis or a general unwillingness to combat prevailing opinions.
REACQUAINT YOURSELF WITH CORE ISSUES: Why is company revenue down? When did revenue start to fall? Does it coincide with a change in external circumstances or can it be tracked to a specific policy followed by the company? Maybe the market is down but some competitors are still doing well? Has the company failed to react quickly enough? Are there other products or services that could be sold to compensate for lessening demand in the core business? Never assume that the general perception of a problem is correct.
THINK LATERALLY: Once you’ve asked the question again, play the devil’s advocate and counter the dominant theories held by company management. Jot down possible alternatives even if some appear outlandish and are unlikely to provide immediate solutions. These alternatives may serve to raise new questions, and you will be closer to defining the exact problem you have to solve. For instance, is the problem in fact that the company is not being innovative enough?
SEEK OPPORTUNITIES: Perhaps after much questioning, you do come to the conclusion that the market is simply saturated with a certain type of service or product line. But your investigations have led you to discover that, although the market is crowded, there is demand elsewhere for other products or services that your company could be providing more cheaply or effectively than your competitors. You might also identify new markets in different territories.
BE DYNAMIC: Through your investigations, you have managed to transform the rather passive inquiry of “How do we operate in a slow market?” to a more dynamic “What related product line can we expand?” or “What related service could we start to offer?” The questioning process is generating fresh ideas and calling for possible further action on different fronts.
GATHER OPINIONS: After formulating a new question that you think points to the core problem facing your employer or business, try to open up a discussion with key personnel, perhaps in other departments, about their views on the problem. Use your new assumption (or the original interpretation if you’ve decided that is correct, after all) as a starting point for the debate. You might also find that other industry professionals agree with your new premise, or that your call for debate encourages others to think and formulate reasons why the establishment or company is under-performing in one or more particular areas. Other people might offer solutions you have not considered; for example, customer services staff may be aware of a problem through talking to your clients that you might be unaware of. Information Technology staff may know of upgrades or new products that are about to come into the market.
FINAL STEPS IN IDENTIFYING CORPORATE PROBLEMS: As a top senior official or manager in the organization, you should not become so concerned about being seen to be making a visible change that they may decide to start taking action even though the best solution at least in the short term is to do nothing at all. How can you avoid embarking on a project for the sake of it? Here are some steps to reassure yourself that you are right in pursuing your objectives:
WRITE IT DOWN: If you can, write down in one sentence the nature of the problem that you must try to solve. For example, “Our Company has not diversified enough in a slow market”. This is clear and straightforward without being too prescriptive. It calls for rethinking and urgent action, but it does not pre-empt finding a solution.
PUT THE PROBLEM INTO CONTEXT: Maybe you’ve exaggerated the importance of your particular problem? What other concerns face your company? If you can’t think of any, ask trusted colleagues about what issues are preventing the company from growing faster. Does your problem still look like the main priority? What would happen if you didn’t do anything about it right now? Can you afford to wait?
BE FLEXIBLE: Even at this stage, when you’ve made your first decision (to formulate the problem), don’t be afraid to come back and re-examine the problem definition later in the process. Circumstances continue to change, companies, goods, and services change, new markets emerge, and personnel change. You have to make sure you’re not stuck in old perceptions of the problem.


The art of projecting or predicting corporate outcomes is common in organizational decision making process. Having made a list of several alternatives, are you ready to assess how well each alternatives or options satisfies your basic objectives? It is not an easy task predicting the outcomes of corporate decisions; hence I am of the opinion that you still need to refine your list of alternatives by going one step further, by projecting these alternatives into the future. You might start by asking yourself some useful questions like the followings; what are the possible consequences of each of the following trajectories I’ve mapped out? Can I make good ideas at some of the possible outcomes? Only by trying to imagine what could happen in each case can you test the real worth of each option. With the list of the best possible alternatives at hand, it’s time then to draw up new lists of some likely consequences by methodically working down your existing list of alternatives and describing the outcomes that you expect from each one. Some of these projections or predictions may be easier than the others, especially if they have been implemented before in your organization or by other players in the same sector. You should start with these “safer” alternatives before moving on to the greater uncertainties so that you gain confidence in your ability to project into the future. Remember that these predictions are subject to test of time, meaning that some current economic, political and social events may influence how they would eventually be realized.
WHAT CAN YOU COUNT ON? The truth is that nothing is ever certain in business, as in life. Particularly in today’s global market with its 24-hour access to new information, trends come and go at a much faster rate than ever before. But at some point, you have to take a leap of faith and proceed with the assumption that in the best-case scenarios, the consequences of certain actions are indeed foreseeable. In fact, you’ll be surprised how many certainties you can count on for any given alternative. The certainties you can work with are those you can calculate, for example, how much investment will be needed to buy machinery for product X or how many sales of Y you will need to break even. These calculations are not guesses – they should be carefully worked out. Compare your information with similar exercise carried out years back.
A CASE STUDY: Given the foregoing analysis, let us look at a Case Study of a Food Manufacturing Company by name, De United Foods Industries Limited, the manufacturer of Indomie instant noodles. Imagine that the company is considering opening a manufacturing outlet in Abuja. How many of the following questions could you plausibly answer? The likelihood is that most of these questions can be answered by the company. Already you can see how you can count on a certain number of certainties when you project alternatives into the future.
1. Has the company opened other manufacturing outlets in other fast developing environment before? If so, what was the turnover?
2. Have rival companies launched similar outlets in the area or in similar developments. How did they perform? Indomie noodle have rival in Dangote Nunu noodle, Golden penny Noodles etc
3. Are there any major noodle dealers or manufacturer already existing in the vicinity of the proposed project location.?
4. What is the total investment like in this new manufacturing outlet?
5. How many employees will be working at the outlet
6. Have you done a feasibility study on the project?
7. If not, is there any money available to hire a consultant to carry out a study?
8. Will the opening of this outlet be at the expense of opening in other locations?
9. Where will the company invest if this plan is dropped?
10. How crucial is this opening for the company’s growth plans?
11. What are the cost implications of pursuing one option rather than another?
CONSIDERING YOUR OWN ORGANIZATION: We had briefly examined the case study of De Food Industries Limited, the manufacturer of Indomie noodles; what can you do to bring similar thinking or approach to your own organization. Please, note that the same method can be applied to public establishments that wish to open branch offices. How can you do your best to forecast all possible outcomes of a potential decision? Identifying your company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (a popular technique known as SWOT) can help you amass valuable facts that will help you make a credible prediction of future outcomes. First, you need to critically analyse the current position of your organization or employer as the case may be.
QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT YOUR ORGANIZATION: The following are questions you may ask when considering the SWOT analysis of your own organization or your employer as the case may be. These questions can also be used on companies that compete with yours.
STRENGTHS: What advantages does your company have over its major competitors?
• What strengths do competitors identify in your company?
• What are your company’s biggest selling points?
• Which is the most profitable division in your company?
• Where and how is the company underperforming?
• What weaknesses do competitors dwell on?
• What areas are most in need of improvement?
• Which competitors are doing better and why?
• What are the areas of strongest growth in the sector?
• Are there any future trends you should be taking advantage of?
• Where are the biggest chances for growth?
• What competitive advantages can you exploit?
• What are the biggest obstacles facing you?
• Are there any government regulations or societal changes that are going to affect you?
• What are your competitors doing that you are not?
• Does the company face a shortage of investment capital or resources?
• A comprehensive understanding of the core competencies of your company and its standing in its sector can help you come to confident conclusions about future trends and eliminate many uncertainties about a move that appears risky on the surface.
• Knowing hard facts about your company’s financial and operating history is just a first step in counting up certainties. But what about the slightly less tangible details of how your company responds to new ideas and change? Understanding your corporate culture and core values can also assist you in mapping out the feasibility of your proposed set of alternatives.
These are some of the questions you can ask yourself about your company to identify how acceptable your proposal is:
1. Is your company conformist and traditional, relying on tried and tested methods rather than on bold, fresh initiatives?
2. What is your reputation in the company?
3. Do you think you will be taken seriously or do you have to get other members on-your-side first?
4. How well do you know the politics of the company? Does your approach have to cater for this?
5. Do you have to liaise with certain senior decision makers who like to feel they have come up with better ideas themselves?
6. Which lever at the top of the company may have to be pulled for a proposal to be accepted?
7. How often does the company change its mind on policy issues?
8. Does the company tend to lead a trend or chase competitors?
9. When was the last time the company took a major risk? Was the outcome successful?
10. Does the company have the right kind of employees to put your proposal into action?
11. How receptive will junior staff members be to the kind of changes you are proposing?
12. If you are given green light, do you foresee a major battle in implementing the decision?
PREDICTING SCENARIOS: There are several instances when knowledge about your company’s financial situation or its corporate culture is not sufficient to brush away major imponderables (i.e. immeasurable benefits) about the outcomes of your list of alternatives. This is the point where you have to take some bolder steps to forecast the future. This is where you can assert yourself. Your worth to the organization will be appreciated in the future as your prediction or proactive actions generates noticeable benefits or profits in the future. It is only wise to continue unrestricted, not bending to pressures to put aside your discoveries, especially when you have invested so much time and money in undertaking the research.
• ASK “WHAT IF” QUESTIONS: Be prepared to map out a response to a worst-case scenario. For instance, from our case study above, if De United Food Industries Limited goes ahead with the opening of the manufacturing outlet in Abuja, and there is a six-month delay in the completion of the factory blocks, how will this affect sales? Will you be able to release staff given that there are few customers? How flexible can you be? In this case, you are doing more than forecasting the future; you are already setting up potential contingency plans.
WORK BACK FROM THE FUTURE: Like the earlier example, this involves making a proactive decision because you are starting off by imagining your desired outcome and then working backward to see what steps you would have to take to achieve it.
ASSESS SUCCESS: You can also try using “probability theory” to lower the element of error. You do this by working out the likelihood of an event happening on a scale of 1 (impossible) to 5 (guaranteed) with a 50:50 chance of success at 3. You can then multiply the set of possible investments by these probabilities to gauge which gives you the better figures.
SIMULATE THE FUTURE: You can try enacting the future using computer programs to work out complex equations using a range of possible scenarios, both positive and negative. Computer graphics help to illustrate the points to other staff members.
HIRE CONSULTANTS: When in-house resources are unable to carry out complicated calculations, you can try consultants with both the technical know-how and experience.
CORPORATE RISK ANALYSIS: Like the stars, so are the numbers of corporate risks. Risk analysis or profiling is a useful technique that helps decision makers grasps the basic information about the way uncertainty affects alternatives or the choices available when seeking for solutions to corporate risks or problems as the case may be. Given the nature of corporate problems, frequent risk analysis and classification is paramount. There are four key steps, these are:-
1. SELECT THE MAIN UNCERTAINTIES: As not all uncertainties can have a major impact on the future, it’s useful to identify which of the many uncertainties are important enough to highlight in a list. When you’ve reviewed them, chose three to five uncertainties. Take one at a time, and describe the way they could impinge on the decision. You might continue to eliminate the ones with lower impact from the list. Try to single out the most important uncertainty.
2. SPECIFY OUTCOMES: Following the same sequence as above, try to refine a list of possible outcomes and to describe them. Make sure the chosen outcomes clearly differ from each other, that they include all possible scenarios, and that they are clearly defined.
3. GUESS THE ODDS: What are the odds of each outcome being played out? If you find this difficult, use your judgment, refer to any factual information available, or ask the relevant specialists. Be as specific as possible by using a percentage or a ratio, not a vague phrase like “fairly likely” or “average chance”.
4. DEFINE CONSEQUENCES: With the same care you took to specify an outcome, you should now try to describe neatly and succinctly what the possible consequences of each outcome is. By the time you’ve completed the four steps and forced yourself to eliminate peripheral uncertainties and outcomes and isolate the single most important concerns, you should be in a much better position to grade the potential impact of each alternative and make a decision.

Before embarking on the act of generating options or alternative solutions to the myriad of organizational problems, it is appropriate to analyse and classify the problems challenging the organization. A list of possible solutions to the problems should be drawn-up and debated upon by a team of experts or the staff you feel are capable of contributing meaningfully. To be able to get additional lead, team work is required. The opinions of other staff, whether at the senior or at the junior level is paramount at this moment since they would ultimately lend hands in the implementation of any of the option chosen. Consulting widely will enable you to get more possible options or alternatives to solving problems.
IDENTIFYING ALTERNATIVES: At this stage, you should have a defined problem and a comprehensive grasp of why you need to define the problem. The next crucial step is to find as many possible solutions so that you can make the best choice later in the process. The main advantages of spending time and thought in the search for alternatives are:
1. MORE CHOICE: The final decision can only be as good and far-reaching as the list of alternatives being considered. It’s far easier to have at your disposal a wealth of alternatives that you can eliminate at a later stage than to start thinking of new ones from scratch. A broader menu of alternatives also give others the opportunity to participate in the election of options rather than being presented with only two or three alternatives that you have already edited. You may be surprised at how differently new set of eyes look at the advantages and disadvantages of a particular option.
2. OUT-OF-THE-BOX SOLUTIONS: It’s too easy to rely on tried and tested solutions. Ask yourself if previous methods used by the company to resolve certain problems generated the desired effect. Did people just take the easy way out for short-term gain? Think laterally and creatively to become adept at spotting shortcomings with existing solutions and new opportunities in unexpected sources. The obvious answers are not always the most appropriate in a given situation, so you have to use out-of-the-box solutions.
3. ROOM FOR MANOEUVRE: Do you sometimes feel you’ve been left with little room to manoeuvre? Is it because you’ve closed off options by not spending enough time researching possible solutions? The earlier you start in the process of finding alternatives, the more angles you’ll cover. Get your subordinates involved in finding out more alternatives involved to the ones you have earlier pen down.
4. CHALLENGE THE STATUS QUO: There are invariably two or three alternatives to a problem that you and your competitors can all come up with, and these should definitely be included in your list of possible solutions. However, these alternatives tend to be traditional and obvious. Make sure you have at least three or more alternatives that challenge well-established assumptions. Do not rely on the routines, rather challenge them.
5. CONFIDENCE TO CHOOSE: Many decision makers differ at the last minute about implementing their decision because they are afraid another possible solution may be around the corner. Even though it is wise to remain open to suggestions when making a decision, it also shows maturity and conviction to decide that you are ready to proceed with a choice. This confidence comes from being sure that you have done all your homework. The first step in identifying alternatives is to gather as much information around the key decision and objective. To make sure you are gathering the most relevant information and that you have established the correct boundaries, it is useful to check that the following basic questions are addressed at the outset.
1. WHO? Who is the problem directly affecting? Who should be making the ultimate decision? Who needs to be involved in the decision making process?
2. WHAT? What are the main facts of the problem? Are these facts obvious, have they been covered in a company memo or have they emerged from a management consultant report? Are they more complicated? What needs to be done to find out? What will happen if we don’t act? What values does this decision involve for you as an individual or collectively?
3. WHY? This is a return to the main objective of the decision. Why does this decision have to be made? Why did the problem spring up in the first place? Why do we have to find a solution?
4. WHERE? Where exactly is the problem? Is the whole company or a single subsidiary involved? Where does the main responsibility lie?
5. WHEN? This concerns time frames. Is this an old or new problem? When did the problem originate? By when must a solution be found? How much time do I have to gather the required information that will enable the decisions to be made?
6. How? How did the problem occur? How can we gather the necessary information? How easy is it to access the information? How can I find ways of finding a quick solution?
Having established the initial questions you have to answer, you need to have a strategy for making the maximum use of time available for research. These are tips to follow:
1. SET A TIME FRAME: Try to establish from the start how long you have to collate information. The way you schedule two days of research will be drastically different from month-long research. But beware too much time can lead to over analysis. Some information which is not relevant might distort your view of the problems, so limit the time spent on gathering information.
2. TIME STRATEGIES: With a very short period, you will be forced to be ruthless about the sources you use and rely more heavily on a couple of trusted people or documents. During a longer period, you’ll have the luxury of more time to decide which source best suits your research purposes.
3. ESTABLISH BOUNDARIES: Make sure you are fully aware of the constraints under which you are operating. If there is only a limited budget for a solution, for instance for the purchase of a new computer system, there is no point in spending days trawling through information on new software solutions that might help you solve the problem.
4. ESTABLISH WHO WILL DO THE WORK: The amount of money available for research will also help you decide if you undertake the research personally or whether you outsource it. Establish who is going to do what early, to avoid time-wasting.
5. DOUBLE-CHECK THE BRIEF: Understanding the objective of your inquiries is essential for coming up with the most relevant solutions. You also need to know if you are going to be required to write a report with your findings.
6. FIND OUT FEEDBACK RESOURCES: Will you be passing on the information you have gathered to other personnel to see? If so, should you focus on getting as much information as possible to allow more expert personnel to evaluate what is most relevant? Or will you be evaluating the data yourself? In this case, you will have less time to gather information, because much of your time will be involved in interpreting material.
7. CREATE A TEMPORARY LIBRARY: Build your own library of reports, books, press cuttings, and notes. Try and keep an orderly file as you go to avoid confusion when you come to the end of your gathering process and you can’t remember where you put that first set of notes. Don’t discard any source material.
8. NETWORK: Particularly when you are under time pressure, it’s worth calling around all your colleagues to check whether they’ve worked on similar problems in the past. They might be able to direct you to a couple of useful sources or to send you some relevant data. You should also, in theory, have quick access to key personnel in other departments, such as the finance department, and to company memos and reports.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION: There are four main sources of information available for decision making process in a corporate organization. Whether it is a private or public establishment, the fact remains that over the years they must have generated several information which will now form the basis of the research by the decision maker.
(A) COMPANY INFORMATION: This comprises of information and records generated since its inception down to the present day. Administrative and Financial records provide the needed information about the company.
Advantages: In most companies, accessing information from the company library should prove the easiest first port of call. You may equally interview some staff who are in the known. You can also, in theory, have quick access to key personnel in other departments, such as the finance department, and to company memos and reports.
Disadvantages: Many public and private organizations tend to keep every single report, and unless there’s a particularly efficient librarian, you may find yourself having to sift through a lot of irrelevant information before finding what you want. Your colleagues in the office or in a similar field can be an invaluable source of information if they have the time and inclination to help you. You have to rely on their goodwill. Finally, company reports can be biased and deliberately omit any negative information, particularly if they are intended for external use.
Advantages: A growing number of companies, large and small, use external financial and management consultants to offer the kind of objective and expert advice they can’t find internally.
Disadvantages: Consultancies have their own procedures to follow when they make audits or visits to companies, especially as they are themselves under increasing pressure to offer a valuable, objective service. You might not have the time that such procedures demand. You also have to be prepared to check up on the eventual conclusions made by consultants. Remember to question even the professional. Are their values the same as yours or you feel that they would provide better services?
(C) THE INTERNET: We are living in the era of Information Communication Technology (ICT); using the internet services will enable us to gather more information which ordinarily cannot be found in the library.
Advantages: The World Wide Web is an essential source of information, especially as it includes access (a lot of which is still free) to the archives of print publications that might otherwise take a long time to trace. The majority of companies now include information, such as company reports, on the web. Almost all companies and most individuals have direct access to the internet.
Disadvantages: Just because a lot of information is available doesn’t mean it can all be trusted. There is also the tendency to download too much information because it is swift and easy without checking whether the material is relevant. The researcher is then faced with reams of information on a computer that still has to be read and assessed at a later stage.
Advantages: Business colleagues working for competitors, analysts, and academic experts can often come up with valuable tips and pointers, especially at the initial stage of information-gathering.
Disadvantages: There’s a limit to how long you can rely on informal contacts, people are generally helpful when they are first contacted but time and work pressures mean they can be less willing to cooperate at a later stage.

1. CREATIVE IDEAS ARE SPONTANEOUS: This is untrue. While creativity involves using your imagination, you have to train your mind to generate new ideas, often by following systematic (i.e., non-spontaneous) tools. Creative ideas come with a flexibility of outlook and an ability to accept change and new ideas or information which are useful.
2. YOU’RE EITHER CREATIVE OR YOU’RE NOT: Some people may be more disposed to creativity, either because they’ve actively sought to use their imaginations or because they’ve been encouraged to. Contrary to what most people believe, creativity is an ability that can be developed over time.
3. YOU HAVE TO BE CRAZY TO BE CREATIVE: In fact, people in so-called creative professions have to spend most of their time perfecting techniques or following laborious and repetitive procedures. Don’t be fooled by creative people who appear “wacky”, crazy, or out of control.
4. YOU NEVER COME UP WITH ORIGINAL IDEAS: Following convention and learning approved wisdoms by repetition are drummed into us at school and even in the workplace. Many people think they can’t think of original ideas because they are out of practice. As is the case of the civil services, some just follow routines day in day out and only awaits directives.
5. CREATIVITY CAN’T BE TAUGHT: Formal education tends to encourage analytical thinking rather than creativity. We are taught at an early age to follow or create a logical argument, work out a “correct” answer, and eliminate any incorrect paths. However, this focus can undermine another kind of thinking, where we can explore ideas and toy with possibilities. Creativity can be developed using techniques that encourage people to let their mind run free or to complement a logical way of thinking with a different perspective.

The following is a list of steps aimed at developing your ability to make innovative decisions:
1. BE POSITIVE: Being overly enthusiastic about a new idea is often referred as “childlike” which is a negative way of looking at people who come up with bold, surprising ideas. It’s far safer to adopt a sceptical attitude to things. Negative people can’t be disappointed because they always fear the worst. Try to keep positive by remembering that sceptics are generally scared. If you’re stuck in a discussion with negative types, walk away.
2. BE OPEN: Corporations by nature are conservative and operate best when the majority of employees follow a set of rules that have been imposed from above and that remain unchallenged. Examine some of your company’s established ways of thinking with an open mind. Don’t censure new ideas immediately.
3. TRUST YOUR SUBCONSCIOUS: It’s often remarked that the best ideas come to us when we’re doing something else. That’s because our subconscious is often thinking over a problem long after we’ve left work. Trust your mind’s ability to come up with a solution, and write down the bright idea as soon as it appears.
4. SILENCE THE CRITIC: Children learn to mimic their elders early on, silencing new ideas and piling on the “Yes, but…” responses to apparently outlandish suggestions. Try to silence the critic, and allow novel ideas, however off the wall, to settle before you censure them. There is always time for rational questioning at a later stage. Remember to always write down your ideas. By implication do not say yes to everything; question the truthfulness of the information or actions.
5. TREASURE YOUR THOUGHTS: When you first have an idea, try to keep it to yourself as long as possible so you can really explore its implications on your own. As soon as you start referring to manuals, academic books, and other people’s opinions (a vital process later on), you stop encouraging other creative ideas to flourish. How many times have you been stopped in your tracks when an idea you thought was brilliant was immediately rubbished by a colleague?
6. SEEK ROLE MODELS: Observing other companies that have taken an unusual approach or launched an innovative product can be a way of motivating others to think out of the box. It also shows that ideas that may appear outlandish also reap rewards. Think of one company within your sector that has accomplished something unusual, and analyze it closely with colleagues. What was special about the campaign, strategy, or product?
7. ENCOURAGE IDEAS: There’s nothing more discouraging for employees who come up with new suggestions than to have their ideas brushed aside. Allowing people to express themselves, even when privately you think the ideas don’t stand up, is essential if you are going to develop creative thinking among your colleagues. If others make snide or sarcastic remarks about any suggestions, let them and others know you won’t tolerate mocking behaviour. Research experts in management have opined that an average human being that is educated, exposed or trained have enough potentials that can completely use up in their life time. Their creativity are ignited by the series of experiences they have had occasioned by the environment.

It is however unfortunate that many people are not utilizing their God-given thinking ability due to some factors as mentioned below: (Attitudes that blocks or hinders creativity.)
1. FEAR OF “PROBLEMS”: Most people tend to react negatively to “problems,” viewing them as events or circumstances that bring failure. As a result, problems are often brushed under the carpet until it is too late to react and an inappropriate response does, indeed, yield failure. Conversely, an exaggerated reaction may encourage swift action without proper thought. By ceasing to see problems as inherently negative, you can learn to turn unexpected challenges as an opportunity to improve things. Be responsive, put aside fears.
2. SOCIAL PRESSURE: A major obstacle to alternative thinking is the powerful pressure to conform and to be ordinary. Invariably, the most successful companies are those that have stuck their neck out and been the most innovative. The rest of the sectors then slavishly follow until a brave company once again takes a creative approach. Similarly within companies, the team members who are willing to stand out and face potential ridicule are often the ones who come up with new ways of thinking.
3. “CAN’T DO” ATTITUDE: It’s common for people to believe that they are helpless and that they don’t possess the knowledge, tools, or ability to succeed, so they might as well not try. Poor management structures encourage this kind of helplessness.
4. PREJUDICE: The longer people are in a company or a business sector, the greater the likelihood of garnering a set of preconceived ideas about what is acceptable and what is possible. These preconceptions inhibit people from accepting change and progress.



It gives me joy to have this opportunity of sharing administrative experiences with you. As top management in the Local Government system what is needed at this stage centers is the rejuvenating of knowledge, skill and understanding in the running of the Local Government system. Essentially, this paper will touch on the statutory provisions of the Local Government, functions, relationship with political class and career development. Before going into more details, let us look at the meaning of Local Government. Akindele (2000) sees Local Government as an “essential instrument of National or State Government for the performance of certain basic services which could best be administered locally on the intimate knowledge of the needs, conditions and peculiarities of the areas concerned”. Awa, Eme (1981) saw Local Government “as a political authority set up by a nation or state as a subordinate authority for the purpose of dispensing or decentralizing political power”.
In the Federal Government Guidelines for Local Government Reforms in Nigeria (1976). Local Government was defined as “Government at the local level exercised through representative councils established by law to exercise specific powers, within defined areas. These powers should give the council substantial control over Local affairs (including staffing) and institutional and to determine and implement projects so as to compliment the activities of the state and federal governments in their areas, and ensure through devolution of functions to these councils and through the active participation of the people and their traditional institutions, that local initiative response to local needs and conditions are maximized”. This has been the concept behind the existence of Local Government.
So far, the system has been appreciated because it has not been a total failure.
The objectives of having Local Government Administration are:
(i) Having the government nearer to the people thus, encouraging a sense of belonging among the local populace.
(ii) Effective and efficient delivery system, at the grass root.
(iii) A machinery to foster and establish rapid socio-economic development of the Communities concerned.
(iv) Promote effective and efficient communication link between the Federal Government and the people at the grass root.
(v) Provides the local populace with opportunities to participate in government activities.
(vi) It remains a great link between the State Government and the local people.
(vii) It facilitates in the maintenance of law and order.
(viii) Provide utility services and amenities to the local people.
THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK: Section 7(i) of the 1999 Constitution as amended provides for the existence of Local Government which is elected democratically. The provision grants the State Government powers to make law which provides for the establishment, structure, composition, finance and functions of such councils. Likewise, in the first schedule, part I of the Constitution, it has stated the names of the thirty one (31) Local Government Areas in Akwa Ibom State. The functions of the Local Government Council have been enumerated in the fourth schedule of the Constitution. Historically, the Local Government Administration started in 1951 in Ikot Ekpene. Thus, by 1976, it became a nationwide phenomenon which led to the inclusion in the 1979 constitution as a third tier level of government. Sections 7 and 8 of the constitution have empowered the State House of Assembly to make laws with regards to local government. Thus, the domestication by Akwa Ibom State House of Assembly in respect of section 7 of the 1999 constitution as amended by enacting a law to make provision for Local Government Administration (2000) has been an achievement. This can be found in Akwa Ibom State Laws, CAP 80. The principal laws have been amended several times to suit the desired needs and circumstances. However, in most cases, the amendments only have slight changes and are targeted on certain provisions affecting political office holders. CAP 80, Akwa Ibom State Laws, section 2, state that every Local Government Council is a body corporate with perpetual succession and a common seal and shall have power to sue and be sued in its corporate name and to own, hold and dispose of property whether movable or immovable. The provision of a legal person with separate entity is very important in the running of the Local Government Administration. It does not pay any top government official to be involved in any illegal transaction that can lead to a law suit. Section 5 – 27 concentrate on Local Government council such as composition, leadership, clerk of council, conduct of meetings, mode of exercising legislative power and functions and powers of council. Sections 28 – 39 deal on councilors, qualifications and disqualification, recall and declaration of assets and liabilities through Code of Conduct Bureau. As career public servants, it is your responsibility to guide and encourage these officers to complete assets declaration forms within the first three months in office. Sections 34 – 59 deal with the Local Government Executives which include the Chairman, the Vice Chairman, Supervisors, Secretary, Treasurer and Head of Personnel. Though the nomenclature of Head of Personnel has now been changed to Head of Service; the duties remain the same. The duties are stipulated in the approved scheme of service for Local Government employees in Nigeria (Fourth revised Edition, 2006) as given below;
(a) The accounting officer of the Local Government.
(b) Advising the Council on policy matters and implementing Council decisions.
(c) Administrative Management and control of staff of Local Governments.
(d) Co-ordination of activities of Heads of the Department of the Local Government.
(e) Liaising with the Local Government Service Commission and other Government Agencies on matters affecting the career progression, discipline, promotion, transfer, welfare and other matters affecting the Local Government Staff.
(f) Liaising with Local Government Service Commission in co-ordinating training activities for the Local Government Staff.
(g) Attending Council Meetings.
(h) Any other duties that may be assigned from time to time by the Council, Finance and General Purpose Committee (FGPC) and the Chairman.
However, before we end this sub section, it is necessary to note section 14 (4) of the 1999 constitution as amended which urges public officers including the Heads of Service on Local Government Council to recognize the diversity of the people within the area of authority and the need to promote a sense of belonging and loyalty among all the people of the state.
Another area of concern is the lack of production of byelaws. Section 19(i) of Akwa Ibom State Laws CAP 80 is on Bye-laws. As those working with the politicians, you have the responsibility of encouraging them on passing of bye laws by the council. Bye laws are local legislation affecting persons within the area of their operation and are enforceable by the courts through the imposition of a penalty. The constitution has given powers on this as domesticated by the law but it is very unfortunate that very few Local Governments have attempted to explore this provision so far.
In addition to the above legal framework highlighted, effort should be made to consider other regulatory provisions in the service manuals namely:
(a) Akwa Ibom State Public Service Rules – 2010
(b) Akwa Ibom State Financial regulations – 2003
The main functions of a local government council are as follows:
(a) The consideration and the making of recommendations to a State commission on economic planning or any similar body on
(i) the economic development of the state, particularly in so far as the areas of authority of the council and of the State are affected, and
(ii) proposal made by the said commission or body;
(b) Collection of rates, radio and television licenses;
(c) Establishment and maintenance of cemeteries, burial ground and homes for the destitute or infirm;
(d) Licensing of bicycles, trucks (other than mechanically propelled trucks), canoes, wheel barrows and carts;
(e) Establishment, maintenance and regulation of slaughter slabs, markets, motor parks and public conveniences;
(f) construction and maintenance of roads, streets, street lightings, drains and other public highways, parks, gardens, open spaces, or such public facilities as may be prescribed from time to time by the House of Assembly of a State;
(g) Naming of roads and streets and numbering of houses;
(h) Provision and maintenance of public conveniences, sewage and refuse disposal;
(i) Registration of all births, deaths and marriages;
(j) assessment of privately owned houses or tenements for the purpose of levying such rates as may be prescribed by the Houses of Assembly of a State; and
(k) Control and regulation of-
(i) Out-door advertising and hoarding.
(ii) Movement and keeping of pets of all description.
(iii) Shops and kiosks,
(iv) Restaurants, bakeries and other places for sale of food to the public,
(v) Laundries, and
(vi) Licensing, regulation and control of the sale of liquor.
The functions of a local government council shall include participation of such council in the Government of a State in respect of the following matters;
(a) The provision and maintenance of primary, adult and vocational education;
(b) The development of agriculture and natural resources, other than the exploitation of minerals;
(c) The provision and maintenance of health services; and
(d) Such functions as may be conferred on a local government council by the House of Assembly of the State.
In the Local Government, there are two classes of officers available to work in cooperation and harmony for the achievement of the set objectives. These are the political officers who are elected officers through democratic election process and the public officers who are appointed by the Local Government Service Commission. Thus, while political officers are elected into government to determine and ascertain who gets what, when and how they become the link between the people and the government in power and their goal or stake is to meet the demands of those that elected them into office. On the other hand, the public servants are career employees that will assist the leadership roles of the politicians. The two groups are to work together in order to deliver the required services. This calls for organization and co-ordination. They have to cooperate, share experiences, respect one another, be loyal and law abiding. Care must be taken such that the two classes of officers do not develop unhealthy, suspicious hide and seek, misunderstanding, greed and self centred approaches. For our purpose, we advocate esprit de corps for effective leadership and corporate existence of the Local Government. To create harmonious and productive relationship, the following measures have to be considered.
(a) Application of teamwork approach towards accomplishment of the objective.
(b) Observance of rules and regulations.
(c) Effective Leadership and control.
(d) Ensuring equity, fairness and justice.
(e) Encouraging emerging ideas and innovations.
(f) Building up of confidence within the political class and the public servants.
(g) Enforcing disciplines and sanctions.
(h) Provision of motivation and incentives.
(i) Delegation of responsibilities.
(j) Mutual trust and respect for one another.
The unique corporate existence of the Local Government Administration as a creation of law carries along with it the attribute of perpetual succession. Any organization with this nature has inherent opportunities for progression, training and job security.
Firstly, the approved structure of the Local Government Administration has six Directorates as follows;
(a) Directorate of Administration
(b) Directorate of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(c) Directorate of Finance
(d) Directorate of Primary Health Care
(e) Directorate of Social Development, Education, Information, Sports and Culture
(f) Directorate of Works, Transport, Housing, Lands and Survey: The interesting provision in the scheme of service, if strictly followed, gives opportunity to every eligible Director to be appointed Head of Service based on vacancy. In accordance with the method of entry, the scheme provides that “The post is open to all staff of a Local Government on grade level 16. Appointment of Head of Local Government Administration should strictly be based on merit, seniority, competence and experience”.
The organizational structure shown below, gives a clearer situation.



Secondly, developing a career in the Local Government Administration requires that every worker with positive ambition must equip himself with the requisite qualification. For instance, for an employee to enter the Administrative Officer’s cadre, such an employee must possess the relevant University degree. Such an employee will enjoy at most seven promotions before progressing from Administrative Officer II, through other positions to the position of a Director.

Thirdly, for an employee to enjoy his career in the Unified Local Government System, such an employee must be diligent, hardworking, committed, loyal, obedient, respectful and courageous. These qualities are necessary in order to qualify for any training programme. In addition to this, on-the-job training programme is available to staff with potentials of learning to acquire knowledge, skills and understanding for his job.

We have enumerated and explained various legal provisions available for the existence and running of the Unified Local Government service. Effort has been made to only provide highlights in respect of public servants matters and not the political office holders. The approved progression in the Local Government system was also mentioned for career development. This has only given an insight though there are various cadres in the Service and anyone who desires to make a promising career in the Local Government Service cannot regret such decision in the long run.


INTRODUCTION: Knowing the potential impact of information systems and having the ability to put this knowledge to work can result in a successful personal career By extension, impact on the organization, and the society at large
Basic Career Development Concepts
Career — a sequence of jobs that constitute what a person does for a living
Career path — a sequence of jobs held over time during a career
Career planning — the process of systematically matching career goals and individual capabilities with opportunities for their fulfillment
Career plateau — a position from which someone is unlikely to move to a higher level of work responsibility.
What Constitute Career Planning (CP)?
o Identify individual goals; Assess personal characteristics; Determine how and if goals can be reached by: – Obtaining more information about goal – Compare personal resources and career requirements; Take steps towards goal: – Mentors and other interpersonal relationships -Personal development activities; Periodically reassess goals and progress toward goals; CP seeks to meet the following objectives: – the proper use of Human Resources to achieve greater productivity – Improve employee morale and motivation – Meet the current and future human resource needs of the organization – Attract and retain talent

The Process of Career Planning
 Identify individual needs and aspirations
 Analyze career opportunities
 Align employee needs with available career opportunities
 Develop action plans
 Carry out periodic review

Indices for Personal Career Planning Competencies
 Acquiring the skills to investigate the world of work in relation to knowledge of self and to make informed career decisions.
 Employing self strategies to achieve future career goals with satisfaction and take necessary action.
 Acquiring the attitudes, skills and knowledge (ASK) that contribute to effective understanding of the relationship to the world of work, and to life at home and in the community.
 Understanding the relationship between personal qualities, education, training, and the world of work.
Career Management (CM)
Career Management is the process through which employees:
Become aware of their own interests, values, strengths, and weaknesses
Obtain information about opportunities within the organization
Identify career goals
Establish action plans to achieve career goals via effective self information management

Information System in Organizations
Information System (IS): – It is an indispensable tools for individual and organizational career goals achievement -A set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, and disseminate data and information and provide feedback to meet an objective – Often information is confused with the term data: Data, Information, Process and Knowledge
Data – Raw facts
Information – Collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves.
Process – Set of logically related tasks.
Knowledge – Awareness and understanding of a set of information.

The Value of Information
• Directly linked to how it helps decision makers achieve their organization’s goals
• Can help people and their organizations perform tasks more efficiently and effectively.
Elements of Information System (IS)?
Information system (IS) is a set of interrelated elements that: – Collect (input) – Manipulate (process) – Store – Disseminate (output) data and information- Provide a corrective reaction (feedback mechanism) to meet an objective.

Input, Processing, Output, Feedback
Input – Activity of gathering and capturing raw data
Processing – Converting data into useful outputs
Output – Production of useful information, usually in the form of documents and reports
Feedback – Information from the system that is used to make changes to input or processing activities

Computer-Based Information Systems/Instruments
 Technological infrastructure includes: – hardware, – software, – databases, – telecommunications, – people, and – procedures.
 They are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information.

• Hardware – Consists of computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities.
• Software – Consists of the computer programs that govern the operation of the computer.
• Database – Organized collection of facts and information, typically consisting of two or more related data files.
Telecommunications, networks, and the Internet: -The electronic transmission of signals for communications – Net works connect computers and equipment to enable electronic communication Internet is the world’s largest computer network, consisting of thousands of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information
Intranet – Internal network that allows people within an organization to exchange information and work on projects
Extranet – Network that allows selected outsiders, such as business partners and customers, to access authorized resources of a company’s intranet
People – The most important element in most computer-based information systems
Procedures – Include strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using the CBIS

Information and Decision Support Systems
Management information system (MIS): – Organized people, collection, collation, procedures, software, databases, and devices that provides routine information to managers and decision makers
In other words, these are Transaction Processing System (TPS)

Roles, Functions, and Careers in IS
 Primary responsibilities in information systems:
Operations – System operators primarily run and maintain IS equipments
Systems development – Focuses on specific development projects and ongoing
maintenance and review
Support – Provides user assistance in hardware and software acquisition and use,
data administration, user training and assistance, and Web
Information service units – A miniature IS department attached and directly
reporting to a functional area in a large organization
Typical IS Titles and Functions
Chief information officer (CIO): – Employs the IS department’s equipment and personnel to help the organization attain its goals
Internet careers: – Internet strategists and administrators -Internet systems developers- Internet programmers -Internet or Web site operators
 Certification: – Process for testing skills and knowledge resulting in an endorsement by the certifying authority
 New and exciting careers have developed in security and fraud detection and prevention in IS

“Thinking Well is to be Wise, Planning Well, Wiser, Doing Well, Wisest and Best of All”. – Malcolm Forbes; “The Great end of Life is not Knowledge but Action”. – H.T. Huxley

This paper has been simplified through presentation of few early theories, concept of administration and management functions and principles of management in relation to duties of Heads of Service of the Local Governments. In addition, this paper will also differentiate the two terms of Administration and Management. The two terms have been used interchangeably in the field of social sciences to the extent that people do believe they have the same meaning. At the end, the two terms shall be seen and identified separately since they are completely different in concepts.
We will therefore, begin by refreshing our minds on the early management theories.
MANAGEMENT THEORIES: There had been several schools of thought surrounding Management and its applications. The few outstanding ones will be considered in this paper.
(i) Scientific Management Theory: In the early 20th century, Frederick Taylor and his Associates started the Scientific Management Movement. To Taylor, just as to Karl Marx, man at work was largely an economic man. Thus, the man, as a worker would work harder only if he could improve his economic position by doing so. This was arrived at through various empirical and scientific studies. It was evident that something found in the nature of man-made Frederick Taylor believed that more financial incentives would bring about more output.
(ii) Human relations Theory: This was brought about by Elton Mayo and the Human Relations School. Mayo’s eventual conclusion covering employee relations and administration in general was that, what he called the “rabble hypothesis” must be abandoned. This hypothesis is that workers in a plant or in any other organization are a disorganized rabble of individuals, each of whom is acting in his own self interest as logically as he is able. Good administration therefore, is achieved by showing each individual that his self interest is best served when he behaves as Management wishes him to. Mayo wanted spontaneous cooperation amongst workers. His aim was rather to provide “a sense of belonging” in the work group that would enable it to adapt itself to the changes as they occurred. But if unanimity prevails throughout the organization and not just at the lower levels, the workers might not have many changes to adapt to. Mayo’s conclusion had placed emphasis on management thinking about productivity and morale. Thus, less importance on financial incentives but bringing workers into a homogenous group that provided a “sense of belonging”.
(iii) Henri Fayol’s ideas and the Science of Administration:
Henri Fayol’s ideas on administration made wide influence from 1888. He was an advocate of contingency management, for he stressed repeatedly that “principles” he laid down were not to be considered hard-and-fast rules, instead, he said, they were to be used only as appropriate under the prevailing circumstances. Fayol dealt with Management as a function, entirely separate from the various specialties. Fayol believed that at higher and higher levels, a leader depends less and less on technical knowledge of what he is managing and more and more on knowledge of administration, technical knowledge and familiarity with the work of the organization he is managing. His principles of Management will be discussed later in this paper.
(iv) Abraham Maslow Theory of Needs:
He suggested that there is a hierarchy of human needs and that once a lower need is fairly well satisfied, a man can be motivated only by a desire to satisfy the next higher need.

Esteem needs
Social need
Safety needs
Physiological needs

Physiological Needs – most important need for survival, which include food, water, sex, rest. Etc.
Safety Needs – protection from danger, threat, and deprivation.
Social Need – associate, belong, be accepted by others, love, affection, etc.
Esteem Need – the need for self respect, self-esteem the respect of one’s fellow status.
Self-Actualization – self fulfillment through the development of powers and skills and a chance to use creativity.
Others like Douglas McGregor on Theory “X” and Theory “Y”. The theory “X” is dislike for work unless coerced, while Theory “Y” implies that work may be a source of satisfaction or punishment. And Herzberg’s Theory. He introduced the “hygiene factors” as a motivator.
Administration: is a subset or part of management. It may be seen as an exercise of carrying out of procedures as laid-down for the achieving of organizational goals. It can be viewed as a process of achieving the aims and objectives of an organization. Administration is the neck of any establishment. In the Public Service we have Administration Directorate or Department or Section and in all Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs). It is the anchor point of ensuring that the guidelines, rules and regulations are packaged and followed. It ensures that information, communication, messages, correspondence and letters are generated, transmitted and stored in the organization. It is the major outlet for connecting with both insiders and outsiders in the interest of the Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs).
For instance, Administration of a Ministry or Agency must have an office. It is in that office, in most cases, records are centralized except in professional setting where certain records may be decentralized. It is also in such centralized office that, a registry or registries may be found. This is where mails or correspondence are issued, dispatched, received and stored. Administration has a key role in carrying out the functions and duties of the organization in accordance with the guidelines. Administration is a cooperative human action with a high degree of rationality. It is an accompaniment of human resource, task, regulations and set targets. In conclusion, Administration is found in all disciplines such as Public Administration, Business Administration, Company Administration, Sports Administration, Health Administration, Justice Administration, etc. In all these and more, the guiding principles are the various regulations, processes and practices involve in each of the discipline.
Management: In consideration of the term, management, there is a dire need to elucidate the differences before going into what is management? Ideally, administration is a subset or part of management. The former is more or less routine matters of an organization while the latter is always on policy issues. Management has a holistic view of the organization and a larger spectrum than administration as the latter is a branch of the former. For instance, take a look of a particular Ministry, while there is management headed by the Commissioner and consisting of the Permanent Secretary, the Directors of functional departments and the director of administration. Management has broader meaning and wider application.
Management is the process of utilizing scarce or available resources to accomplish a set objective of the organization. Management has to do with harnessing the resources such as capital, land, entrepreneur and labour. It is the machinery for formulation of policies, decision making and judgment in determining plans and accomplishing results. In the public service, where there are MDAs, every organization must put its management in place comprising, the political head, the accounting officer, the staff functional areas such as administration, finance, planning, research and statistics and the line functional area such as the ministry’s professional areas.
Generally, practitioners perceive that management is an art as well as a science. Being a process of “getting things done through the efforts of others”, it requires basic knowledge of arts especially psychology and philosophy on one hand, while as science with reference to scientific approach of seeking knowledge and understanding of human behavior to get the desired result. The conceptualization of management as both arts and science has led to the formulation of management functions, principles and theories.
THE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS: One useful breakdown of the management job is as suggested by Luther Gulick back in 1930s. Gulick coined the word POSDCORB from the initial letters of these seven functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. However, only coordinating that has two first letters merely to make the word pronounceable. Today’s practitioners of management heavily rely on the following functions namely: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Direction, Control, Representation and Innovation.
Planning: This is the duty of setting short and long-range goals for the MDAs. It is the duty and responsibility of the Chief Executive Officers, Accounting Officers and Directors of MDAs planning and forecasting involves deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who does it. More importantly, it involves ascertaining of available resources such as people, money, equipment; and so on. Planning involves setting the objective(s), selection of goals, analyzing the strength of the organization (resources) and deciding on goals achievement.
Organizing: The work of organizing involves the grouping of activities needed to achieve the overall objective. In organizing, the officer decides what jobs will have to be filled and the duties and responsibilities attached to each one since the work of every organization is interrelated. Thus, the putting of an organizational structure or organ gram in place will ensure clear and simple direction to all employees in carrying out their duties. Embedded in the organizing function is the coordination function because of the interwovened and interrelated duties. Organizing spells out clear line of authority, span of control, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, order and communication.
Staffing: In staffing, the management should ensure that attempts are made to find the right person for each job. Positions in the Public Service, has to be filled up and occupied by suitable persons. Staffing cannot be done once and for all, since people are continually leaving, getting fired, retiring and dying. It is advisable to note that staffing goes with motivation and incentives. When staffs are properly motivated, the productivity is enhanced and effectiveness and efficiency are accomplished.
Directing: Directing is the act of exercising what the leader knows, and what he wants the employees to do and how they should act if the MDA is to reach its goals. In directing, you cannot give what you do not have. Thus, direction includes not only telling people what to do but;
• Ensuring that they know what is expected of them in every situation;
• Helping them to improve their skills;
Control: Control is an activity that keeps the organization in check based on the resources. In controlling the officer determines what progress that been made toward the goals, the procedures have to be put in place and changes given recognition. Controlling requires setting standard of performance, setting target to achieve and ensuring that there is no derailment.
Representation: This is a two way function. It involves representing and reporting. This is very common at the highest level of Public Service management. In this function, it involves delegation of duties, the upward and downward flow of responsibilities. It is an act of standing for the organization. The Chief Executive Officer, the Accounting Officer or Director or a suitable officer from time to time has to represent his organization in dealing with a number of outside groups such as government agencies, unions, civic groups, general public, etc.
Innovation: An officer at the highest level of echelon must be creative rather than an adaptive task. It does not follow that the Public Service bureaucracy can hinder innovation. Essentially, it consists of developing new and better ways of doing things. This is necessary as the society is not static; likewise, MDAs are not static. The dynamic nature of life has direct impact on management therefore necessitating desire for innovation.
PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT: Henri Fayol (1841-1925) who was called the father of Modern Management Theory formulated the following principles;
Authority and Responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders and decide what should be done. Responsibility is an obligation of an individual to perform the function assigned to him with a view of achieving set goal. Those who have authority to issue orders should be willing to accept responsibility for the consequences. Generally speaking, authority should be equal to responsibility.
Division of Labour: This implies carrying out duties in an area based on expert skills and knowledge. This entails specialization and professionalism and it promotes efficiency.
Discipline: This is the giving of recognition or giving of respect for orders, decisions, rules and regulations culminating in obedience.
Unity of Command: In any action or situation whatsoever, an employee should receive orders from one superior only. This, an employee should report to only one superior.
Unity of direction: This means there should be one head and one plan for a group of activities having the same objective.
Scalar chain of command: Originally, scalar chain of command depicted the triangular lines of command where communication moves from top to down part and vice-versa. This does not allow communication at the base of the triangle. However, Fayol suggested, gang plank, that is the flow of information at the base between two employees without such communication moving to the top before getting down on the other side of triangle. As this will serve time, resources and ensure effectiveness.
Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interest of one employee or group of employees should not prevail over that of the service. That is, one’s interest should not be placed above the overall goals of the organization.
Remuneration: Compensation should be fair and satisfactory to both the employees and the organization.
Centralization: This implies that directive to accomplish the goal should generate from the centre. This is described by fayol as the natural order. Thus, order from the centre should be sent to all parts of the organization to work as a team.
Order: By order, Fayol meant a place for everything and everything in its place, a place for everyone and everyone in his place and the right man in the right place.
Equity: In this principle, every organization is expected to temper justice with kindness.
Stability of tenure of personnel: All employees need time to learn their jobs, a competent employee deserves promotion and security in service.
Initiative: Every employee has the right to contribute ideas.
Espirit de corps: This requires cohesiveness, cooperation and understanding amongst employees.
CONCLUSION: The paper has reminded us of few management theories reflecting how employees should be managed. Thus, the combination of the management functions and principles will give us a road map to a successful working career.

Successful business, regardless of size and location encourage not only their managers but others as well, to master the art of delegation. Historically, delegation has been a vertical process with managers delegating to subordinates in a clearly defined hierarchical structure. Today’s successful businesses are emphasizing both horizontal and vertical delegation. With the growing emphasis on team work, the ability to delegate to others over whom you have no direct control is critical to team success. The inability to delegate frequently has led to the failure of many leaders. Managers could greatly reduce their stress by practicing a critical management skill – delegation.
What is Delegation? Assigning responsibility to another person to carry out specific activity, usually from a manager to subordinate. However the person who delegated the work remains accountable for the outcome of the delegated work.
Delegation of Authority
 A manager cannot effectively perform all the tasks assigned to him.
 In order to meet the targets, the manager should delegate authority.
 Delegation of Authority means division of authority and powers downwards to the subordinate.
 Delegation of authority can be defined as subdivision and sub-allocation of powers to the subordinates in order to achieve effective results.
Elements of Delegation
Delegation involves three key concepts: – Responsibility, – Authority, and- Accountability. When you delegate, you share responsibility and authority with others and you hold them accountable for their performance. The ultimate accountability, however, still lies with the manager
Responsibility refers to the task itself and the intended results. It is the duty of the subordinate to complete the task assigned to him. Responsibility must be clearly stated and effectively communicated.
Authority is the legal power and right of a person to use and allocate resources, to take decisions and to give orders so as to achieve the organizational objectives. It is very important to explicitly communicate boundaries and criteria.
Accountability Means giving explanation for any variance in the actual performance from the set expectation. It refers to individual answering for action or inaction on a bestowed task. The subordinate must be accountable to the delegator and not to any other person.
Rules for Effective Delegation
 “SMARTER” acronym, delegated task must be:
 Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-bound, Ethical and Review.
Types of Delegation
Delegating for result: Delegating for result works best when an employee knows which results are required; and having the ability to determine what the assignment should look like, how to handle it and with the skills necessary to accomplish the task.
Delegating for employee development: It is used when manager assigns a task to an employee who might not be suited for the job but who is nonetheless up to the challenge. The employee gains valuable experience and knowledge for the future, providing opportunity to grow in the system. When delegating for development, the manager is ultimately responsible for the outcome.
How to Delegate: Select what to delegate: Pick a task or new responsibility that perhaps is less challenging to you but will stretch and develop the employee(s) in question – Stipulate the goal – the result you are expecting and how it will be measured.
Decide on the level of authority to give: – Clarify which decision they can make totally on their own; – Must ask you first for approval; – Will be making jointly with you; or -Must have you make for them. Clearly communicate what you are delegating: – cover what is to be done by who, when, why (the background and reasons) – allowable resources – explicit limits on authority for decision making and – the benefits of carrying out responsibility.
What to Delegate
 All routine or even sporadic duties (filing, counting, sorting, routine reports and etc.)
 Making minor decision
 Minor staffing problem such as scheduling
 Jobs that can develop the employee in other areas for potential promotion.
What not to Delegate
 An emergency or short-term task where there is no time to explain or train employees.
 Morale problems.
 Assignment from your boss that expects you to personally perform.
 A job no one else in the department is qualified to do.
 Personnel issues such as hiring, firing or disciplinary matters.
Skills for Delegation
 Rapport – Listening – Questioning – Planning – Feedback – Empowerment – Empathy.
Barriers to Effective Delegation
 Employees resist responsibility
 It is easier and quicker to do things myself
 Employees lack experience and competence
 If you want it done right, you better do it yourself
 Employees won’t like me if I overworked them
 My people are already overworked. I can’t overload them again
 Fear of criticism
 What if the other person messes up the task, I am still accountable.
 If someone else can do my job, maybe I won’t be needed anymore.
 I am supposed to have full control over everything.
Benefits of Delegation
 The Manager: Makes the job easier – Creates quality time for more task – Permits succession through the grooming of subordinates – Results in better decision-making and Allows for the performance of more challenging jobs.
The Employee: Provides professional growth opportunities – Improves attitudes and morale – Leads to higher level of motivation – Brings about personal job satisfaction – Enhances employee’s value to the organization and Gives opportunity to be part of decision making which leads to more commitment.
The Organization: Enhances productivity and efficiency – Assist in training and development of personnel – Facilitates decentralization and diversification -creases management flexibility – Reduces cost.

One tool that is in constant need in the conduct of official functions, duties and responsibilities in an organization is communication. In fact, it is a life wire in the performance of administrative role in the Unified Local Government. Consequently, the challenge of this discourse is to ascertain to what extent communication enhances effective Administration and equally examine what implication or impact communication is used in daily official assignments. Communication is a process of sending and receiving a message or information from one person to another or from an organization to another or even within the organization. Communication can be defined as the process by which information is transmitted between individuals or organizations by means of commonly accepted symbols in order to elicit a particular response or understanding. The symbols used can be verbal or non-verbal. Communication should have an aim; perhaps the promotion of understanding or the encouragement of appropriate attitudes. The pattern of communication within an organization can be vertical, horizontal or mixed and may differ from communication with the external environment. A communication model consists of a transmitter, receiver, message and feedback. Effective communication is preplanned, well constructed with introduction, body and conclusion, semantically clear and unambiguous and appropriate to both recipient and context.

A Communication Model
.1 Heads of Service (HOS) in the Unified Local Government system are Administrators who direct people, manage financial and material resources, propose policies and programmes and implement them.
2 Heads of Service should device the vision or goal to be accomplished and plan the activities necessary for that Local Government Administration to actualize the goals.
3 Heads of Service should inform the team members, clarify activities in the plans, educate persons with assigned duties or delegated powers. This will involve creating or formulating policies, report matters or present briefs on specific matters.
4 The Heads of Service and other Administrators should apply the communication tool which is anything used by a person to perform non manual work or being made use of by another to achieve a set result.
5 The Heads of Service should first employ a type of intrapersonal communication when thinking on the vision of the Local Government Area. This communication at this stage is exercised at the realm of thought. That moment of reasoning out of the vision is an activity in communication by the Head of Service with himself.
6 The next stage expected of the Heads of Service is the written communication. Habakkuk 2:2 says “write the vision and make it clear….” In order to spell out the activities by which the vision would be achieved, the HOS or Directors must write out the concept and guidelines to communicate its working to team members, fellow directors of the Local Government and the line officials to be engaged in the implementation. Memoranda, letters, notices, press releases, minutes of meetings, reports of progress and suggestions for further actions are all carried out by way of written communication.
7 When the Head of Service engages in a conversation with his staff on the direction of work, handling of resources, discipline, etc, he is engaged in the type of communication known as Oral communication. Meetings at management and general staff levels, occasions at which speeches are made and delivered to articulate the programmes at hand and policies of the Local Government are all in this realm.
8 When the Head of Service is asked to represent his Chairman or his Political Head at a public function or event, he would be expected to convey the ideas, facts, feelings, issues and policy thrust of the administration to reflect the position of the Local Government at the event, it is worthy to note that this is called Public Communication. Such Head of Service on representative capacity should identify and disassociate from political issues and associate himself with more of service matters and policies in the interest of the Local Government Administration.
9 It is necessary at this point to note that speech is a form of effective communication. Speech is verbal or oral communication. It passes through intrapersonal, interpersonal and written communication before it becomes product for verbal communication. Speech is a performance art, it is a communication art and involves paper text, language competency and knowledge of body language and its application in speech delivery. It demands self-confidence and knowledge among imperatives, you may wish to note that a speech is a window into the quality of the official and the standard of the organization the official represents.
Techniques in Communication: It is necessary to give you an insight to the basic techniques of clear writing before enumerating various forms of official communication.
The basic techniques are:
(i) Think clearly – with clarity and impressive opening. It is a good idea to think first and write afterwards.
(ii) Assemble facts – while thinking of the problem, jot down the main points with suitable references.
(iii) Arrange points in logical sequence.
(iv) Committing views to paper.
Drafting: A draft is a proposed reply, circular or other documents. Put up by an Officer to a higher authority. Where an item of correspondence is of a routine nature and calls for a routine reply, a letter ready for signature should be put up to the senior officer for signature. A good draft has the following features; (a) Clarity of thought and expression – exactly, simple, direct and avoid repetitions. (b) Accuracy – verify facts. (c) Grammar – special care is necessary in the use of parts of speech. (d) Courtesy – using courteous terms.
Minuting: A minute may be defined as a communication in writing, usually in files between two or more officials. Minutes are normally used to consider and settle matters or to direct what action may be taken in a given circumstance.
Letters/Correspondence: Letters create an image of the sender in the mind of the recipient. This image should be made as favourable as possible by the sender. A letter should thus be neat and headed to indicate its contents. The reasons for the letter should be borne in mind while it is being written. The letter should be simple, clear, relevant and courteous, plain English should be used at all times. In some cases, the tact of the diplomat may be required while at all times errors of syntax, spelling and punctuations must be avoided. Letters to other Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDA) are always addressed to the Head of such MDA even though most of them will be dealt with by lower officials. In official communication, a situation where a junior schedule officer has to send a letter to higher ranking officer in another MDA should be avoided. Accordingly, even when a schedule officer is directed to issue a letter, it does not necessarily mean that he should also sign and send out the letter. It is left to his discretion as to whether he should do so or whether he should merely prepare the letter on behalf of a more senior officer to whom it should be sent for signature. If he is in any doubt, he should seek advice from his immediate superior officer. Official letters to non-Government bodies are slightly more formal. They open with “Dear Sir” and close with “Yours faithfully” or (when the addressee is personally known to the writer) open with “Dear Mr…” and end with “Yours sincerely”.
Endorsement: When letters are received and they contain information which should be conveyed to other MDAs. It saves time and labour to have them copied and forwarded by merely endorsing the copies. It is essential that endorsement should bear the reference number of the file containing the original letters and that they include reasons why copies of the letters were endorsed. The original letter itself should then be marked to show whom copies have been sent, and if the reasons are not obvious, these should also be recorded.

Minutes of Meeting: This reflects records of accurate proceedings at a meeting which may be at Commission/Board, Management, Departmental, etc. levels. Usually every meeting must have a Chairman and the functional schedule officer may be required to act as Secretary of a meeting or Committee and to produce the minutes of such a meeting. Prior to the meeting, a notice has to be issued which may or may not be accompanied with an Agenda. The Agenda are a list of the separate items which will be discussed at a meeting. In preparing the minutes, the format should include; the title, venue, attendance, chairman’s opening, commencement time, reading of previous minutes, adoption of the minutes, matters arising, any other business, adjournment and closing.
Memorandum: This is a means of articulating issues in a specialized form to enhance policy formulation and implementation. It is commonly used at different levels of MDAs but the most outstanding one is the Executive Council memorandum which has the following format;
(i) Title (Memorandum submitted by….).
(ii) Preamble / Introduction (where necessary).
(iii) Background.
(iv) Consideration.
(v) Observations/Analysis.
(vi) Prayer/Decision sought.
(vii) Initialed by Commissioner/Special Adviser.
Reports: It is an analysis of a particular activity of interest. Reports can be classified in various ways; by content, as oral or written, special or routine, letter form of schematic presentation, internal or external, etc. The structure of a report is important. Reports often begin with a statement of the terms of reference followed by procedure, findings, conclusions and where required, recommendations. The reports should contain the names of those commissioning it and receiving. The names of the compilers, presentation date and a period of time to which it relates where possible, the findings, conclusions and recommendations should be presented briefly in summary form. References can be made to appendices containing more detailed information.
Briefs: A brief is a summary of a subject prepared for a superior authority. Every good brief should be self-contained. A brief should be concise and constructive. It should try to advance the solution of an outstanding problem.
A good brief should have these essential features;
(i) A good heading which gives an idea of the content.
(ii) An introduction / background of the subject.
(iii) A clear analysis of the points at issue.
(iv) A specific recommendation or suggestion and if more than one, they should be put in order of importance.
File Note: File Notes are simple form of making a quick written record of something that has happened and are often invaluable. The main points of the discussion should be summed up in a few words and recorded on the last page of the file or can be written on a loose sheet and sent to the Registry for P.A. or B.U. on the relevant file. Such notes should always be initialed and dated.

Handing Over Note
Handing over Notes may include the following;
(a) Details regarding content of the schedule of duties of the post.
(b) Useful references to aid the officer taking over
(c) Unfinished matters e.g. new policy issues
(d) Important replies to letters, inquiries, etc, expected
(e) Files marked B. U.,
(f) Dates of impending meeting, if any.
(g) Matters being KIV
(h) Suggesting peculiar problem relating to the schedule.
(i) Documents concerning inventory
(j) The Notes should be in triplicates reflecting names of persons taking over and handing over with dates.
Circulars/Posters/Bulletins: These are issued in conveying important information or directive from and to MDAs.
In communication, there may be some difficulties and problems often culminating in distortions and misunderstandings in the transmitting of information or messages either from higher to the lower echelon or from down to up echelon. These may apply to both oral and written forms of communication. These barriers may include:
(i) Poor medium, for instance false information or rumours being allowed to thrive.
(ii) Lack of clarity while communicating between the sender and receiver.
(iii) Nature and size of organization coupled with poor organogram.
In order to remove those barriers, the following should be considered.
(i) Clarification of ideas before communication.
(ii) Re-examination of organizational objectives and goals.
(iii) Restructuring of the organization.
(iv) Consideration of differences in background, educational qualification, etc.
(v) Cultivation of listening habit during discussion process.
(vi) Devising follow-up mechanism to ensure feedback.
(vii) Ascertaining the needs/interest of other parties to the communication process.
CONCLUSION: The essence of communication cannot be over emphasized. The topic has given the meaning of communication, the need, forms of official communication, barriers and guidelines of overcoming the barriers. It is advisable that this summarized version of the topic be put into practice and the result certainly will be overwhelming and rewarding.
INTRODUCTION: A career develops over time. The success of one’s career depends, most often, on one’s own careful planning and timely steps taken at a right time. The important element in one’s career is experiencing psychological success.
What is a Career? -“A sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime” “A sense of where one is going in one’s work life” Who is responsible for your career? Traditionally, the employer Now, YOU

Holland’s Model of Occupational Personality Types
Realistic: – Prefers to work alone- Values predictability, order – Work with hands – Craft/trades, engineer, military.
Investigative: – Interested in ideas, not people; abstract thinker – Creative (external focus) – Tends to be cold, distant – Scientist, physician.
Artistic: – Work with ideas and materials to express self – Creative (internal focus) -Single minded.
Social – Work with and through others – Provide nurturance and support – Not abstract thinkers – Helping professions.
Enterprising: – Control, dominate people – Interpersonally distant – Prefers well-defined, clear goals – Management.
Conventional – Focus on details (verbal, numeric), not people – Looks for structured setting- Clerical, accounting.
Career Management (CM)
 CM is the process through which employees:
 Become aware of their own interests, values, strengths, and weaknesses
 Obtain information about opportunities within the organization
 Identify career goals
 Establish action plans to achieve career goals
 From the organization’s perspective, failure to motivate employees to plan their careers can result in:
 a shortage of employees to fill open positions
 lower employee commitment
 inappropriate use of money allocated for training and development programs
 From the employees’ perspective, lack of career management can result to:
 frustration
 feelings of not being valued by the organization
 being unable to find suitable employment should a job change be necessary due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring, or downsizing
Employee’s Career-Related Myth
There is always room for one more person at the top. Contradicts the fact that structures of the overwhelming majority of today’s organizations have fewer positions available as one progresses up the organization. The key to success is being in the right place at the right time. A person, through careful design, can affect rather than merely accept the future
All good things come to those who work harder and longer hours
Results of spending 10 to 12 hours a day trying to impress managers and move rapidly in the organization often have little relationship to the individual’s long-range career growth
Career development and planning are functions of HR personnel however: Ultimate responsibility for career development and planning primarily belongs to the individual
Rapid advancement along a career path is largely a function of the kind of manager one has Provides a ready-made excuse for failure – Easy and convenient to blame failures on one’s manager

The way to get ahead is to determine your weaknesses and then work hard to correct them. The secret is to first capitalize on one’s strengths and then try to improve deficiencies in other areas.
Always do your best, regardless of the task. Those tasks and jobs that rank high in importance in achieving one’s career goals should receive the individual’s best effort.
It is wise to keep home life and work life separate. Spouses must understand basic factors that weigh in any career decisions.
9. The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. Regardless of the career path the individual follows, another one always seems a little more attractive but passion keeps you focused on your area of strength

Careers and Career Planning
Career – The series of work-related positions a person occupies through life.
Organization-Centered Career Planning – Focuses on jobs and on identifying career paths that provide for the logical progression of people between jobs in the organization.
Individual-Centered Career Planning – Focuses on an individual’s career rather than in organizational needs.

Developing HR for Organizational Needs
Development – Efforts to improve employees’ ability to handle a variety of complex assignments (knowledge task) requiring judgment, responsibility, decision making, and communication (intelligence task).

Organizational Needs Analyses – Employee and managerial succession
Retirements, promotions, transfers, sudden departures
Developing future employee competencies

Succession Planning
• Determine possible successors
• Job analysis of key jobs and job progressions, as they will exist in the future
• Appraise employees’ performance to determine gaps
• Training and development to close gaps
• Progression through career ladder
Benefits of Succession Planning: Having an adequate supply of employees to fill future key openings; Providing career paths and plans for employees, which aids in employee retention and performance motivation; Continually reviewing the need for individuals as organizational changes occur; Enhancing the organizational “brand” and reputation as a desirable place to work.

Employee’s Career Challenges:
Career Plateaus – Employees who are “stuck” at a career level and lack opportunities for upward mobility.
Technical and Professional Workers – Dual-career ladders provide advancement pathways for specialists and technical employees.
Dual-Career Couples – Problems occur when one partner is promoted or transferred, causing the other partner to have to relocated.

Challenges of Career Management Development Efforts:
Inadequate HR planning – Failing to conduct adequate needs analysis, trying out fad programs or training methods, and substituting training for selecting ‘qualified’ individuals.
Encapsulated Development – A situation in which an individual learns new methods and ideas in a development course and returns to a work unit that is still bound by old attitudes and methods.

The new performance appraisal system could be traced to early reform in the public service as introduced by UDOJI’S Commission (1972-74) and was described as a method of transformation of the public service into performance oriented service. AYIDA PANEL REPORT ON CIVIL SERVICE REFORM (SECTIN 53) TERMED, it as “PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW OF MINISTRIES”

The Commission recommended and the Federal government approved that “Ministries/Extra-Ministerial Departments (Local Government Service Commission inclusive) should cultivate the practice of setting targets for themselves their Departments and others based on the annual budget and evaluating performance” Therefore, performance appraisal is one of the tools used in organizations to control and shape the quality of their employees. It is also an aspect of performance management and a process that requires employers to define, facilitate and encourage performance by providing timely feedback and constantly focusing everyone’s attention on the ultimate objectives. People work best when they know what they have to do, how well they are expected to do it, and how well they have done. The aim of the performance appraisal system is to ensure that this information is shared between employers and employees on the one hand and between employees themselves on the other hand. Let us consider the following issues for clarity:
(i) The meaning of performance appraisal system
(ii) Different Authorities/Enablement
(iii) Reasons for adopting this method
(iv) Its operation in the Public Service
(v) Effect on staff/organization
MEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM: Michael Armstrong, (2004) – According to him, Performance Appraisal System is seen as the process of assessing someone’s performance in order to identify development needs and potentials, and establish where and how performance needs to be improved.

(a) UDOJI’s COMMISSION (1972-1974)
(c) PUBLIC SERVICE RULES (2010) SECTION 060101-060402)
(2010) SECTION 2 (45-46) pp 24-25.
(f) ANNUAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT FORM (for officers in GL. 03 and above GL. 7)

(i) It provides a feedback about performance and enables an organization to measure its progress on the one hand and to identify the need for corrective action to its specific goals on the other hand..
(ii) It also enables the organization to plan its improvement and to reward performance.
(iv) It classified the objectives, goals, aims or purpose of the
(v) It provides room for a two way discussion on performance
(employer and employee)
(v) It simplified the work of scoring subordinates.
(vi) It introduces Rewards systems and Sanctions on measurable
objectives and targets.
(vii) In a work situation, it provide means of assessment in terms of
standards of performance, the quantity and quality of work, and also socially acceptable norms and code of conduct.
(a) It brings into the open and thinking carefully of what specific goals, business purposes or mission of each Ministry/Department vis-à-vis Local Government Service Commission should be and the derivation of objectives targets and missions from such clearly defined goals. (Note this is the essence of SERVICOM).
(b) It leads to the establishment of priorities which enable an organization to concentrate on selected targets within given time frame, rather than attempting to do everything but achieving nothing.
(c) It provides feedback mechanism to re-order its priorities and also right-sized the organization in view of its target- (Note as in vision 2020).
(d) It provides communication to staff of their standing and progress.
(e) Provision of data about capabilities essential to manpower planning.
(f) It provides systematic assessment of individual training needs
(g) It provides an objective information for promotion purposes and succession planning.
(h) It helps in regular review and revision of job descriptions and work objectives.
CONCLUSION: Performance Appraisal is very important in every organization because when carried out objectively, honestly and more frequently, (as stipulated in establishment circular No. 2/2005) it will surely enhance performance of employees and increase their chances of developing their skills and knowledge as identified during the appraisal. It is therefore, very apt for the Local Government Service commission to choose this topic not only for the assessment of its staff but also the performance of its Commission Service delivery (SERVICOM) as demanded in this era of uncommon transformation and Government commitment at Training and Re-training its workforce and to Right Size, its operation in order to catch up with the present Government reform agenda.
1. Annual Performance Evaluation Report Form (GEN 79) (for Officers on GL. 03 and above)
2. Udoji’s Commission Report (1972-74)
3. Ayida Panel Report on Civil Service Reforms (1998)
4. Akwa Ibom State Local Government Rules and Regulations (2010)
5. Akwa Ibom State Public Service Rules (2010 Edition)
6. Barr. Udo Udoma Udofia – Compiled Extant Circular/Circular Letter to guide in daily Performance in the Service (Unpublished work)
7. Sylvester P. Udo – Paper on Imperative of SERVICOM in Modern Administration

It has been asserted that being a leader is not the same as being a manager and vice versa. To be effective, leadership cannot first be about inspiration and grand visions, but must also be about getting results. Therefore, effective leadership requires the drive of high impact service delivery and with the expectation of performing in the most professional and ethical way with integrity. It is the view of the resource person that this topic has an additional calling that the leader in question here should be effective wits motivational and disciplinary drives. In fact, in summation he should be a “Leader by Example” with qualities of integrity, vision and effective performance.
WHAT CONSTITUTE AN EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP? John C. Maxwell identified leadership as lifelong learning process. His assets that “No one can give what he does not have. A leader, nay, effective leader who does not develop himself cannot develop is followers. He also identifies power sharing in form of delegation as one factor that contribute to an effective leadership. He observed that where top leadership try to keep everyone else down, the over-all leadership is usually poor. Also when all the powers is in the middle to help them, the top leaders cannot lead effectively.
Another factor that contributes to effective leadership is leadership style. This can influence positively and effectively the staff in the organization. For instance, it has been observed that using coercive methods to force employees to accepts job standards usually have limited effectiveness, resulting in:
• Resentment towards the organization.
• Low morale.
• Refusal to accept responsibility.
• Poor Communication.
• Difficulty in recurring coordination and cooperation.
Therefore, it is advisable for any would be effective leader to adhere to the postulations of DOUGLAS MAGREGOR on Management assumption about Human Behaviour (workers) with the formulation of X and Y theories if they should succeed thus:
X THEORY: This theory applies to the closed model organization (Civil Service)
(i) That people do not like to work
(ii) Many people want close or unrelenting supervision (they have no discretion and cannot work unsupervised)
(iii) People cannot contribute to solving organizations problems (they are not creative)
(iv) People can only work when threatened or punished.

Y THEORY: (This theory is for open model organization and relates to the Human Relations)
(i) That given right conditions most people enjoy work.
(ii) They can exercise self control.
(iii) They would be independent and creative.
(iv) Motivation is necessary in a group setting where people are recognized and rewarded.
(v) The effective leader makes the decision and announce it
(vi) Sells his decision (through persuasion for his subordinate to accept it, seeks to reduce resistance)
(vii) Presents idea with a question (through consultation and explore issue fully)
(viii) Presents tentative decision subject to change (consultative approach)
(ix) Present problem gets suggestion and makes the decision
(x) Lead by example.

ON MOTIVATION: Every effective leadership should exploit and make use of the following principles. The principles of Y THEORY as enunciated by MAG GREGOR, that of MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs by Fredrick Herberg which sought to identify what makes people (staff) happy or unhappy, satisfied or dissatisfied about their jobs. They described motivation as the willingness of people to act in a certain way depending on the person’s abilities and motives.
FACTORS THAT CONSTITUTE STAFF MOTIVATION: According to HERBERG, he identified the following factors that relate to the job itself and have a positive effect on job satisfaction, thereby, increasing works output.
(a) Achievement (Target Setting)
(b) Increased responsibility (schedule of duty in organization, an organogram in Ministry/Department showing different responsibilities)
(c) Challenging work (Service Delivery on Time-Principle of SERVICOM)
(d) Recognition for achievement (Different awards in the Public/Civil Service. Best Dressed, Hardworking Public/Civil Servant, Best Public/Civil Servant etc.)
(e) Growth and development (Training Facilities through Est. Circular 1/2004 and others, Maternity Leave, leave grant, increase in salaries and allowances etc.)
DISCIPLINE: It is a true that only an effective, disciplined and leadership by example can discipline the subordinates in any organization. Discipline in an organization can be seen as working, cooperating, and behaving in a normal way in conformity with lay down standards as provided for in chapter 6 subsection 1 & 2 of Akwa Ibom State Local government Rules and Regulations (2010) and chapter 4 of Akwa Ibom State public service Rules (2010).
NOTE that the effectiveness of a leader is marked by the way of maintenance of discipline which is a major management action.
CAUSES OF DISCIPLINE: Misconduct and Serious Misconduct (See chapter 6 Section 1 & 2 of Akwa Ibom State Local Government Rules and Regulations 2010)
TOOLS FOR DISCIPLINE: Oral warning and written warning
OBJECTIVES OF DISCIPLINE: – To ensure orderliness, Maintenance of respect, Training and Development.
(i) By termination of appointment (Note the implication as advised by Establishment circular Letter of 22nd October, 1985 – on Termination of Appointment).
(ii) Compulsory retirement from service if found guilty of the offence
(iii) Outright dismissal from the service (forfeits all entitlements)
CONCLUSION: It can therefore be noted according to the topic of this paper that any effective leadership in an organization will ensure motivation, discipline of staff will result in cooperation by all subordinates which will in turn ensure increase in productivity and well being of the organization.
1. Emma C. Nwankwo – The Civil Service Discipline (1999)
2. Decenzo David A. and Robin Stephen P. – Personal/Human resource Management Prentice Hall of India, Private Limited New Delhi (1989)
3. Akwa Ibom State Local Government Rules and Regulations (Revised Edition 2010)
4. Akwa Ibom State Public Service Rules (2010 Edition)
5. Barr. Udo Udoma Udofia – Compiled Extant Circular/Circular Letters to Guide in Daily Performance in the Service (Unpublished work)
6. Federal Republic of Nigeria – Approved Scheme of Service for Local Government Employees in Nigeria (2006)
7. Ebebe A. Ukpong, PHD – Strengthening Leadership and Management for Improved Public Service Delivery in Africa (2010)
8. 2013 Public Service week Celebration Award Schedule

INTRODUCTION: Anyone can become angry that is easy but to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose and in the right way that is not easy. (Aristotle). Research shows that intellect is a driver of outstanding performance, but emotional intelligence (EI) turned out to be twice as important as other ingredients of excellent performance at all job levels. 90% of the difference between star leaders and average ones is attributable to EI rather than cognitive abilities. However, EI can be developed.
Learning emotional Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence is in-born, but nature also plays a role. It increases with age, but developing it might also be useful. Learning means to break old behavioural habits and establish new ones. Reflect and ‘replay’, observe others, ask for constructive criticisms, etc.
Definition of Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships. The ability to sense, understand and effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions as a source of human energy, information, connection and influence.
Emotional Understanding: Which of the following faces is expressing happiness, surprise, anger, sadness?
EI a self to manage self: Adaptability, Motivation, Creativity, Independence, Analytical Reasoning, Foresight, Leadership, Emotional Stability, Communication Skills.
The path between feeling and reason: Scene signals, Limbic where emotions are experienced, Frontal love where the rational processing happens, These 2 areas do communicate in the source of EQ. EQ in Action What positive and/or negative examples do you see of emotional intelligence? EI Expression in the Negative.
Self EQ Application:
Managing Yourself: Empathy, Self Control and Self Confidence.
Managing Your Team: Developing others, Holding People Accountable, Team Leadership.
Managing the work: Results Orientation, Initiative and Problem Solving.
Managing Collaboratively: Influencing others; Fostering Teamwork
EQ Clusters (Developed by Daniel Coleman)
Self Awareness; Social Awareness; Self Management; Relationship Management
The Twenty EQ competencies
Self Awareness and Self Management: With self-Awareness, a person has 50/50 chance of demonstrating self-management.
Self Management
Self Awareness yes No
Yes 49% 51%
No 4% 96%

Expression of High EI
1-A time to wait and a time to watch
2-A time to be aggressive and a time to be passive
3-A time to be together and a time to be alone
4-A time to fight and a time to love
5-A time to work and a time to play
6-A time to cry and a time to laugh
7-A time to confront and a time to withdraw
8-A time to speak and a time to be silent
9-A time to be patient and a time to decide.
Expression of Low EI
• If only I had been born rich and famous
• cannot share feelings verbally
• Negative feelings dominate
• Not perceptive to others’ feelings
• carries grudges, unforgiving
• Acts without reasoning or logic
• Not accepting of self or others
• Poor listener
• If only I had married someone else
• If only I had been handsome/beautiful.
Developing EQ
 Revising responses to feelings
 changing thinking pattern
 Altering behaviour and trying new things
 Coaching can be instrumental in the process
Strategies for developing self attitude for positive impact
 Understand the power of attitude- see it as a tool for
Positive action and priceless possession that has to be develop by self.
 Take charge of your life- accept responsibility by monitoring internal dialogue
and choices.
Strategies for developing self- Attitude for positive impact
 Identify what holds you back- self awareness , what propels you,
Shifting turning points into learning points.
 Reframe your bad attitude of anger to that of gratitude and forgiveness
• Find your purpose and passion – personal vision transforms self attitude.
• Be pro-active – prepare self to counter challenging situations that threaten to provoke negative attitude.
• Self motivation – affirmation, visualization, attitude talk, optimistic and exercise.
• Build supportive relationships – to edge out negative attitudes via networking, shared vision and values.
• See change as an opportunity – task, relationship or economic status.
• Leave a lasting legacy – planting positive seeds (hard work, honesty, integrity, encouragement, faithful, love etc)
There’s a difference between interest and commitment. When you’re interested in doing something, you do it only when it’s convenient. When you’re committed to something you accept no excuses; only results. Kenneth Blanchard.

CONCLUSION: In the 21st Century the most significant challenges will be to manage relationship with work. This requires skills such as negotiation, action-planning and networking, added to qualities like self-awareness and confidence. These are the skills required to be self-reliant in career and personal development, skills to manage processes rather than functional skills.

Counseling Skills in the work place could be seen as professional guidance and impartation of ideas by knowledgeable officers who are vested in the rudiments of the Service to others. It therefore follows that as professional counselors use their wealth of experience in counseling in different fields of endeavours, so also officers in the Public/Civil Service with sound knowledge of the rules and regulations in the service impact positively on others through their counseling skills. Since the saying has been that “Experience is the best teacher”, stated by Emma C. Nwankwo in his book, “the Civil Service discipline states, “apart from many courses and seminars I attended, designed for the Administrative officers, most of my experiences were gathered on the job, thanks to my various postings and deployments. During this period, especially before the Decree 43 of 1988, quite a number of senior colleagues influenced me a lot. They probably do not know about it, but I have chosen to call them my Mentors”. The above quotation collaborate my assertion and has added more credence to the topic of this paper.
DIFFERENT COUNSELING SKILLS IN THE SERVICE: Skill or Tact as enunciated in the Civil Service Hand Book means skillfulness in handling a difficult situation without giving offence to the people involved. This is very necessary in the Service in dealing with people by creating impression of willingness to be of assistance which enhances the efficiency of the system and gives the public satisfaction.
COUNSELING SKILLS CAN BE DEVELOPED; Through: (a) Training (b) Experience and good advice (c) Maturity in Service (d) Circumstantial/Incidental occurrences (e) Asking questions, Suggestions and Consultations
SOURCES OF COUNSELING SKILL IN THE SERVICE: (a) Expert Advice (b) Training (Est. Circular 1/2004, Seminars and Workshop, Orientation/Induction courses for newly recruited officers in the service. (c) Publications and Journals: AKS Local Government Rules and Regulations (2010), civil Service Handbook, AKS Public Service Rules (2010), Circulars/Circular Letters, Approved Scheme of Service for Local government employees in Nigeria, Newspapers and Listening to news. (d) Promotion Examination/Interviews (e) Completion and Assessment of APER FORM GEN 79.
COACHING AND SUCCESSION PLAN: In Public/Civil Service this is all about training which according to Carrel and Kuznits (1982) is the systematic process by which employees learn skills, information, or attitudes to further organizational and personal goals. Training can also be viewed as a process that involves development skills and learning concepts, rules or attitudes in order to increase effectiveness on a particular job. It has also been said that good training to all classes of employees prepares ground for succession plans. Therefore coaching and succession plan can be achieved through SELF DEVELOPMENT in any organization. Self development is a coaching process developed by one self, the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for the effective performance of their work which results in the attainment of the organizational goals.
PURPOSE OF SELF DEVELOPMENT: (a) To promote learning and provide people with the knowledge and portfolio of transferable skills that will help to progress their career. (b) It will enhance personal contribution of individuals in succession plan (note it removes the idea of indispensability in the service when someone is about to retire). (c) It enables employee move from the original value position to one providing more opportunities for effective use. (d) It bridges the gap between relative senior and Top Management cadre in the service (which is the bane of succession plan in today’s Civil/Public Service).


(a) EARLY PERIOD OF RECRUITMENT: (Note in the service it is called Probationary Period. What should be done is completion of necessary forms, take oath of Secrecy, organized Orientation seminar, confirmation of appointment)
Nature of staff in this period: Eagerness to perform, Flexibility, Drive and Target oriented with high performance.
(i) Noticeable change in attitude, even though attitude remains a strong selection criterion
(ii) Selection of leaders for higher responsibilities.

(I) Few with record of performance and acceptable scale through.
(ii) Remain relevant, value giving, inspiring continuously learning and building relations.
(iii) It takes drive, determination and desire.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the resource person would once again agree with Emma c. Nwankwo, that most of the experience he gathered was through his “Mentors”, postings and deployments (which many officers resist today). As top officers of the service, we should accept the natural process of staff attrition in the service, learn to cope with it and train our immediate subordinates/subalterns to take over from us when we are transferred or when we retire from the service.
With the present Government friendly policy of Training and Re-training of her work force, coupled with the recent recruitment of qualified officers into the Public/Civil Service to fill gaps created through the exit of staff through death, resignation and compulsory retirement the yawning gap between and within the cadres of officers in the civil/public service are daily narrowing. Therefore the idea of counseling skills in the workplace should be brought to bear. Coaching and succession planning should be well instituted for pragmatic and result oriented Public/Civil Service devoid of the idea of indispensability of any officer in the system. For we know that if any Public Officer drops dead as it has been happening, the service goes on. We should move with the time by institutionalizing succession planning in our ministries, Departments and Agencies as well as the Local Government Service.
1. Peter Boniface – Principles of Effective Career Choice (2013)
2. Decenzo David A. and Robin Stephen P. – Personal/Human Resource Management
Prentice Hall of India, Private Limited New Delhi (1989)
3. Akwa Ibom State Local Government Rules and Regulations (Revised Edition 2010)
4. Akwa Ibom State Public Service Rules (2010 Edition)
5. Barr. Udo Udoma Udofia – Compiled Extract Circular Letters to Guide in daily Performance in the Service (Unpublished work)
6. Federal Republic of Nigeria – Approved Scheme of Service for Local Government Employees in Nigeria (2006)
INTRODUCTION: It is no doubt that the Local Government Administration is one Arm of Government that is closed to the people. Being a third tier government the functions are formulated for the common good of the immediate society. It conveys the closest contact with the people. Its policies, byelaws, programmes and implementations are focused on the people within the Local Government Administration, thereby calling for a great desire to imbibe the work ethics for the successful accomplishment of various objectives as well as ensure satisfaction by the people. The issue of ethics is aptly a response to the general concern about increasing and worsening trend in application of moral principles of human behaviour in the work environment. Many professional bodies exhibit ethics as code of conduct for efficient and effective discharge of their professional duties and the conduct of business. The generally accepted moral values and ethical principles evolved over the years from the collective and individual experiences in the administration of the public and private organizations. In the face of competing moral philosophies and ethical relativism, the recommended safeguards for a way out is to tie the quest for work ethics in the Local Government Service practically to the adoption pursuit and development of Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy of providing satisfaction to the public.
Unified Local Government Service of tomorrow must be guided by laws, rules, regulations and norms of the society. Such organization is expected to remain focus through openness, accountability, probity, hard work, teamwork and transparency. At the end of the lecture, one will be reminded that ethics is not just what you do right or do not do right, but who you are. It is an inside out dynamic that should pervade the worker’s life and be geared towards the issue of the worker’s personal mission in life, and what legacy he wants to leave.
DEFINITION OF ETHICS: The subject of ethics fascinated the early philosophers.–For Aristotle, he said “the unexamined life is not worth living” and “Excellence is not an act; but a habit”. – For Plato, he said, “only the Philosopher – King, who is not a hustler, and who is reluctant to grab and exercise power should be allowed to be a Ruler of a nation”. – For Confucius, “ the superior man seeks what is right; the inferior one, what is profitable”. – For Roger Babson, “a character standard is far more important than even a gold standard”. Ethics is derived from the Greek word “ethos” meaning “the character or custom of a people”. The Latin Word “Mos” from which our term “Morality” derives, also refers to the customs or regular and accepted practices of a social group. Hence, both terms have to do with the expected practices or norms of a community and by extension, its individual members. Ethics and morality describe what a society or a group of people believes to be right or wrong.
Nature of Ethics: Ethics comes from the emotional depth of man, ethics can be seen as Biblical Golden rules notably; “Doing unto others what you would like them to do unto you” “Loving your neighbour as yourself” “Being your brother’s keeper” Ethics cannot exist in isolation. There is no organization that does not consider ethics as a major strategy to accomplish success. There are ethical inducers or producers namely;
(i) Individual’s character
(ii) Organizational objectives, practices, vision and mission.
(iii) Management and Leadership qualities
(iv) Environmental influences and factors.

Ethical Inducers or Producers
(i) Ethics are inherent attributes of an individual. They are like navigators and constitute a moral compass such as, integrity, honesty, trustworthiness, etc.
(ii) Organizational vision and mission convey the road map of achieving the objectives and goals of the organization. In order to accomplish the expected objectives, discipline, order, quality, satisfaction, accountability, courtesy, flexibility, speed, empathy, responsiveness, etc. are the ethics needed to succeed.
(iii) Leadership and Management at all times embody the required ethics. The ethics cannot also be produced independently of the organizational management and leadership. It is a function of leadership tool. Every decision a leader makes is being watched for the meaning and the values behind it. It should be noted that every decision has an ethical content and it should be a good one. “To be an effective leader is no longer a matter of power and wealth…it is really a matter of character and sustaining values, human values, ‘moral’ leadership. A world – class leader puts aside personal ambitions…We must rid ourselves of the ‘greed’ notion”. – John Sims
Leadership and management require ethics such as Accountability, probity, Bureaucracy, teamwork, cooperation, non-partisan politics/neutrality, dignity, courage, tactfulness, innovativeness, integrity, kindness, industrialization, etc.
(iv) Environmental factors do have various influences on the people, thereby affecting the ethics of members of the society. For instance, timeliness, social justice, patriotism, self reliance and diligence have been overtaken by the so-called “Nigerian Factor”. The sooner, environmental influences are eliminated in the work place, the beginning of higher productivity, professionalism, stewardship, trust and engagement.
Importance of Ethics
(i) Promoting self-regulation with the aim of reducing external regulation,
(ii) Clarifying organizational expectations of employees,
(iii) Avoiding or minimizing costly mistakes by setting clear rules and regulations and
(iv) Controlling unethical/immoral behaviour.
(v) Enhancing productivity and objective accomplishment.
These are some of the ethical values required in the work place.
(i) Discipline: This is said to be the trait of being well behaved. It implies the ability to control oneself positively. Every other ethic hinges on discipline.
(ii) Secrecy: Every public servant is expected to keep official secret. This is why every staff on appointment is made to swear to an oath of secrecy. Divulging official secret is punishable under the official oath law of 1963, official secret Act of 1962 and the Public Service Rule. Giving out official information must be done by the person vested with the authority to do so and the basis of the need to know.
(iii) Honesty: One must be worthy of trust and dependable and devoid of cheating, deception and fraudulence practices.
(iv) Loyalty: Being steadfast or owe allegiance to the Government and having a tight chain unwavering support to the immediate superior.
(v) Accountability: This is openness and ability to show transparency in one’s action. You must be able to account for your time at work, documents, finances and resources.
(vi) Non-Partisan Politics / Neutrality: You must not belong to any political party and must not take part in political activity. Public servants are encouraged to imbibe the ethic of effective neutrality.
(vii) Dignity: This is the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect.
(viii) Good Conduct/Excellence: Good conduct as it concerns us is doing the right thing at the right time with the right person and in the right place.
(ix) Anonymity: You are a prime mover behind the scene. You are to be seen and not heard.
(x) Bureaucracy/Due Process: It is an organized system of carrying out assignment in line with set out rules and regulations to logical conclusions.
(xi) Tidiness: This refers to legibility and general state of being meticulous and neat dressing.
(xii) Promptness: Acting according to time bound. This means that every assignment must be on target with regards to time.
(xiii) Cooperation: This is an act of fostering unity and understanding amongst workers.
(xiv) Tactfulness: This means the quality of being considerate, thoughtful, discreet but diplomatic. It is the skill in dealing with people by creating an impression of willingness to be of assistance.
(xv) Courtesy: It calls for polite and passionate approach to assignment.
(xvi) Courage: This is a state of facing reality and solving problems in the right way under tough conditions.
(xvii) Industrialization: This implies useful hard work and not eye service.
(xviii) Avoidance of Delay: Services or assignments carried out should not be delayed and no procrastination.
(xix) Kindness: Every worker should have humane approach in dealing with people in difficulty.
APPLICABLE PUBLIC SERVICE RULES ON ETHICS AND VALUES: The implication of work ethics in the Public Service Rules currently in use in Akwa Ibom State No. 040301 defines misconduct as a specific act of wrong doing or an improper behavior which are inimical to the image of the service. These wrong doings manifest in work environment when work ethics are not observed. These misconducts are:
(a) Scandalous conduct such as;
(i) Immoral behavior
(ii) Unruly behavior
(iii) Drunkenness
(iv) Foul language
(v) Assault
(vi) Battery
(b) Refusal to proceed on or to accept posting.
(c) Habitual lateness to work
(d) Deliberate delay in treating official documents.
(e) Failure to keep records
(f) Unauthorized removal of public records
(g) Dishonesty.
(h) Negligence
(i) Membership of cults
(j) Sleeping on duty
(k) Improper dressing while on duty.
(l) Hawking merchandise or engaging in any other form of trading within the office premises.
(m) Refusal to take/carry out lawful instruction from superior officers.
(n) Malingering/loitering
(o) Insubordination
(p) Discourteous behavior to the public
All these are acts of misconduct and there are punishments for breaches. Any breach, culminates in counter productivity. Observing work ethics will save an officer from breaching any of the misconduct. Workers are advised not to breach any, as this may result in a chain effect.
CONCLUSION: The essence of this paper is to highlight the inherent attributes of man as the main anchor to accomplishment of organizational objectives and goals. Let us note that our present predicament in most organizations is not caused by lack of resources but due to lack of observance of ethics. Obviously, the lack of observance of ethics has led to under-development, insecurity, corruption and low productivity. In this century and generation, there is dire need for organizations to return to old time wisdom of imbibing high ethical standard and good moral values and these will certainly enhance productivity.


Understanding the Information Technology, Environment, Office Automation Tools, various areas of application, the Secretary’s/Clerical Officers Tool box, Emerging Technologies, Solutions that information technology can provide for the secretary, measuring the Net Benefit by using information Technology in secretarial Duties and Conclusion.
Computer Models in the Business place: Information Technology Revolution in the Business Place : business Models, Technologies and Concepts.
New Business Models: – Overview
Information Technology Environment: A Basic Configuration – IT models
• Hardware Models – stand-alone systems – network nodes and peripherals – tapes and scanners – client server models – UPS infrastructure – IT Models
• Communication Models: – smart card technologies –cable modems – fax machines – personal satellite phones – telephone handsets – PABX machines
• Software Models: – Operating Systems – Databases – Application Systems, etc.
Information Technology Models: Hardware & Software
• Components of Computer Based Information Systems
o Hardware Systems and Software Systems
Hardware models: Basic Elements of a Computer System: – Input technologies – Storage technologies – control – Processing – Output technologies – User interface
• Input Technologies: – Source data documentation – Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – Scanner – Handheld –Sheet Fed – Flat Bed – Digital Camera
Storage Models/Technologies:
PRIMARY MEMORY: Access Memory (RAM) – main memory – ROM – Cache Memory – Internal Cache (Inside the CPU) – External Cache (On the main Board)
SECONDARY STORAGE: Magnetic Devices: – Tapes –Disks – Hard Disk
• Large Computer Systems use: – Removable Disk Packs – Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) technology – Tape cartridge Systems (e.g.., IBM 3480 ½’ track tapes.)
Output Models/Technologies:
• Display Devices – VDU or Monitor – Identify By: (i) the screen (ii) colour resolution. – Monochrome – 4-bit (16 colours) – 8-bit (265 colours) – 16-bit (65,536 colours) – 24-bit (16,777,216 colours)
• Printers identify by technologies: – Dot matrix – Line printer – Inkjet printers – Page printers (Optical/laser printers)
• Justify performance By Resolution: – 300dpi – 600dpi – 720dpi – 1200dpi, etc
Processing models/Technologies:
• Processing Technologies
• Central Processing Unit:
– The Function
• Control operations – Arithmetic and Logical Operations – memory and Caching
– Internal Cache (Inside the CPU) – External Cache (Outside the CPU on the main board.
– Identify By:
• Generation: 286, 386, 486,586, Pentium, Pentium pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV etc.
• Makers: – Intel – Cyrix – AMD
• By Speed of Processing :- 66Mhz – 133Mhz – 166Mhz – 200Mhz – 800Mhz, etc

• Main frame computer – Mini frame – Microcomputers – (all function very similarly)
• Microcomputer Systems: – Desktop Systems – Notebooks – Laptops – Palmtops – Personal Digital Assistants or Digital Diaries – Super Computers
• Runs at exceedingly incredible speed – E.g. The IBM’s Deep Blue
Configuration Models:
• IT Network Configuration models: – Basic Configurations include: (i) Stand- Alone Systems (ii) Local Area Networks [LAN] (iii) Wide-Area Network [WAN] (iv) Metropolitan Area Networks [MAN] (v) Internet [WWW] (All function very similarly and are based on common technologies as illustrated below.
Stand-Alone Configuration Models: In 1980s, business organizations used computers that were independent of each other. In this stand alone environment, users communicated with each other through notepads floppy disks, and memos. Each computer also had to maintain its own resources such as printers. This led to increased costs and made it difficult for users to share resources and information. To overcome the shortcoming of a stand-alone environments, computer networks were developed. In this section, you will look at the advantages of computer networks. You will learn about different types of network and network topologies.
A computer network is a set of computers connected to each other for sharing resources and data. For example, you can share the contents of a directory or disk drive on your computer with other users. Similarly, you can also share devices such as printers and modems.
Let’s first look at the types of computer networks that are based on the distance covered by them. Depending on the distance covered by a computer network. It can be Local Area Network (LAN), a Metropolitan Area Network, MAN, or a Wide Area Network (WAN).
Advantages of Computer Network: – Efficient management of resources – sharing applications – fast data sharing – Efficient communication
Network Defined:
• Definitional Framework – Computer Networks
o A network consists of computers, printers, and other devices connected together using some kind of communication media.
– Computer Networking – Computer networking is a combination of hardware, software and cabling that joins computers together to share resources. – The computer systems and the peripheral being connected are known as network nodes
Office Automation:
• Why use computer for official/Secretarial functions: – use of computer to support the official/secretarial function is no longer optional; it is imperative; – Beside the technology implications of the business environment, i.e. “near paperless office”, the volume and complexity of data that the secretarial officers must obtain and work with precludes effective analysis through manual techniques; – Also, the dynamic nature of the IT environment, e.g. Processes such as the EDI, Complex Networks, Client/Server systems are causing traditional pen and paper technology to disappear; – Users are always demanding for information processing from the Centralized IT functions to the end-users; – Only through the application of information technology techniques and skills can the secretarial function discharge their responsibilities in the rapidly changing IT arena;
• The application of ICT to the Official/Secretarial function provides numerous benefits, including the following;
o Efficiency/Effectiveness Leverage – Increased coverage; Increased analytical capabilities; Improved quality of activities performed; Consistency in the use of applications; Increased cost- effectiveness through the reusability and extendibility of computerized techniques; Improved integration of secretarial jobs and other related skills such as accounting;
o Critical factors for the successful use of information communication technology include the following: – A close ratio, preferably one-to-one, of computing devices to Pas and secretarial officers – The support of secretarial and the organization, particularly IS; – The design and implementation of “user-friendly” systems to reduce frustration and promote use of IT; – Effective and prompt technical and operational support; and – Practical & effective hands-on training.
Importance of MIS: – Reliable information – Speed and efficiency – Greater outreach – Accuracy and date integrity – Lower processing time for transactions and turnaround time – Streamlining of operations – Risk management – Increase in staff productivity and morale – Improved decision making process – Improved relationships with clients – Improved confidence by clients.
Functional Areas: – Track Mails – Track Income/Expenditure for his/her boss – Other necessary data processing duties – Performance Analysis – Spreadsheet Analysis – Financial Management – Corporate Planning.
Looking Ahead: Tactics that help reduce resistance to innovation in technology
Personnel Training on IT to show: relative Advantage in Technology – Compatibility to existing methods – Simplicity of Application – Divisibility, I.e. piecemeal or phased application – Reversibility of the technology – Relative of deployment – Failure Protection, i.e, full assurance of technical backup – credibility, i.e. ability to show technical legitimacy.
Looking Ahead: Common Information needed to support Officer applying IT in their Activities
• Hardware Support
• Software Support
• Help Desk Activities
Looking Ahead: Strategic Considerations for IT Application
• Determine needs and problems in order of priority
• What kind of functions do you perform
• Check your existing IT environment to match what you now need to deploy
• Look beyond your immediate environment
• Measure your Net Benefits
• Remember, no rules of THUMB- Common sense will help you!


Learning Outcome:
At the end of this presentation, participants should be able to:
 Classify an Office and its components & Nature
 Appreciate the need for Office Automation
 Be acquainted with Automation
 Understand what is Office Automation
 Identify the Advantages & Disadvantages
 Discern the type Office Automation System
 Recognize backbone of Office Automation
 Office Automation – People, Tools & the workplace
 Appreciate the benefits of Office Automation
 Identify the critical factors to successful Automation
 Value tactics to help reduce resistance to office automation
 Strategic consideration for Automation and
 Conclusion
What is an Office?
An Office
 Receives information
 Records and stores information
 Structures information
 Processes information
 Provides access to information

Components of an office:
 People –Machines –
 Paper– Documents and
 Procedures

Nature of Office Work
 Information workers
 Types – Managerial, Non-managerial and Professional
 Types of Office work:- 1.Document creation and preparation. 2. Information / Document storage. 3.Information / Document retrieval 4.Communication 5.Meetings 6.Reading mail. 7.Decision making 8. Information dissemination

Need for Office Automation

Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existing office procedures.
The backbone of office automation is a LAN, which allows users to transmit data, mail and even voice across the network. All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilm and records management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations, fall into this category. Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene.
•Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work.
•Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)
•Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
•Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, when an enterprise invests in automation, technology recovers its investment; or when a state or country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century.
•Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly.
•Frees up workers to take on other roles.
•Provides higher level jobs in the development, deployment, maintenance and running of the automated processes.

•Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system may have a limited level of intelligence, and is therefore more susceptible to committing an error.
•Unpredictable development costs: The research and development cost of automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself.
•High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant requires a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although the cost of automation is spread among many products.

Office Automation Systems (OAS): are configurations of networked computer hardware and software. A variety of office automation systems are now applied to business and communication functions that used to be performed manually or in multiple locations of a Organization, such as preparing written communications and strategic planning. In addition, functions that once required coordinating the expertise of outside specialists in typesetting, printing, or electronic recording can now be integrated into the everyday work of an organization, saving both time and money.

Types of functions integrated by office automation systems include
(1) Electronic publishing (2) Electronic communication (3) Electronic collaboration, (4) Image processing, (5) Office management

Backbone of Office Automation: At the heart of these systems is often a local area network (LAN) & Wide Area Network (WAN). The LAN allows users to transmit data, voice, mail, and images across the network to any destination, whether that destination is in the local office on the LAN, or in another country or continent, through a connecting network WAN. An OAS makes office work more efficient and increases productivity.

Electronic Mail: E-mail is software that allows users, via their computer keyboards, to create, send, and receive messages and files to or from anywhere in the world. Most e-mail systems let the user do other sophisticated tasks such as filter, prioritize, or file messages; forward copies of messages to other users; create and save drafts of messages; send “carbon copies”; and request automatic confirmation of the delivery of a message.

Voice Mail: Voice mail is a sophisticated telephone answering machine. It digitizes incoming voice messages and stores them on disk. When the recipient is ready to listen, the message is converted from its digitized version back to audio, or sound. Recipients may save messages for future use, delete them, or forward them to other people.

FACSIMILE: A facsimile or facsimile transmission machine (FAX) scans a document containing both text and graphics and sends it as electronic signals over ordinary telephone lines to a receiving fax machine. This receiving fax recreates the image on paper. A fax can also scan and send a document to a fax modem (circuit board) inside a remote computer. The fax can then be displayed on the computer screen and stored or printed out by the computer’s printer.

Desktop Videoconferencing: Desktop videoconferencing is one of the fastest growing forms of videoconferencing. Desktop videoconferencing requires a network and a desktop computer with special application software (e.g., Microsoft Lync-2010) as well as a small camera installed on top of the monitor. Images of a computer user from the desktop computer are captured and sent across the network to the other computers and users that are participating in the conference. This type of videoconferencing simulates face-to-face meetings of individuals.

Image Processing: Image processing systems include electronic document management, presentation graphics, and multimedia systems. Imaging systems convert text, drawings, and photographs into digital form that can be stored in a computer system. This digital form can be manipulated, stored, printed, or sent via a modem to another computer. Imaging systems may use scanners, digital cameras, video capture cards, or advanced graphic computers. Companies use imaging systems for a variety of documents such as insurance forms, medical records, dental records, and mortgage applications.

Projects and tasks can be allocated, subdivided, and planned. All of these actions can either be done individually or for an entire group. Computerized systems that automate these office functions can dramatically increase productivity and improve communication within an organization.

Businesses engaged in launching or upgrading office automation systems must consider a wide variety of factors that can influence the effectiveness of those systems. These factors include budgetary and physical space considerations, changes in communication infrastructure, and other considerations. But two other factors that must be considered are employee training and proliferating office automation choices:
Training—People involved with office automation basically include all users of the automation and all providers of the automation systems and tools. A wide range of people—including software and hardware engineers, management information scientists, executives, mid-level workers, and secretaries—are just a few of the people that use office automation on a daily basis. As a result, training of personnel on these office automation systems has become an essential part of many companies.
Choice—A dizzying array of office automation alternatives are available to businesses of all shapes, sizes, and subject areas. Such systems typically involve a sizable investment of funds, so it is wise for managers and business owners to undertake a careful course of study before making a purchase.

Benefits of Office Automation: The application of IT to the Administrative /Secretarial function provides numerous benefits, including the following; Efficiency/Effectiveness Leverage; Increased coverage; Increased analytical capabilities; Improved quality of activities performed; Consistency in the use of applications; Increased cost-effectiveness through the reusability and extendibility of computerized techniques; Improved integration of secretarial jobs and other related skills such as accounting.
Critical factors for the successful use of information technology include the following:
◦ A close ratio, preferably one-to-one, of computing devices to PAs and secretarial officers
◦ The support of Admin / secretarial and the organization, particularly IS;
◦ The design and implementation of “user-friendly” systems to reduce frustration and promote use of IT;
◦ Effective and prompt technical and operational support; and
◦ Practical & effective hands-on training.

Tactics that help reduce resistance to innovation in technology
Personnel Training on IT to show:
• Relative Advantage in Technology
• Compatibility to existing methods
• Simplicity of Application
• Divisibility, i.e. piecemeal or phased application
• Reversibility of the technology
• Relative of deployment
• Failure Protection, i.e., full assurance of technical backup
• Credibility , i.e. ability to show technical legitimacy
Critical factors for the successful use of information technology include the following:
◦ A close ratio, preferably one-to-one, of computing devices to PAs and secretarial officers
◦ The support of Admin / secretarial and the organization, particularly IS;
◦ The design and implementation of “user-friendly” systems to reduce frustration and promote use of IT;
◦ Effective and prompt technical and operational support; and
◦ Practical & effective hands-on training.

Tactics that help reduce resistance to innovation in technology
Personnel Training on IT to show:
• Relative Advantage in Technology
• Compatibility to existing methods
• Simplicity of Application
• Divisibility, i.e. piecemeal or phased application
• Reversibility of the technology
• Relative of deployment
• Failure Protection, i.e., full assurance of technical backup
• Credibility , i.e. ability to show technical legitimacy
Office automation is a great way to save money and time while protecting your important business information. People no longer want to store paper records or hand write order forms and other information needed to do business. Project management software, electronic invoicing, scheduling software and credit card payments make it much easier to run your business without the need for so much paper.
Things You Can Do with Email
 Compose and Send: write an email and send it to others.
 Reply: reply to an email that you received.
 Forward: pass on an email that you received to others.
 Attachment: You can send files with your email such as:
pictures, music, software and documents

Two Ways to Get Email are:
1. Provided by your Internet Service Provider
Monthly fee for internet connection often includes email service.
 Aliant – …
 Eastlink – …
2. Free Web-Based Service Providers
Advertising on the site pays for the service.
 Gmail – …
 Hotmail – …




Managing cables
 Trip hazard
 Loose cables or cords in a traffic area where people can trip over them
 Use cable or cord cover
 Nail or screw to floor
Lifting heavy objects
 Put on a cart
 Guidelines
 Balance the load when lifting
 Stand close to the object with feet apart
 Keep back straight, bend knees, and grip the load
 Lift with legs, arms, and shoulders
 Keep load close to body and avoid twisting
 Put the object down by keeping back straight and lowering object by bending knees
 Ask for help if necessary
 Avoid the use of keyboard covers in dirty environments
 Avoid high humidity around hard drives
 Use BIOS setup to disable ability to write to the hard dive boot sector
 Keep private data under lock and key
 Protect storage media from direct sunlight, heat, and extreme cold
 Keep magnets away from the computer
 Protect electrical equipment from power surges
 Do not unpack and turn on a cold computer
Basic Terms – Worms – Trojans – Viruses – SpyWare – AdWare – OS – LAN – Network – Cache
IE (Internet Explorer) – Browser

Virus vs. Worm: A virus stays on your computer and your computer only. Worms crawl through networks. Unlike a worm, a virus cannot infect other computers without assistance. It is spread via trading programs with others (file sharing programs, email).

Spyware vs. Harddware: Symptoms: Sluggish Pc, Increased pop-ups, homepage changes, strange search results. Both are data miners, meaning they are looking for information. Both cause the above symptoms. Can lead to identity theft. 9 out of 10 pc’s are infected. Good place to look for info?

Top Spyware Threats: PurityScan – N-Case – Gator- CoolWebSearch – Tansponder – STbar/AUpdate – KeenValue – Internet Optimizer (bargain buddy) – Perfect Keylogger – TIBS Dialer. For more information on these, visit:

Steps for partitioning a hard drive using FDISK
1. If you’re in Windows, open a DOS window.
2. If you’re in Windows, open a DOS window.
3. If you’re changing the partitions on an existing disk, choose option 4 from the FDISK menu to display existing partition information.
4. If all of the space on the drive is already partitioned, you will need to use FDISK menu option ( 3 ) to remove existing partitions before creating new ones.
5. For a new drive from which you will boot your PC, you must first create a Primary DOS Partition.
6. If you only want to have one partition on the drive, type Y when prompted to make one large partition. If making multiple partitions, type N.
7. Enter the size for the partition if you selected N in step 6.
8. To create an extended (non-bootable) DOS partition, choose option 1 from the main FDISK menu, then option 2 from the Create menu.
9. If you will be booting from this disk, choose option 2 from the FDISK Menu and enter 1 to make the primary DOS partition ACTIVE.
10. Press the ESC key to exit FDISK. If running from Windows 9x, you must manually reboot your PC at this point. You must format all partitions before they can be used.

 Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories then System Tools, and click Disk Defragmenter.
 Click the drive you want to defragment, click the Defragment button and then wait for the defragmentation tool to finish (this may take a long time).

How can you protect yourself from viruses?
• Have an Antivirus program installed on your computer
• Regularly scan the computer for viruses (at least once a week).
• Keep your virus definition files, up to date (at least once a month, more times if possible).
• Keep updated in regards to the latest security patches for your operating systems and applications
• Do not open email attachments that are from people you don’t know

How do I utilize FDISK?
The program that DOS supplies for setting up hard disk partitions is called FDISK, which is believed to? stand for “fixed disk”, an older term for hard disk. FDISK is used only for DOS (FAT) partitioning, and allows the user to perform the following functions:


Challenges facing secretaries and personal Assistants in the local Government Service can be likened to what the Bible says in Matt 11:12 thus, “And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence and the violent taketh it by force”. This by implication could be said to mean that right from the introduction and implementation of UDOJI AWARD in 1974, the Public Service vis-à-vis the services of Secretaries and Personal Assistants in particular as they are coming into the local Government System must be jealously viewed in the face of the challenges they are going to meet.
1. REFORMS (Note different types for explanation and its effects on the personal Assists/Sects in the Local Government Service)
a) In terms of even development.
b) Equitable distribution of amenities.
c) Effective governmental administration and control.
d) Participation by the greater number of people.
e) Rural awareness and acknowledgement of government efforts and programme.
a) Discipline (g) Co-operation
b) Good conduct and ideal (h) Tact
c) Loyalty (i) Tidiness
d) Honesty (j) Helpfulness
e) Courage (i) Kindness
f) Courtesy (j) Avoidance of delay
g) Industry
Note: If you can imbibe these into your minds and make it become part of you as David said in psalm 119:11 “Thy word have I hid in my heart that I may not sin against thee”, you can perform well while in service and cannot sin against the service and people.
These assumptions are categorized in the popular theories called X and Y by Douglas Macgregor
i. That people do not like to work
ii. That many people want close or relenting work supervision i.e (they have no discretion and cannot work unsupervised).
iii. That people cannot contribute to solving organizations problem i.e(They are not creative)
iv. That people can only work when threatened or punished.
i. That given right conditions most people can enjoy work.
ii. That they can exercise self control that they would be independent and creative.
iii. That motivation is necessary in a group setting where people are recognized and rewarded.
6 QUALITY SERVICE: With the adoption of the scheme of service, which prescribes standards and condition for attraction of qualified personnel into the Local Government Service is a welcome development which has brought about the production of qualified staff and quality service in Local Government Service as found in the State Civil Service.

• To maintain discipline, protect Government activities and Public safety.
• Regulation of conduct (emphasis)
• To punish offenders and other purposes
• To ensure the safe guard of official information against spying and other undesirable agents, leakages of official information/documents by the Public Servants to unauthorized persons.
a) On appointment and mode of learning the service.
b) Mode of appearance
c) Hours of works
d) Remunerations/Progression in the service
e) Other dos and don’ts (Explain)
With the advent of SERVICOM in the year 2004 and other reforms agenda which includes: Great purge exercise (after Udoji), Local Government Reforms of 1976, Decree 43 of 1988, Re-organization, Ayida Panel, Right-sizing of the service, introduction of scheme of service for Local Government Staff, Rebranding etc. which has cut across the whole nation and Local Government System inclusive, the secretaries and Personal Assistants can contribute their quota in the following ways to improve the quality of service delivery.
a) Study and understand their work contents.
b) Make a change in their mental attitude. (it takes a lot of hard work and a little luck to make it to the top).
c) Love their work or leave it alone. Do not just work for a wage, a salary or promotion rather work because you love what you are doing. Make work fun and have fun with your work.
d) Your work place should become your love rest. Keep it reasonably clean, tidy.
e) Bear in mind that your work place is where you spent most of your time. Do not hate where you work or you will be unproductive there. (call for improvement of internal and external environmental problems by management)
f) Never be lazy or procrastinate therefore, do not be late about anything that you do. Always stay fired up.
g) Attend some conferences and seminars related to your work so that at all times you are up to date.
h) Do not live to eat, but eat well in order to live and work to avoid absenteeism.
i) Develop a positive mental attitude and outlook on life so that you will always have a clear focus on whatever you are assigned to do. So keep a healthy life, for this learn to laugh, rest and avoid stress.
j) Since you will leave the service any day, learn to be kind to those you see in your office, attend to them because you will meet them outside and they also will attend to you. (Note what happened to Abraham and Angel).
CONCLUSION: It would be rewarding to conclude with an adage by some birds in Things Fall Apart that “since men have learnt to shoot without missing, they shall fly without perching”. This by my presumption today, is the wishes of the Personal Assistants and the Secretaries that having enjoyed the benevolence of the management of the Local Government Service Commission by organizing this timely seminar for them, they will never fall at where others fell but rather will be up to meet the challenges facing them by providing quality services and at the end, they will leave with commendation and not by sanction.
INTRODUCTION: With the enactment of decree 43 1988 on Civil Service Reforms which emphasized on professionalism; there were lot of changes and innovations introduced into the Local Government System. This was a further watershed improvement after that of 1976 which guaranteed the financial and legal status of Local Government Institutions in Nigeria. Therefore as the topic of this paper, management functions and objectives in the Unified Government Service, after reforms, witnessed serious challenges in the local Government. In order to catch up with what is obtainable in the Unified Government Service the objectives must be clearly defined, articulated and pursued to a logical conclusion.
An eminent scholar Luther Gulick through an acronym described the functions of management by an acronym (POSDCORB) with:
P standing for Planning
O “ “ Organizing
S “ “ Staffing
D “ “ Directing
C “ “ Controlling
R “ “ Reporting
B “ “ Budgeting
It is important to note here that for management to perform its arduous functions there should be an enabling environment and the beneficiaries vis-à-vis the Personal Assistants and Secretaries among others, their capacities should be build up and enlightened in order to appreciate and contribute their quota hence, this management workshop organized today. We should therefore appreciate the management for this timely action.
TECHNIQUES OF MANAGEMENT: Jerome Udoji in 1974 through his commission recommended the introduction of Management by objective (MBO) and other techniques, while the Ayida Panel Report also made similar recommendation which the management of Local Government Service also adopted in it’s management functions. Management functions must be seen in their capability of managing the Local Government Service in a way which will help raise standard of living of the common people in terms of cost benefit analysis.
(I) PLANNING: Management in this aspect is being guided by the following questions:
(a) What is the need? What courses of action should be taken? How and when should they be effected? On answering these questions, the management will come up with the objectives, policies, procedures and methods. This planning centers on what is to be achieved in the future and how.
Planning will provide direction. Planning is very important, it could be rightly said that the success or failure of any organization depends largely on the planning stage since all actions are based on what was done during planning. It is during the planning stage that management establishes objectives and programmes of the organization whereby the choice of available alternative could be made.
a) Forecasting
b) Setting of objectives
c) Policies/standard guideline for action
d) Programmes
e) Procedures – methods of implementation
f) Budget – costing and allocation of funds.

(II) ORGANISING: After planning, the next step is organizing. This is an arrangement of relationship between people, the work to be done and the facilities to be used so that goals can be achieved. In the Unified Service it involves the identification and grouping of responsibilities, schedule of duties, (where do the Secretaries and Personal Assistants fit in?). it also involved delegation of authority or responsibility.
i. Structuring/identification and grouping of work.
ii. Definition, allocation and delegation of responsibilities and authority, recruitment and deployment of staff.
iii. Establishment of hierarchy and lines of authority and relationship.
iv. Providing tools, equipment and other materials for performing the task.
It is a process of finding or providing the right person for the job where there is vacancy. In the Unified Local Government Service, recruitment used includes direct application and advertisement. The selection instrument include application form, interviews and aptitude test. Vacancies for established positions are created in the budget. It should be noted that staffing cannot be done once and for all, since people are continually leaving the service through retirement, death, so it’s done as need arises.
(III) DIRECTING: Here supervisors direct and guide subordinate to carry out their task on the right course. Here also the management tries to establish the right internal environment for members to strive well in order to achieve the objectives of the organization.
(IV) CONTROLLING: Controlling is the managerial function of setting standards against which actual performance or progress is measured, detecting deviations from the standard and ensuring return to the set standard through corrective actions to achieve stated result. The aim of controlling is to ensure that the result of operations do not deviate from the established objectives and goals of the organization. That is why different seniors and junior staff management committees are set up to look into both organization and staff matters in different councils and communicate same to the Local Government Service Commission for decision to be taken in the overall interests of staff and the local government service.
(V) REPORTING: Basically, this involves the process of informing all the interested parties and stake holders on the activities of the organization. It entails information from both the superiors and subordinates within the organization. The Chief Executive Officer Keeps himself and his subordinates informed through reporting, assessment, monitoring records, research and inspection.
(VI) BUDGETING: Every organization is bound to prepare a financial estimate of it’s activities. This function is the hall mark of the Chief Executive Officer since financial estimates and administrative functions have to be considered together. For any task or project to be embarked upon, the financial implication must be known.

I. To develop coherent policies in the organization.
II. To create conditions for team work
III. To foster commitments from individuals to the success of the organization
IV. To enable management to achieve organization goals
V. To ensure industrial harmony in the work place. (Note the recent problem in Ibesikpo Local Government and management action towards an amicable solution)
1. It has been argued that because of lack of particular managerial action or organizational design that would be appropriate to fit for all situations, it therefore affects management functions and objectives because management method or technique used in a particular instance and became very functional may be dysfunctional in another situation.
2. The internal and external environments poses problem for management functions and objectives.
CONCLUSION: In view of the topic of this seminar paper as management functions and objectives in the Unified Local Government Service, it is the believe of the resource person that with the introduction and application of the different reforms into the Local Government Service and massive changes and good result in terms of professionalism and presidentialization of the local government service, development of rural areas as envisaged by the local government reform 1976 making them to be “development centers”, creation of different departments and post, introduction of new scheme of service for local government employee, influence of the uncommon transformation of the state Government, it is hoped that the problem of management functions and objectives shall be overcome when “all hands must be on desk” (both secretaries and Personal Assistants) to support the management.
INTRODUCTION: The secretarial job is one of the oldest profession. The contribution of secretaries to the development of any establishment and the nation in general cannot be over-stressed as there is no organization where the services of a secretarial staff are not needed. The original role of the secretary was that of typing, filling, receive visitors, calling or answering calls from the phone etc. As the reliance on technology continues to expand in offices, the role of the office professional has greatly advanced. Office automation and organization restructuring have led secretaries and personal assistants to assume responsibilities once reserved for managerial and professional staff. Many secretaries and personal Assistants now provide training and orientation for new staff, conduct research on the internet, and operate and troubleshoot new office technologies. In spite of these changes, however, the core responsibilities for secretaries and personal assistants have remained much the same. Performing and coordinating official administrative activities, storing, retrieving and integrating information for dissemination to staff and clients.
Who is a Secretary? Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (4th Edition) define a secretary as: An employee in an office, usually working for another person, dealing with letters, typing, filing etc, and booking appointments and arrangements. Official of a club, society etc, who deals with its correspondence, records or business affairs. A secretary is not a typist as a copy typist is a junior staff who merely types manuscripts given by the boss. A secretary is not anybody or any employee who sits behind a typewriter or in today’s world a computer.
This notion which was upheld in the past is fast diminishing as nearly all company executives now sit behind computers. A secretary is not a short-hand typist (stenographer). A secretary is a personal Assistant or an Administrative Assistant who combines shorthand and typewriting skills with a sound knowledge of secretarial duties.
Who is a Personal Assistant (PA)? Is someone who handles daily business and personal tasks of the Chief Executive on a supportive level. In a business world sense, a personal assistant is a trusted junior employee who assumes the role of an Executive’s chief of staff. PA sometimes is referred to as an executive secretary or personal/private secretary, who works closely with senior managerial or directorial staff to provide administrative support, usually on a one-to-one basis. PAs help managers to make the best use of their time by dealing with secretarial and administrative tasks.
The Difference between a Secretary and a Personal Assistant: The personal assistant works more closely with the Chief Executive and is much more the “right hand person”. The PA works for one person, whereas a secretary could work for several people. Sometimes a secretary will be called a PA due to the nature of task that are interwovened. In some organization that are large, the Chief Executive would likely have a PA and a secretary. In this case, the PA would likely supervise the secretary by handing down some clerical activities such as typing and filing. The PA takes care of business relating to the boss formally and informally. The secretary arranges appointments and changes the boss’s agenda in relation to formal task alone.
Challenging Roles of the Secretary and Personal Assistants: Every job function of the organization is undergoing changes. The Secretary/PA has increasingly become a thinker and not just a doer. The responsibilities of the secretary/PA has undergone remarkable transformation in recent years due to development of technology. They are required to handle more complicated roles than was the case years back. The Education and knowledge profile of the secretary/PA have changed. Many Secretaries/PAs now have higher qualifications and belong to professional bodies. There are changes in the skills profile of the Secretary/PA as well. They are expected to have strong functional and social skills in view of current challenges. Secretaries/PAs are expected to abreast themselves with modern technology and to use same to facilitate their jobs. These changes require more work on the part of the secretary/PA.
What are Professional Ethics?: Business or professional ethics are standards or codes of conduct set by people in a specific profession. A code of ethics is a part of the expectations of those involved in many different types of professions. Professional ethics are commonly known as ethical business practices.
Professional Ethics and Work Environment: A major ethical challenge of a secretary and PA are moral principles relating to their job. These requirements are automatically taken on board when you accept any position as a Secretary or PA and you will be expected to uphold them at all times.
Indices for Upholding Professional Ethics
Confidentiality: Always keep information private and confidential about the organization you work for and its clients. Never relate sensitive information, even where everyone is wondering what has happen and you know. Always ensure that trust is sustained.
Honesty: Do not take the credit for something you did not do and do not let someone else enjoy the credit for something you did! Always tell the truth. Trust will be sustained as you will be more credible with both your boss and fellow workers.
Loyalty: Always be loyal to your boss and your organization. If you display your loyalty, you will receive a reward in return. The boss has to prove the worthiness of your loyalty. Do not get caught up in the office gossip.
Reliable: Show that you are reliable- by being punctual to work and meetings at all times, always take the relevant documentaries for meetings. Ensure every task you are given is completed on time and to the best of your ability.
Responsible: Prove that you are responsible by setting priorities and carrying out tasks in a timely manner. Always meet deadlines when given. It builds confidence in your boss and others around. Do not delegate if the job cannot be done as efficiently and accurately as you would have it done.
Work unsupervised: Always keep your work up to date and remain productive. Meet deadlines. Every day, write up a list of the tasks intended to undertake and prioritize them.
Be Co-operative: Always assist and share your expertise with your colleagues wherever it is possible. Always be happy to carry out assigned duties but also know when to say “No” (diplomatically) and explain why you cannot do the task. Do not overload yourself.
Flexibility: If it’s 5pm and your boss needs an important report typed and faxed immediately, please do! The best jobs are where you have the ‘give and take’ arrangement. You just never know when you may want an hour off at a minute’s notice to attend an emergency.
Multi-Skilling: Learn more about computer programs and other schedules in the organization. Every knowledge is an asset for the rainy day. This is also particularly useful as you are usually the one who has to show the boss how to use some of the computer programs and other clues that might be silent at his end.
Bribery: Do not be tempted to accept gifts or favors from clients just in case there’s an underlying reason. Always obey organizational procedures and policies.
Conclusion: Secretaries/PAs play an indispensable role in any organization. Though their roles has witnessed drastic changes in recent years as already stressed. To play the roles effectively, Secretaries/PAs must have the right competencies and attitudes.

Food for thought
“the best way to predict the future is to create or co-create it…”
Peter Drucker
You are the SALT in your organization, so S – Stay Healthy; A – Act Healthy; L – Learn Healthy and T – Talk Healthy.


7.1 THE IMPERATIVES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONS INTRODUCTION: Human being spends a great proportion of their time in organizations for the fulfillment of “our physical, psychological, social, spiritual and economic needs”, (Reuben 1988:358). An organization is made up of human beings, environment and interdependent relationships. The human beings need to interact, communicate and work towards the actualization of set goals which are the goods and services to make profit and stay afloat. An organization therefore needs to build public goodwill for itself. A corporate organization is one which is governed by a body of people. They can be board of directors or they can be elected politicians as in the case of municipal corporations or local authorities. It is a structured system with a common goal and an identifiable boundary delineating as functions and purpose. A corporate organization has a distinct identity and generally will have its own mission or ethos which its members and staff should adhere to.
Goldhaber (1974:39) defines an organization as “an information processing system whose parts are all related to its whole and its environment”. According to McCoy (1985:63) a corporation is
“a community with a culture and value commitments. As a community it is an organizational context of persons and groups, a system of customs, expectations, values, and purposes, and a system of action and interactions”
The nature and size of operations determines the type of organization or corporation. It could be a single organization owned by the public or government or it could be a large one comprising other companies. Whatever the case an organization is a community which exist to make profit and satisfy its different stakeholders or public. Products, services and operating environment determine the public of an organization. Some of the easily identifiable public include shareholders, distributors, consumers, government agencies, employees and the media. It is therefore pertinent for a corporate organization to identify its public and consciously strive to integrate them so as to satisfy them and cause them to appreciate it operations, goods and services. This way the public can build and develop goodwill for the corporations. This paper will attempt to handle the topic on the following subheads.
Concept and Evolution of Public Relations
Misconceptions About Public Relations
Public and Corporate Organization
Developing Sustaining Good Corporate Image.

1. Concept and Evolution of Public Relations
Public Relations has to do with the promotion by a firm, corporation, government, department, etc. The goodwill of other organizations or the public by distributing information about its policy degree of goodwill existing or created between organizations or between an organization and the public (The New Lexicon Webster Dictionary of English Language).
Public Relations is vital to every organization, institution, public figure and to some extent the man next to you. To this, Fassy, a Nigeria Public Relations consultant put it.
“Most of us like to be understood, like to be well regarded and like to be influential. Our success however, is dependent upon the understanding we are able to create, and the support we get based on such mutual understanding. In the same way the image of an organization, demonstrated through the attitudes it adopts, is a crucial factor in its success or failure, and indeed for its expansion”.
Public Relations has many aspects and touches every facets of the human society and endeavour. Public Relations practitioners are often employed in organizations to advise on suitable image for the organization or institute concerned, to recommend on how the organizations policies may be formed so that the chosen image is genuine, to provide means by which the members of the community may be made aware, and develop the procedure by which the image of the organization and its perception by the public is maintained. It should be pointed out that public relations is not merely publicity and should not just be left to an officer or a supervisor but should be an essential management responsibility. A very dynamic field of study, many scholars and practitioners have variously defined Public Relations as “The practice of managing the flow of information between an individual or an organization and the public”. Some see it as “A management function, evaluates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures, and interest of an organization to earn understanding and acceptance” (Profit Making)
In 1978, the world assembly of Public Relations Association defined the field as:
“the art and social science of analyzing predicting their consequences, counseling organizational leaders, and implementing planned programmes of action, which will serve both the organization and the public interest” (Preventive not curative)
In 1982 the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) said Public Relations helps an organization and it public adopt mutually to each other for it defined the concept as
“the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding and goodwill between organization and its public” (strengths, weakness, opportunities, goals, problem).
Public Relations is also see as:
“The organized two-way communication between the organization and the audiences critical to its success, such organizational communications are designed to create understanding and support for the organizations aims, policies and action”. (Communication).
According to Sietel (2007) Public Relations practice may include:
“an organization or an individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment”.
One early practitioner of Public Relations is Geogian Cavedish, Duchess of Devonshid who conducted press relations, lobbying and celebrity campaigning on behalf of Charles James Fox, a British politician, supporting the Whig Party in the late 1700. Scholars believe that the first appearance of the term public relations was in the 1897 year book of Railway literature. With the boom of business in American and Europe after the First World War (1914 – 1918) there witnessed the birth of a new media, the radio. There came the great depression in the 1930s before the onset of the Second World War (1939 -1945). This was the period public relations made in route into Nigeria as the British colonial Government felt the need to inform Nigerians about the war situations since hundreds of Nigerians were involved, fighting for the British Government. For these reason they established an Information Office (war and issues of governance). The information Office by 1944 metamorphosed into a Public Relations Department with greater responsibilities (managing information, disseminating, news and enlightenment of citizen) to generate goodwill and understanding between the colonial government and Nigerians. Natives were recruited into government PR Department (Peter Enahoro, Sam Epele). With this development came the advent of the new media – the television, which was introduced into Africa by the defunct Western Region government. In the Private sector, the United African Company of Nigeria now UAC Nigeria Plc established the first Public Relations outfit, the UAC Information Department in 1949, other multi million naira companies like Shell BP followed suit.
In 1960 came independence though short-lived as hostilities led to the 30 months Nigerian Civil War. After the War confidence needed to be built and so Nigeria came
out with the 3Rs – Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Reintegration. The 70s therefore witnessed the boom period of rapid development of Public Relation practice in Nigeria. Sam Epele who was one of the earliest recruit into the British Colonial Government PR Department was also the first Chief PR officer of the Nigerian Railway Corporation from 1956 – 1969. The pioneering effort of late Sam Epele saw the birth of the Public Relations Association of Nigeria later christened Nigerian Institute of Public Relations (NIPR).
Public Relations today is a chartered profession and there has been new tools and technologies which has had profound impact on man’s existence, economic growth or development and by extension public relations.
As put by Fassy (2009)
“Technology has ignited change which has been magnified by a combined technology, education, politics, commerce, science, mobility and most importantly communication”.
The explosion of communication led to globalization of the once vast remote world leading to multiplication of the scope of human awareness and judgment. Technology coupled with communication has elevated the position and importance of the masses thereby reducing to a great extent the power and control of leaders and corporate chieftains. According to Fassy (2000)
“people are today led by their own consent, guided by their own opinions formed and expressed through the mores (customs, manners) and demands of their peer groups. The command power of a leader or a corporate tycoon is no longer automatically obeyed. It is now necessary to seek acceptance or the support of those being ordered”.
Today public relations practice is full-blown and utilized in all important organizations that desire to have good reputation and goodwill from its public. For Fassy (2000), proposes the following stages or PR development.
Stage 1 – Establishment of a contact function by organization/corporations known as lobbying.
Stage 2 – focal entities and organizations began to acknowledge the value of planned publicity. This way they could create interest for consumers in their organizations and their products and services.
Stage 3 – Public Relations practitioners began to acknowledge the value of conducting research into public opinion before developing and launching any campaign or product.

Stage 4 – More sophistication introduced by mass communication theory and the emerging science of public opinion measurement.
Stage 5 – The evolution of Public Relations outfit/department as a distinct unit to carry out the function of cultivation the goodwill of the different public, sub specialties to deal with each public – shareholders, customers, employees, government, agencies, community, etc, through such tools as publications, press relations, research, issue management, crisis management, lobbying and other techniques.
Misconceptions About Public Relations
Public Relations is often erroneously perceived as propaganda, marketing, advertizing, and journalism. It should be pointed out that Public Relations is a distinct discipline or concept though interrelated with all the aforementioned disciplines. These disciplines have been defined in Encarta Encyclopedia 200 as follows
Propaganda: Misleading publicity: deceptive or distorted information that is systematically spread (instrument of politics and power for social control)
Marketing: The business activity of presenting products or services in such a way as to make them more desirable to increase sales.
Advertising: The public promotion of something such as a product, service business or event in order to attract or increase interest in it.
Journalism: the profession of gathering, editing and publishing news reports and related articles for newspapers, magazines, television and radio
In Nigeria PR is misconstrued to mean different things to different people including packaging brown envelops or offering bribe and dashing people unmerited awards and honour for monetary gains, some feel it is synonymous with courtesy, protocol, goodwill, friendship, fine appearance, free gift, annual parties and cash bonuses. Public Relations serves different purposes and deploys different methods to achieve its goals. It has to do with how to “extinguish fires” and more importantly how to prevent them from starting. Adodurin (1995) notes.
“The end products which public relations tries to attain…Goodwill, mutual understanding, voluntary support, favourable opinions, rapport and corporation. All these coupled with the qualities of planning sustenance, continuity and deliberate reach out, distinguish public relations from other forms of business and communication arts, such as propaganda, journalism, advertising and marketing.”
Udoaka (2000) supports these assertions when he says that company public relations “aims to create public awareness of the activities operations, goods and services of the company, and activities………foster favourable public image of the company and goodwill and prestige for it, organize and promote desirable activities likely to project the company and influence the attitudes of specific groups of people towards the company.”
Public and Corporate Image: As stated earlier a company’s public are the different stakeholders and they depend on the kind of organization. Its goods and services. This mean that public relations practice and strategies adopted cannot be the same in all organizations. Some of the key public of an organization are internal public or employees, shareholders, media, government agents, customers, and consumers. Corporate image is an art and skill ensuring that the positive image the public have of the organization is maintained and the organization encouraged to take on more social responsibilities in order to improve or promote the image of the company through goodwill. Corporate image has to do with the correct picture of an organization as perceived by its corporate identity. Wilson (200&\7), states that the identity or image.
“may sometimes be distorted as a result of a certain organizational problems which may tends to alter previously held views of the organization in the eyes of a section of the local public or the general public ……..For instance a company which hitherto had been perceived as a socially responsible organization could on the basis of a mishap, have its corporate image rubbished by an advocacy group, even inspite of its efforts to correct such a misleading position or view.”
(e.g. MPN, Protect by youth groups and agitation in various oil producing areas in the Niger Delta).
The public include but not limited to
a.) Employees: This is somebody earning a living for any service on a permanent or temporary basis. He is an important member of the organization and partake in achieving the PR objectives of the organizations, as such should receive proper attention in the corporate communication program. Employee Relations include:
“explanation of company policy providing a forum for complaint providing sound policy on employee welfare/conditions of service promotion of hard work and efficiency support for social programmes of contacts, meeting training (in-house and outside) relationship with unions interpersonal relationship to reduce psychological distance.

b.) Shareholders: As the name implies are the owners of the company by way of investment. The company Board of Directors and Management owe a duty to constantly brief them of the company’s operation, stocks, gains or profits. This way shareholders will feel being part of the business family. Arrangement should be made for them to visit the company from to time outside AGMs. Shareholders are like staff and can serves as medium of communication and help advance the good reputation of the company and rise to the defense of the company when criticized.
c.) Press: This has to do with the mass media – print and electronic. The media need to be taken along and properly briefed in order to provide good information to the mass audience. The PR practitioner or consultant needs to establish contact at various levels of the press for placement of feature on business page, or supplement. No gain saying therefore that every organization to a certain extent employs PR tools for its operations in order to be effective and impact on its stakeholders. PR is like a lifeblood in an organization or like the air we breathe and as such it is an indispensable tool.
The profession of Public Relations is of course facing some challenges, which include illiteracy, lack of best practices, energy, corruption and misconception. Other are lack of continuity in government programmes and policies, quackery, lack of press freedom and inability for managers to recognize and use PR resources.
Developing & Sustaining A Good Corporate Image:
Public Relations help to illicit goodwill from an organizations public. Just as public goodwill can help an organization to prosper. Public disapproval can also be harmful to the corporation. For as Golbert (1991) puts it
“institutions exist and strive only by public consent, and public relations is essential to gaining public consent be it a government, a business or any other institution”
This means that there is a great need to grow and sustain a good corporate image. To actualize this the Public Relations task must be performed in a sustained or an empirical system. There should not be any fire brigade approach to PRs but there should be a deliberate and planned action based on research of issues and situations relating to the products and services of the company and the operating environment. Fassy (2000) proposes a four system approach based on strategic and creative management thus:
a. Analysis, research and definition of problems/issues
b. Drawing up programme(s) of action
c. Communication and Implementing the Programm(s) and
d. Monitoring the results, evaluation for possible modification/amplification
To actualize the above PR practitioners should be able to comprehend the overall business strategy corporate market policy, the market and the external environment.
Corporate image making should be proactive and defensive rather than reactive, this is why Abodurin (1995.4) states.
“Public relations effort achieve better results when conceived out of the initiative and voluntary will of an entity, than when it is specifically designed to solve a problem or manage a crisis, in a defensive capacity…..when planned ……………….it lays a solid foundation for good relations with all who matter to the entity.”
In order therefore to sustain a good corporate image the PR practitioners should:
1. Assist employers to transform fear of change into productive opportunities that contribute positively to society and the individual.
2. Add to their knowledge and explosives by being conscious of the arrival of the global village (ICT computer literate)
3. Be proactive – preventive not curative
4. Be knowledgeable – read widely, watch TV and listen to radio and read newspapers
5. Public Relations should be an essential top management responsibility and not a mere publicity activity as often erroneously conceived.
CONCLUSION: Public Relations is a planned and deliberate activity, which must be undertaken voluntarily, developed and sustained to achieve results. Wilson (2000) states “it is not just growing good PR which breeds goodwill but it is good to note that goodwill is a product of friendship and understanding and friendship cannot be achieved without knowledge”.
In other words organization’s public must be helped to know the organization better so as to appreciate its role in society. Publication and distribution of materials on the company such as prestige brochure, product leaflets, company history and in-house publications. Other printed materials to enhance corporate public relations and image are calenders, diaries, seasonal greeting card and branded items (T-Shirt, jotters, Pens, ashtrays, etc Advertising on the print and electronic media would also be of advantage. It is therefore recommended that corporate organizations should hire trained knowledgeable creative PR personnel or engage the service of PR consultants as well as elevate PR practice to an essential management responsibility.
1. Abodurin, Taiwo (1995), Fundamentals of Publics Relations, One Sould Publishers, Lagos.

2. Amantta Forman (2001), Geogiania Duchess of Devonshire. New York: Random House USA Inc. New Ed. Edition: ISBN 0003757538340
3. Goldhaber Gerald M. (1974), Organization Communication. Dubuque, lowa: Wme, Brown Company Publishers P.39
4. Grunig, James E. and Hunt, Todd. Managing Public Relations, Orlando, FI, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984.
5. International Public Relations Association (IPRA), Geneva Gold.
6. Mc.Coy. Charles S. (1985), Management Values: The Ethical Difference in Corporate Policy and Perfomance, Boston: Pitman P. 63
7. Public Relations on freebase licensed under: CC py
8. Siete, Fraser P. The Practice of Public Relations for Lawyers, Doylestown, PA: Led, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9801719-0-7
9. Udoaka, Nkereuwem (2000): Topics in Public Relations. Joen Printing and Publishing Company, Enugu – ISBN 978-35404-9-1
10. Wilson, Des (2007),”Corporate Image Making” A paper presented at the NIPR Education Think-Tank Committee – One-Day in-House Workshop, Uyo P.1
11. Yusuf, Fassy Adetokunboh O. “Public Relations and Corporate Expansion in the Global Economy.” Being paper presented at he AGM/National Conference of NIPR April, 2000, Abuja

INTRODUCTION: The Holy Bible in Genesis Chapter 11 tells us a story of a gigantic project, the Tower of Babel which was abandoned because the builders, in the course of the work, could not understand themselves. The confusion arose from the fact that God made them speak in different languages leading to loss of mutual intelligibility in communication. The biblical story apart from its scriptural essence also paints a vivid picture of what life would be like without communication. Communication is an integral instinct of all living things and human’s most important survival instinct. It is imperative to human existence as it provides the means through which people establish and maintain contact with each other and the world. Without it, life will be non-existent as nobody lives in isolation. The importance of communication in our lives is best expressed in the axioms, “man can NOT communicate” and “communicate or perish”. These are incontrovertible, considering the fear that.
 For the professionals, it come handy as a means of establishing a network and building professional relationships
 Businessmen find it a critical factor in business relations.
 Within an organization, communication is the catalyst which keeps human resource moving.
 The leader who wants to succeed needs effective communication to represent his followers and motivate them to success.

WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? These are many definitions of communication. Emmanuel Akpan (1993) defined it as a process of creating and sharing meaning between two persons. Another scholar, John Brilhart (1986) defined it as a process whereby symbols generated by people are received and responded to by others.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION (with regards to Audience/receiver).
1. INTRA-PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Communication within an individual. Before we issue any utterance, we first of all conceive what we are going to say and how we are going to say it. It is also the ideation state and the first step of any form of communication.
2. INTER PERSONAL: Communication between two persons
3. GROUP COMMUNICATION: Establishment and sharing of meaning, idea and information with (or within) a grouped of between three to twenty persons.
4. PUBLIC COMMUNICATION: Message, ideas and information delivery to large audience.
5. MASS COMMUNICATION: Dissemination of information to large, heterogeneous and spatially located audiences through technologies developed for such activity.

FORMS OF COMMUNICATION: Form of communication refers to the channel which the message is transmitted. There are two forms viz: verbal and non-verbal.
1. Verbal Communication: refers to a situation where message is transmitted verbally; that is, by word of mouth and piece of writing. Under verbal, two other types exist; oral and written.
a. Oral: Interaction through spoken words as in face to face conversation, telephonic conversation and other situations where words of the mouth are used to communicate.
b. Written Communication: Exchange of thoughts, ideas, information and messages through the use of written signs or symbols. Here memos letter, report and e-mail come to mind
2. Non-Verbal Communication: In Non-verbal communication, neither words nor signs, symbols are used. It involves gesture, body movement, facial expressions and tone of voice.
Communication can also be categorized into broad categories based on style and purpose. They are formal communication and informal communication.
Formal communication takes place in formal or official style where certain rules, conventions and principles are followed. On the other hand, informal communication is that kind of interaction among friends, family members, and relatives in casual talk.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS: The five basic communication skills are writing, Reading, listening, speech and body language. These are the skills human being use to express their ideas, thoughts, and emotions as well as send message to others and receive their responds.
I am focusing on speech and writing because your work as information officers put you in position to serve as master of ceremonies in your councils. This task makes you a public speaker and the position heaps so much responsibility on you.
As a public speaker, you are expected to be up to the minute in your elocution that is the clarity of your speech, in term of pronunciation.
Yes! You serve at the grassroots but your audience is not always limited to the local people as in some occasions you may have big events which attract elites taking place there. This requires that you should be well skilled in standing up to any audience, irrespective of its composition. Moreover improving on your pronunciation adds value to your person and sets you apart as a refined person and a true professional.

Very simple!
1. Know your audience
2. Always remember that the spelling of the word is not a guide to its pronunciation.
3. Study the sounds of English and the symbols that represent them
4. Give English vowels their due treatment in terms of quality, some are long while others are short. You will get the pronunciation wrong when you give a short sound a long treatment or vice versa.
5. Ensure that Diphthongs and Trip thongs are appropriately glided where they occur.
6. Ensure appropriate placement of stress, as wrong placed stress on a syllable in a word will change the way the word sounds.
7. Observe stress shift as the stress point likely to change as the word is inflected or is combined with another word to form a compound word.
8. Rise above the challenges of pronunciation.
9. Get a copy of the Cambridge English Dictionary.

SAYING WHAT YOU MEAN: In speech, we string words together in expressing our thoughts. For our speeches to convey the intended message and have the desired effects the words have to be well chosen. However, in some instances, our intended message is lost or misunderstood by those we address because of wrong choice of words. These arise from the fact that we don’t have a grasp of the ‘real’ meaning of words. Here is a pair of some of the words which pose this problem.
1. Anxious: indicate concern or wrong
Eager: Impatient desire
2. Because: Indicates cause or reason
Since: Time, Meaning then and now
3. Disinterested: Impartial
Uninterested Indifferent
4. Convince to cause someone to believe
Persuade to cause someone to do something
5. Continually Intermittently. At intervals
Continually Non stop
6. Healthy Being in a good state of health
Healthful capable of giving good health
7. Person Individual humans
People A group from a stock
8. Woman A female adult
Lady A wife of a Knight or a woman of high societal standing
9. Peaceful A place without strive
Peaceable Not given to making trouble
10. Hanged Execution
Hung Pass tense of Hang
1. Try to; Not try and
2. Take the Eye; out of Eyewitness
3. Former Student, Not Former graduate
4. All mobs are Angry: Murders are brutal act
5. All babies are little.
6. Gifts Not free Gifts, not Free of Charge
7. Drop old before Adage, Uche, Tradition, Habit and Maxim
8. Avoid holding meetings, conference and parties etc. except you can handle them.
CONCLUSION: Communication is vital for human existence, because it is at the centre of all activities. Its full potentials can only be realized when it is done in a clear and concise manner for effectiveness. For this to be achieved it is crucial for communicators to sharpen their skills to ensure that they are always performing at the peak level.
1. Akpan, Emmanuel Prologue to understanding Communication (1993) Modern Business Press, Uyo
2. Arould, George. Media Writers Handbook (1996), McGraw, Hill Inc. New York.
3. Mekerrow, Ramie Principles and Types of Speech Communication (2000) Longman
Keywords: Managing Information, Propaganda and Techniques.
Introduction: The 21st Century society has become so complex that governments and corporate entities must respond positively to the emerging complexities. No government today can neglect the information management machinery as a strategy of managing these complexities. This is because of the need to rise to the challenges of public reaction to government policies and programmes, and the neighbours who are often desirous of protecting their group interests and national interests. Today, government spend enormous percentage of their resources on information management services to build a positive image mobilize public consciousness and build international relations necessary for them to survive in a largely competitive and delicate environment. As information managers of government, you are expected to be well equipped to face the challenges of information management or managing information propaganda and diplomacy. This paper will attempt to do justice to the topic; managing information propaganda and diplomacy within the context of your roles as government information managers.
Definition of Terms:
Information Management: There has been no univocal definition of the term information management. However, the term information management is generally, understood to mean; the collection and management of information from one or more sources to one or more audience
Put different, information management entails the gathering, collection, processing and dissemination of information in such a manner that is designed to achieve a desired objective.
Managing Information: is aimed at creating a good image of government or corporate entity. According to Kenneth Building (1977) image has significant effects on government and organizations. They have tremendous effect on public behaviour towards government and organization. Esuh (2011) has defined image as “the way internal and external publics view a government, an organization or perhaps personalities within an organization. It is what the various persons hold as impression about government, government agencies and public officers.”
Managing information therefore entails, in a broad scale, managing the image of government, without which government or a corporate entity will be at he risk of hostile public and neighbours. Managing the image of government translate to effective reputation management, and relationship management.
Relationship Management: This connotes the management of relationship between government and/or organization and its internal or external public. According to Leddingham (2003), it is a state which exist between an organization/government and its key public in which actions of either can impact on the economic, social, cultural or political well-being of the others. This is seen as the core function of public relations.
Reputation Management: This is aim at developing measure and mechanisms to monitor and evaluate how the public perceive government or corporate entities and organizations. It involves the use of corporate or government human and material resources to positively influence the attitude, beliefs, opinions and actions of its public (Esuh: 2011). Critical to reputation management are judgments that are based on emotion, performance, measurement, social and cultural attachment between government and its public.
Managing Government or Corporate Image: Strategies
There are two basic ways to manage government or corporate image. These are Proactive and its public.
Proactive Strategies: This implies taking pro-active actions by information managers. It could be achieved through the following ways;
1. Strategic Publicity: This is done through proper interactions/ relationship with the mass media. The aim is to build a consensus of support for government policies. This is achievable through:
 Press release, Used to explain the policies, programmes and positions of government.
 Strong photographs. Photograph they say, don’t lie, and as such they are effective in molding opinion.
 Opportunities to file stories by deadline.
 Acquaint the public with available benefits, services, programmes and achievements of government.
 Educate the public on government policies and programmes.
 Foster debate and manage constructive criticism.
 Present truth and not falsehood to the public.
2. Reactive Strategy: This often used during restoration processes often seen as image laundering. This involves the following:
i. Denial Simple denial as though the act was not performed
ii. Shifting the blame Act performed by another person or group
iii. Evasion of responsibility
a. Provocation Respond to act of another
b. Accident Mishap
c. Good intentions Action well intended for public good
iv. Reduce the offensiveness of event
Bolstering Always stress good trait
Minimization Act not as serious as taken to be
Differentiation Act less offensive as similar acts
Transcendence has more important values
Attack accuser Reduce the credibility of the accuser
Correction plan Plan to solve the problem
Mortification Apologize
Propaganda: According to the Oxford Advance Dictionary of English, “Propaganda is defined as ideas or statements that may be false or exaggerated and that are used in order to gain support for a political leader, part etc”.’
It is a form of communication that is aimed toward influencing the attitude of a community or public towards something or position by presenting only one side of an argument. For effect, propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media. The aim is to create the desired result in audience attitudes.
A propagandist usually presents information or messages to influence the audience by presenting facts selectively (by possibly lying by omission) to produce emotional rather than rational response to the information presented.
Objectives of Propaganda: The main objective of propaganda is to change attitude towards a subject in the target audience to promote political, religious or group agenda.
Note: Propaganda could be used negatively as when Nazi used it to justify the Holocaust, or when the Biafrans used it to attracts global sympathy to justify their separatist agenda. It could also be used positively as in the case of government’s orientation messages and appeals such as public health recommendations, message encouraging citizens to take part in census or elections or message that encourage people to report crimes and security threats to appropriate authorities.
Techniques of Managing Information
Propaganda and Diplomacy: For the purpose of this workshop, this paper limits itself to managing information propaganda because of its relevance to your responsibilities as government information managers. It must be noted that information dissemination strategies function only when coupled with propagandist messages. Having said this, there are quite a good number of techniques available for managing information propaganda. The effective use of these techniques require special aptitude, training and experience. The basic techniques are:
(1) Attacking the Opponent: This is what is known in Latin as Ad hominen. This is opposed to attacking their argument. Here the propagandist is merely appealing to sentiment and forgetting the substance of the argument, especially if he lack enough convincing facts.
(2) Ad. Nauseam: This entails endless repetition of an idea or messages/adverts. Such messages/advert could be those calling on the public to support government. When messages are repeated overtime with some level of consistency, the public may begin to see such as the truth.
(3) Appeal to Authority: A reporter could site prominent figures to support a position, idea argument or course of action. This technique has universal usage and application because of its potency.
(4) Appeal for Fear: propaganda messages could induce fear. The idea is to stimulate public consciousness to develop public hatred for a group or ideas propounded by such groups. Often used by political grouped to whip-up sentiments. Like when a political party spreads messages that a particular candidate or part, if it come to power will implement policies that are anti-people or against the ideological beliefs of certain groups
(5) Appeal to Prejudice: Creates sentiments by use of emotive terms to attach value or moral goodness to a proposition. It is often used in biased and misleading way.
(6) Joining the Crowd: Directed at the public to see need to join the winning side. This techniques reinforces people natural desire to be on the winning side. The audience is often made to believe that the programme is an expression. It is a mass movement and so in their best interest to be part of it.
(7) Bandwagon: Appeals to the audience to take the course of action that everyone else has taken.
(8) Black and White: often called fallacy technique. This presents only two choices, with one as better choice E.g. “You’re either with us or against us”
(9) Common Man: This technique seeks to convince the audience that the propagandist position reflects the common sense of the people. It attempts to win audience (common people) confidence by communicating in the manner or style of the target audience. Here the propagandist exploits fair knowledge of the peculiarities of the common people and their sense of identity.
(10) Half Truth: usually very deceptive: usually very deceptive but comes in various forms but include element of truth. This is usually partly true or totally true but part of the whole truth. It may utilize some deceptive elements or double meaning especially if the intention is to deceive, evade, blame or misrepresent the truth
(11) Name Calling: This is often used to incite and arouse prejudice. The aim is to propagate a negative opinion and perception about a group, an individual or set of beliefs the propagandist wants to denounce.
(12) Selective Truth: According to Richard Crossman, former British deputy director of Psychological Warfare Division “In propaganda, truth pays…… is complete illusion to think of brilliant propagandist as being professional liars. The brilliant propagandist is the man who tells the truth or that selection of truth which is requisite for his purpose, and tells it in such a way that the recipient does not think he is receiving any propaganda. The act of propaganda is not telling lies, but rather selecting the truth you require and giving it to mixed up target audience.
(13) Cult Personality: Through unquestioning flattery and praise singing, the media is used to create an idealized or heroic public image of a person. Praise singers, billiardists and celebrities are often used to eulogize and flatter.
(14) Disinformation: this involves the creation or deletion of information from public records. The aim is to make a false record of an event or the action of a person or organization including outright forgery of photographs, motion pictures, broadcasts, sound recordings as well as printed documents.
(15) Staying on the message or classical condition or managing the news: This involves selecting few positive points and repeating them over and over again. Contains some truths government wants to hear.
(16) Use of Virtue Words: These words produces positive image such words as peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom are often diplomatically presented.
(17) Slogans: This is a brief but striking phrase that may include labeling or stereotyping. Tends to act as emotional appeals; e.g. “Blood for oil” used during America’s invasion of Irag, or “United we stand divided we fall”, during the Nigeria Civil war, or “Let Godswill be Done Again” during Governor Akpabio second term election campaigns.
(18) Third Party Technique: Often referred to as syndication. This works on the principle that people are more willing to accept an argument from a seemingly independent source than from someone with a stake in the outcome.
As a reporter, you are faced with challenge of using these techniques of information propaganda to reach out to the public through the news report, government reports and press statements, etc.
The following channels are open for effective use to achieve the desire result;
Common Media: These include; press statements, leaflets, television, radio and posters. The Radio and Television are used for news, current affairs, documentaries, news commentaries, special features, talk show segments, advert, public service announcements or long running advertorials.
Simple Pattern: Leaflets dropped for a plane or an advert. These contain directions on how to obtain more information. E.g. through a website; hotline, radio programme etc. this seeks to initiate an individual recipient into an information seeker through reinforcement and then to opinion leader through indoctrination.
Conclusion: The paper attempted to introduce participants to the techniques of managing information propaganda as information managers. Key terms were defined while participants were introduced to the basic techniques of generating and managing information propaganda. Part of the lecture also touched on building government which is the key responsibility of information managers.
DEFINITION – Note whatever you cannot define, you cannot solve. In other words it remains a puzzle because it has not definition. Therefore we try to define the key words on this topic.
EFFECTIVE – Produce intended result or a particular role in practice.
MANAGEMENT – process or act of controlling/organizing.
AUDIENCE: – people who are watching or listening.
UNDERLYING FACTORS – very important features, basic ingredients/characters.
FRONT OFFICE – Reception, secretaries, anyone you encounter or meet as you enter a particular office (Usually an organized setting.). Your basic assignment as an information Officer is MANAGEMENT. Management? What do you manage? I do not doubt those questions playing on your mind right now. Basically, you manage information and by extension, you manage the audience you are handing out the information to. As an Information Manager, a lot is expected of you or better still your work schedule spells out a lot. For instance, you are the cynosure of your organization. You are the one person that can work in and for every office depending on the need on ground. How you package and pass down your information is the focus of the management here in question.
A clearer picture would be the event organized by the different Councils and in most cases you have not moderate, compare run, etc. please note that whatever word is used here boils down to MANAGEMENT. Effective Management therefore means the process or act of controlling an issue, a situation, an event in an organization to produce the intended result. It would interest you to note that there are different ways to process or act to produce results. For instance, in our different Councils, we have Solemn Assemblies, get-together parties, receptions for an incoming or outgoing official, children’s day celebration, Independence Day Celebration, Visit of traditional fathers, etc; the handling (management) of one programme differs to the other. The Solemn Assemblies does not carry the usual pomp and excitement a welcome party may carry. The pitch and tone used at the Children’s Day celebration is not same for get-together party.
Rule 1: Look good, presentable, pleasant etc. the Bible says that “as a man thinketh in his heart, so is he/she”. You can never look worse or better that the way your heart is. If your heart is poor, you will appear poor, it your heart is lovely and beautiful, you will definitely appear beautiful. Always bear in mind this expression “dress as you want to be addressed”.
Rules 2: Do not carry a sloppy spirit. Do not carry a downcast spirit. Carry a winning spirit, in other words the “I can do spirit”. Do not go out feeling inadequate, you will never get it done. Step before your audience and be seen. Let this be you arrival statement. Please do not get me wrong here. Do not try to over-shadow you boss. Take instruction from him. Deliver on your given assignments. Give him the confidence that he has a good mouth piece for that is what you are. Always tell yourself from within “I can”. This must always with a sweet smile.
Rule 3: Put on the spirit of the event. A solemn assembly carries its spirit, so does a reception, workers meeting, Children’s Day, Independence Day Celebration as mentioned in the previous passage. Get acquainted with the language of the day. If it is a political meeting, learn their slogans, names and title – No politicians wants to be introduced any less than he is though he would not mind being blown in a larger than human size/proportion. If managing a children’s day event, do not forget that your audience is made up of mostly children and so use language they are family. In familiar with managing a workers meeting, get to know the terms of the workers, e.g. teachers, nurses, etc. do not try to use nursing terms for teachers or farmers, you would loose the audience.
Rule 4: Wear a good sense of humour. Jokes are good but if you cannot make one, please do not force yourself. Do not become a nuisance trying to make people laugh. The best humour you can ever exercise is POLITENESS.
Rule 5: Which might as well be the most important, reason why you are there. You Language/speech/pronunciation: this is everything about what you have to do (the way you talk). If you fail in this, you have failed in all. If you cannot deliver in your language, the event you are handling cannot be said to be successful
Let us quickly look at what can enhance a good language/speech delivery.
1. Proper Breathing: Breath is the basis of speech or the way we talk. Two types of breathing are involved here: (1) The silent (primarily through the nose) (2) the second is the breath we use to support the words we speak. You have got to calculate your pace of breathing.
2. An Effective Voice: An effective voice is good, a voice that is clear and convincing. An effective voice is a voice that does not regard the enemies of good voice (lack of confidence, tension, good old habits – this should be so and that should not be so; man-made should not talk when elders are present).
3. The Untapped Strength: unknown to a lot of people, we all possess the ability to speak well but we do not open up to this ability or do not give it the needed seriousness. Unleashing the full potential of your voice is just a question of little practice. Do not be afraid of sounding like someone you do not know.
4. Pitch: This is the degree of highness or lowness of a voice or a musical instrument. It is important that as you deliver on any given event, you keep your pitch in-between; not high and not low. But also note that there are situations that demand the use of the very high pitch
5. Resonance: This is the quality that a sound has of being deep, clear and echoing. This is brought about by the hallowed space in your body like the chest cavity, throat, sinuses, etc. when you slouch in a chair while you speak, your voice is flat. When you have cold, your voice is flat because the cold has either blocked your chest or throat. You have all the equipment you need to achieve good quality sound. They are there, right inside of you, waiting to be used. Good posture opens up your chest. If you do not have a medical problem, your full throat is another and is waiting to be used. Please note that a deficiency in any of these parts of your body unbalances the whole system.
1. Tuck your stomach in and use your diaphragm to support your words
2. Sit or stand straight but not rigid, shoulders back but not uncomfortably so. Head up but not like an army man at attention.
3. While sitting keep your legs squarely on the floor. This means with legs uncrossed.
4. Use a comfortable calm low pitch as the basis for your speaking voice.

1. Slouching
2. Deep breaths
3. Straining your vocal chords by shouting
4. Tension in any part of your resonating space; chest, nose and throat.
5. Tension in lips, tongue or jaw. A stiff mouth hurts your capacity for clear pronunciation.
Foot Note: As a manager of an audience, your spoken attitude is everything. Therefore, you must learn new words as often as possible. You must of necessity improve your diction. Practice improved diction with friends, family and even your enemies (it does not matter if they laugh at you)
THE FRONT OFFICER MANAGER: You are the first impression of your organization (it is often said that first impression lasts longer). As a front manager please endeavour to do the following:
1. Dress modestly, neat and good colours.
2. Always wear a smile (drop anything that will make you look troubled at the gate of your office like a garment – hang it out there).
3. Be respectful, pleasant and courteous.
4. Do not get too personal with your visitors.
5. In answering the phone, please pick your call after first ring at most second but do not let it exceed the third. And let the smile on your face reflect in your voice.

FACTORS IN TELEPHONE HANDLING: Phone talk is one aspect of talking among many where you cannot see or read the expression on the other person’s face. Though through the e-development technology which has made the world a global village, you can now see the person on the other side using the webcam. In your phone relationship or business, your personality is determined on your voice, your attitude and courtesy. When someone puts down the phone on you while you are talking, when you conversation begins on a friendly note and turns sour. When you are unable to make your feelings or opinion clear to someone on the phone, you can consider each one of these situation as telephone failures.
1. Voice: you have to speak with as much strength and warmth on the phone as you do in person; with the same fullness of voice. Your voice has to convey your attitude and courtesy. This you do by holding the receiver an inch from you – speak into it – do not whisper, do not shout.
2. Attitude: Your attitude can be directed by the sound of your voice. Smiling caller sounds like smiling. Angry callers sound angry even when you do not raise your voice.
Please note: Treat every call as important. Bored callers sound bored. Nervous callers sound nervous.
To improve your telephone attitude, see in your minds eyes the person you are calling. Smile, make eye contact, gesticulate – let your hands really move as much as you can as a person. This way, your warmth, sincerity, interest and your enthusiasm will come through on the phone.
3. Courtesy: Anyone who bothers to pick a phone to call you must of necessity have something to say to you…….or the reason must be serious enough; therefore you must be considerate to pick as soon as the call comes through. But if you rather not talk when the call comes through, please be kind enough to say “I’ll call you back” or “please can you call back?”
1. Hold receiver about an inch and half from your mouth.
2. Identify yourself: Good morning, my name is Blessing Moffat. An Information Officer/Receptionist with Local Government Service Commission.
3. State your business: Get straight to the point and be as clear as possible.
4. At the end of the call. Always display courtesy – Thank you for your help, time or information or sorry – could not be of much help – Good bye.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the business of managing an audience or front desk office is all about satisfaction. The satisfaction here is that of those you serve. When they are happy, they will compliment you and you will be happier for it.
Please bear the following points:
 Understand your audience
 Do not talk too much; only say the necessary.
 Your hands are not talking; it is your mouth so keep the hand action down a bit.
 Use appropriate language
 Connect with your audience
 Sound convincing
 Speak to inspire
 Let your facial expression convey your heart
 Be courteous.
 Do not dress to kill – just look simply good.

We are all aware of the prevalent security risk problems. Since there are these problems the question is how do we manage them effectively, how do we understand what we are doing? This is the gist of our discussion(s).

DEFINITION: What is management? We will not go into the academic exercise of definition but for our purpose we shall look at the general meaning of the word MANAGEMENT.
Management- is the skillful or manner of directing using anything.
Risk – hazard, danger, chance of loss or injury.
Security – the state, feeling or means of certainty. For our vocation the definition could be extended to protection from espionage.
Crime – Violation of laws which violation often times attract punishment.
Since we agree that social, economic, political and cultural setting portends threat to individuals, corporate bodies and even the system as a whole, the question is how do we evolve an effective way of managing the situation and how do we as implementators of Local Government policies State and federal government policies understand what we are doing and get the public to appreciate what we are doing. This question is pertinent because certain policies bordering on ensuring security in the Local Government can be misconstrued to mean many things to many people hence you hear people make comments like:
“Do not mind him he is a busy body”.
“Do you think this work is your father’s job” etc
Some hints on effective security risk management:
1. Identification of the security risk you intend to manage. The risk may be to the individual, objects like building, Valuables like money, documents etc.
2. Putting in place effective countermeasures to forestall or checkmate the identified risk(s).
3. Creating awareness for others to see the need for our measures. Once others understand why we are doing what we are doing, then our job as Departmental – security Officers is made easier.
4. Constant review of measures put in place to manage the identified risk(s). This is very important because the society and system is dynamic hence the risk at one time may not be the risk at another time, or the risk at one Local Government may not be the risk at another Local Government.
OBITER DICTA: What we have done so far in this discuss is to look at –the operational words in our topic, attempt a common definition or explanation. We also look at some hints aimed to ensuring or understanding effective management in Local Government. Of course we recognized the fact that security risk like the society or social system is dynamic hence the need for constant review of security risk management measures, Worthy of note ,is the recognition of the need to create awareness in the minds of people to help our job. I need add here that Department Security Officers in Local Governments act as a bridge between the management of the Local Government and the people hence their job and/or position is very important.

A security conscious and aware executive lives with an activated instinct of minimizing security risk exposures at all times – whether at work, at home or elsewhere. UN (United Nation) programmes are aimed at making, everyone concerned to understand the effective ways to ensure reliable security anytime, all the time. The varieties of ways’ in which an individual may open to security risk are by Design, by Disposition, by Negligence and by Ignorance.
Security – Risk Exposure by Design: This is a conduct to undermine the objectives of another in a manner that may cause a retaliatory transgression. When two parties embark on a joint venture and one party eventually , commandeers’ a disproportionate volume of the remuneration in contrast to the partnership agreement in the venture, such a conduct can create a security ‘” risk exposure for the guilty party – the initial transgressor.
When any management becomes involved in a Hostile, Intelligence Scheme (HIS) within its industry or generally in its environment, such a management is rendering, its organization open to security – risk exposure by design. When an individual decides to flaunt wealth, there is always a security exposure by design. In an economy where there is inequitable, distribution of wealth, such a conduct is an affront to the conventional wisdom of all well – meaning citizens since it is<one of the major ways of destabilizing such an economy. There is nothing more damaging to any economy than when the less- privileged develops a ‘group-think’ that the more privileged are the lucky ones to cheat the system and get away with it. What is still more damaging is when such ‘ conducts become so rampant that it can be confused to be part of the tradition! Indeed, many Nigerians nowadays justify their, “spraying” of money at parties by the misguided view that it is part of the culture of their particular race.
The few examples given above have been seen to be the typical basis for crimes that have been reported in Nigeria over the years. Such crimes have included corporate fraud at national as well as international level. Indeed, the country continues to have a terribly ‘bad – egg’ reputation around the globe, what a legacy to leave for our future generation?
Security – Risk exposure by disposition: This is an exposure which is about either as a result of misguided overconfidence and/or· due to an individual’s cognitive dissonance (as industrial psychologists will say). Misguided over-confidence is a characteristic feature of behaviors in egotistic individuals since these are persons who colour their realities by an atmosphere of individual heroism and who always like others to believe that they are special or unique. Such persons therefore expose themselves unnecessarily through their mannerisms, their continuous ‘rattling’ about their achievements and their deliberate appearance at places where they expect the admiration of everyone around them in the mistaken believe that such communal admiration is a guarantee to security!
Cognitive Dissonance, on the other ‘hand, is where an individual is ‘blinded’ by his or her own background and personal experiences. After surviving life’s experience and performing different jobs and tasks, an individual may come to believe certain inalienable truths. Once the mind becomes hardened with this cognitive dissonance, it is hard to convince the individual that other facts or positions may be more correct than the one held. Many experts interpret this as the twenty – year rule ‘which is prevalent in almost all organizations. The rule is that if an unfavourable event has not occurred within the past twenty years say, the probability of that event occurring is assumed to be zero by the person concerned! For example, if the business or home has not experienced a fire in the past twenty years, the fire procedures will be lax.
Another glaring example, especially in Nigeria today” is the unused or lack of seat belts. Most people do not install and wear seat belts in the belief that because an accident has happened in the past, it will not happen in the future. Indeed, everyone believe that it may happen to others but not themselves! Thus, the twenty – year rule is a widely held “it won’t happen here” philosophy. Once an individual or any senior management falls into this thinking, logical arguments become useless. You can argue with someone about the merits of wearing a seat belt, but if in the mind the person is convinced that he or she is invulnerable, then the argument fall on deaf ears. The danger in security – risk exposure by disposition is that to combat it, people have to be embarrassed into changing their behaviors – and human behaviors is a function of attitude and environment. Furthermore, while environment change can be imposed by the government through decrees or law, it is only a temporal measure. Change of attitude is the long – lasting solution but this is an individual responsibility!
Security – Risk Exposure by Negligence: This is an exposure· which by default, 1S an act of diminished responsibility. Where an individual is incapable of coping with the full scope of responsibilities attached to a particular position, the probability of risk exposure by negligence will be very high: Furthermore such an individual will be given a confounding interpretation to rationalize action decided upon. An executive who deploys security staff without the –necessary organizational procedure for handling basic guard duties as the general or post orders is exposing the organization to security risks by negligence. A householder with an unmanned security post because the security staff has been sent on an errand falls into category as well. Also a car-user intending on continuing a journey with a bad spare tyre will be guilty of risk – exposure by negligence if one of the good tyres is punctured on the way, especially in a remote or unsafe area at bad time such as between dusk and dawn.
Security – risk Exposure by Negligence can be the result of downloading responsibilities to subordinates without adequate training and facilities to enable them fulfill their allocated jobs in an efficient or effective manner .In Nigeria today, many managers in government or private organizations are criticized for failure to perform their job functions correctly. The criticism can be centered around the fact that many managers “rob” their subordinates of the more important job functions and training opportunity. In addition, such managers spend too much time interfering with the performance · of job responsibilities of their subordinate. In many organizations, only the unwanted tasks are downloaded by management, while many other tasks that should also be downloaded’ to increase individual enthusiasm are not.
For example, aspects of security -that relate to investigation of techniques, developing plans, selection of security-tools, information security procedures and security-career development have always been downloaded and ignored ‘by many executives. As such, many organizations simply deploy a guard force compromising individuals with little or no security experience but headed by a retired officer from regimental occupation such as the police or the armed forces. How many of such Chief Security Officers have had adequate refresher training even though they may have had a lifetime of accumulated experience in a national law-enforcement agency? Furthermore, how many of such officers actively participate in management- decision-making in these organizations? How many of their so-called guard force are encourage to have a career in security? Indeed how many ·of such guardforce or administrative line-staff are given the opportunity for security-related training?

Security-Risk Exposure by Ignorance: This is’ an exposure which · is the result of inadequate awareness of the, scope, depth and range of the security issues of relevance in one’s environment. Without doubt, ignorance is not an excuse, for misguided priorities or indeed criminal negligence of responsibilities for any individual or an executive. The major question here therefore is that can any exposure be justified by ignorance? Where management employ junior inexperienced and unskilled labour as messengers, then make them charge hands, then porters and, finally make them guard force staff .without proper security-career related job oriented training is typically of the gross violation in security discipline practiced in many organizations today, especially in Nigeria. Management has to accept the responsibilities for security, and there can be no justification for inept security awareness and consciousness.
Where a house owner recruits a guard without having any job specification or appropriate guidelines for the performances of the guard’s duties, situation is tantamount to having a worker who is paid to open and close gates and sleep outside! To be security-aware, one should appreciate the value of security. The provision of security cover therefore is not a cosmetic · exercise, nor is a simple procedure for protecting tangible assets. In order to minimize security-risk exposure by ignorance, one needs to monitor those activities that require control and reinforce those potential penetration areas of access to resources in one’s jurisdiction. Security is therefore people’s problem and a collective responsibility. Indeed, this is why security-risk exposure by ignorance is the most widely observable in the world around us today, especially in a developing country like Nigeria.
In an economy where the insurance industry effectively relates the extent of security cover to the policy categories and levels of premium, there will be minimal loopholes or shortfalls in national security provisions and there will be a significantly high level of alertness generated in the community to sustain a continuously enhanced social quality of life. Security-risk exposure by ignorance and social quality of life go hand-in-hand. How many executives have realized the ‘chicken and egg’ dilemma of the phenomenon in their lives as well ‘ as in the management decision-making to sustain the viability of their organization?

Looking at this topic, critically, its borders more on protective security rather that intelligence procurement adopted to safeguard personnel against subversion, espionage and materials against sabotage.
PROTECTIVE SECURITY: Protective security consists of carefully planned controls which form an interdependent and inter-locking series of defense in-depth these controls are intended to protect information, material, individual and personnel. They are outlined in the following paragraphs.
LEGISLATIVE MEASURES: Laws, orders and instructions includes the official secret Act 1962. This act prohibits unauthorized disclosure of classified information.
SECURITY DRILLS AND PROCEDURES: This system of security drills and procedures give protection to classified information and materials.
PERSONNEL SECURITY: To ensure that persons whose reliability and trustworthiness are open to doubt are denied access to classified information.
PHYSICAL SECURITY: It’s that part of security which is concerned with Physical obstacles disposed in dept to frustrate attempt to penetrate security defenses.
OFFICIAL SECRET ACT: This is one of the legislature enactments in form of Security Standing order enacted in 13th September 1962 published 20th Oct.1962. The act was applied throughout Nigeria. The purpose was to provide protection for · official information and materials from unauthorized disclosure.
DECLARATION OF SECRECY: Official secret may be compromised by leakage of information. There are particular people who are anxious to embarrass government or obtain improper financial or commercial advantage may seek illegal means to obtain classified information. They are to sign declaration of secrecy forum.
OATH OF SECRECY: As far as possible all personnel allowed access to classified information should swear or affirm to oath of secrecy.
INSTRUCTIONS: There are also do’s and don’ts issued out to maintain and sustain security. E.g. Head of Service for security instructions. All good security principles should be applied in-depth from strength of the perimeter fence and its related alarm system and lighting to the security of the individual buildings.
PATROLLING: Is one of the major means available by which an organization can prevent unauthorized entry into any area or building or detect intruders.
Patrols are always used in conjunction with.
a) Sound perimeter fencing of adequate proportion.
b) Perimeter and internal lighting.
c) Proper screening of windows and other openings.
d) Efficient alarms and other warning signals.
The purpose of patrol varies, but the major one is to ensure that all vulnerable points or key areas are frequently checked to maintain their security against intrusion for any unauthorized purpose. Patrol must be methodical, conscientious carried out under effective supervision.
a) Timing should be intelligently varied.
b) It is wise never to establish a regular sequence nor follow the same route hour after hour or day by day.
Note that the concept of protective security together with target hardening techniques combine to form the philosophy and principles of strategic approach to crime prevention.
INTERNAL THEFT: Protection should where applicable start at the outer wall or perimeter fence which demarcates the extent of the organizations property, and initial access points. After hours these preliminary barricades should form a contentious whole of equal strength. Obviously the fence, wall and gates should present such an image as to deter the average intruders from attempting .to clamber over cut through or bridge it. An ordinary standard security fence should be tape with concertina wire on top to prevent an intruder. As may be appreciated when a fence reaches certain dimensions, intruder will either depart looking for a softer target or may use a climbing devices such a leader, a wooden plank or the roof of a vehicle parked close in against the fence. In addition measures to prevent internal theft should be put in place.
PILFERING: Pilfering has become so rampant in business establishments that it is necessary to highlight its menace. Pilfering refers to stealing in small quantities. The targets of thieves in these establishments are usually vehicle spare parts, radio, computer accessories wall clocks, stationeries and other handy items among others. It’s probably the most common and annoying of the entire hazard facing management or business organization.
Internal theft can become such a financial menace and detriment to operations that a large proportion of serious security efforts may be devoted to its control. Pilferage particularly petty pilferage is frequently difficult to detect, hard to prove and dangerous to ignore.
There are three types of pilferage, which the management of any organization must be prepared to face.
a) Casual pilferage -Act on opportunities
b) Systematic pilferage- its professional, he keeps doing it, one by one until all has be removed
c) Seasonal pilferage: when festival occurred Christmas or sala Pilferage can be a serious threat to security. It is therefore necessary to devise encounter measures which are security arrangement comprising system of control, barriers and other devices and procedures designed to prevent destruction and unauthorized access to buildings and strategic installations.
The type of counter measures may differ from one establishment to another and on the types of items that are vulnerable to theft. Some counter measures are:
a) Access Control (b) Searches of persons, packages and vehicle (c) Visitors Register (d) Guards (e) Fencing (f) Protective lighting (g) Keys and Lock (h) Silent Hours Patrol (i) Intruder detective system (j) Fire Preventions (k) Building, doors and windows.
In countering pilfering internal theft in offices, no matter what ever protective Security measure are installed, we have to take into account the most important factor which is the “Human factor” there is therefore the need to ensure that as much as possible, all personnel employed are of good character. This is not an easy task. This involved personnel security.
In our earlier paper on “understanding effective crime and security risk management in Local Government Service”, we attempted a simplistic definition of operational words like security, management, risk and crime. In this presentation we shall resist the temptation of repeating the definition of those operational words but shall make reference to them in the course of our discussion. However, in this presentation we shall look at some operational words like:
i. Proactive (ii) Interview (iii) Surveillance (iv) Inspection (v) Budget and its preparation.
PROACTIVE SECURITY: A stitch in time saves nine. So the wise saying goes. If you take certain actions or put in place certain measures in good time, such measures could save you embarrassment, reduce your risk and enhance your security. That is why governments be the Local, State or Federal put in place measures to reduce threat and risk, hence the word proactive.
INTERVIEWS: In interviews, we try to elicit front the interviewee the reason for certain behaviours or efforts. This does not extend to prying into individual privacy unnecessarily.
SURVEILLANCE: Of course by definition surveillance is vigilant supervision, Departmental Security Officers have subordinates working under them. To ensure compliance with security rules and regulations in Local Government, subordinates must be taught to be vigilant because the price of liberty is eternal surveillance. DSO must also possess adequate power of superintendence. Surveillance should check intruders, identify strange movement and objects and provide early security warning/signals.
INSPECTIONS: These make for enhance performance in subordinates. Constant inspections of facilities, men at work could make the difference between one DSO and another. Inspection could forestall fire outbreak, help review measures already put in place and put subordinates on top of the security situation in a particular Local Government.
BUDGET AND ITS PREPARATION: We can sit down here and propound theories, recommend measures and issue communiqué, if the fund is not provided and adequate, our efforts are just in vain. Security Budget as the name implies is not a market store issue. Once you do not appreciate this fact you are working behind time. This is because those who bring about this security risk situation are moving with time. They are watching foreign films. They see how most crimes are committed in foreign lands and they attempt those acts here. They also learn on how security arrangements are being beaten and security men caught pants down. So while your security budget must not be an open market affair, it must be transparent realistic and adequate to achieve set goals. The goals might be restricting influx of people into a place, securing document, principal officers of the Local Government and facilities.
It is a fact that Local Government councils are being faced with increasing security risk and crimes. These risks and crimes include:
 Kidnapping
 Sabotage
 Fraud
 Ghost Workers
 Multiple/Duplicated Vouchers etc.
In summary, Local Governments need to put in place adequate security measures to neutralize threat arising from security and crime risk. These risks increase with the explosion of jobless school leavers, militant groups, the craze for quick money, urbanization with developments turning Local Government Areas from their rural settings to urban centres with paved roads, electricity, pipe borne water, improved school and medical facilities, of course without security no meaningful development can take place and DSOs have an uphill task to ensure security in their Local Government of operation.
Management is responsible for the motivation, direction and control of staff and is also charged, with the preservation and profitable use of assets of business. Security of staff and assets are therefore vitally important and a top management responsibility. Fire and burglary loses cause irreparable damage to the viability of a business. Security is not only an attitude of mind but is also an important factor in business efficiency. Management needs to plan carefully and budget its security strategy as the police cannot be expected to supply all their security needs. They need to incorporate a security strategy into their basic organization planning and the budget for their security needs should be proportionate to the threat of risk involved so as to be effective.

The primary aim of any security department, whether in the private or public sector is the protection of the assets of its Principal. The degree of protection that will be offered is limited only by the imagination of the Head of Security and the amount of funds available. It is therefore clear that to achieve the highest possible degree of protection, the HOS/DSQ must first plan to have adequate funds allocated to him and secondly, must plan thoroughly to make the most efficient use of the funds allocated.

A budget can therefore be said to be “an accounting control and management technique used in the planning and control of a business or any organization. It is clear that a budget is a powerful management technique, essential for financial control and an aid to coordination and implementation. With a budget, authority can be delegated easily, but control never surrendered. A budget is therefore the prime example of “management by variance.” The moment activities do not happen as planned, it is brought · to the attention of top management through “exception reports” or deviations from the budget.
Capital Budget: Used to plan for new or replacement fixed assets in an organization it is the fixed investment cost to be in business.
Expense Budget: Accommodates the day-today running costs of a concern. It involves expenditure such as salaries, wages, supplies, uniforms, etc.
Revenue Budget: Details the various revenue which a business expects to receive during the budget period.
Master Budget: Summaries all subsidiary budgets and shows the total planned expenditure and revenue of the concern. It also shows when cash shortages or surpluses will occur and allows for proven financial planning to take the best advantage of available resources.
The budgeting process may be divided into several sections under the following.
 Determining the base. Line
 The planning of strategy
 The planning of activities
 The converting of activities to monetary terms
 Motivation and negotiation
 Integration and summary
 Approval and distribution

THE PLANNING STRATEGY: This is an annual exercise for the Head of Security to be done as part of the budget exercise. The objectives of the security department must be reviewed and new objectives set. It can be achieved through:
 The planning of activities
 Converting of units to monetary terms
 The use of worksheets
 The usage of manpower plan
 Motivation and negotiation.
In conclusion it should be borne in mind that a budget is a forecasting process and can therefore never be completely accurate. Preparing budgets however, forces the security leadership to re-examine his threat survey his countermeasures, and infact his whole security program.
Submitting a professionally investigated and prepared security budget will enhance the standing of the Head of Security and improve the image of the security profession in general.

Risk management is the science of the assessment of risk, and is the technique by which the vulnerability of the enterprise is assessed. The manager should know how to differentiate between pure and speculative risk, determining the correct allocation of resources between operations, crime prevention, fire prevention, safety and insurance. It is a management function, the’ object of which is the protection of people, assets and earnings by avoiding or minimizing the potential for loss from pure risk and the provision of the funds to recover from losses that do occur.
IDENTIFYING THE RISK: Risk management techniques are based upon fundamental principles which in sequence are:
 Analysis and identification of loss exposures in all areas of the organization’s activity including assets and earnings and also in respect of external factors ‘ which could have a bearing upon its interests.
 Evaluation and measurement of the identified exposures, as far as practicable, in financial terms including estimating the likely probability and severity of a risk occurring
 Selection and implementation of risk control methods to avoid or limit any risk occurrence and reduce the consequences
 Maintenance of a system for reporting and recording of all incidents resulting in or which could give rise to injury to persons or loss of or damage to organization’s physical and financial assets.
 The financing of residual risk by determining the likely cost of risk remaining after the application of prevention ‘ and control measures and ensuring that adequate financial resources are available.
The hardest of these tasks is risk identification because it requires a great deal of foresight. It is all too easy to miss a risk, albeit improbable that could have disastrous consequences. By contrast risk control and risk financing are somewhat easier. There is a large range of available techniques for limiting and eliminating risk with well-developed practice while insurance provides risk financing for many (insurable) risks, the main problems for risk assessment is understanding what cover is being made available (due to the complexity of many wordings) and securing the optimum price.
With information gained from security personnel, computer staff, inventory controllers, store men, bank management, previous insurers, general staff, customers and suppliers, a clear price should emerge. Good brokers or risk managers should work with a questionnaire and insurance proposal which will give detail in full of:
 Corporate structures
 Loss history both insured and not insured corporate
 Corporate finance
 Marketing and sales
 Audit: internal and external
 Computer systems and data processing
 Review and management plans
 Details of all assets
 Personnel
 Trustee Operations
 Physical security
 Controls and security
A business impact analysis or risk management survey should give the overview of the risks to which an organization could be exposed, both now and in the future. Computer fraud and fraud is rather like blood pressure, you cannot see the results until it is too late. It can be a silent killer for an organization.
 One must first of all review the existing operation by a survey covering both the physical and logical security of all the organization’s operations.
 Secondly, this survey will enable the elimination or reduction of the problems by developing standards and preparing contingency and disaster recovery plans
 Thirdly the organization will be able to decide on managing the risk by reducing the potential levels of risk to either an amount you are prepared or able to accept. To a level where it is cost effective to transfer all or portion of it by insurance. This exercise will enable you to quantify your risk and exposures, than base your business decisions on known factors as opposed to a guess estimate as is the general norm.
In “Conclusion, senior management must be aware of the dire consequences of a disaster to their organization and the associated potential losses impacting on the company. Risks should be continually reviewed with the total involvement of the entire leadership. Finally,
 Review your existing operation
 Develop standards
 Create contingency plans
 Reduce the possibility of loss
 Review your insurance with an expert

Training helps employees learn job skills and helps the company retain and motivate employees. Training is strategic for: Business goals related to human resources, and Productivity, customer service, and Innovation. Employees are aware that training is essential to their future marketability.

What is training?Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees, learning of job-related competencies. The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skills and behavior emphasize in training programs, and apply them to their day today activities. Training = alternating behavior
What is learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes. These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes. Learning = Permanent change in Behavior

Training design process
Conducting needs assessment ensuring employees readiness for training. Creating a learning environment. Ensuring transfer of training, developing an evaluation plan. Ensuring transfer of training, monitor and evaluate the program
Force influencing the workplace and training
 Globalization
 Need for leadership
 Increased value placed on knowledge
 Attracting and winning talent
 Quality emphasis
 Changing demographics and diversity of the work force
 New technology
 High-performance model of work systems
 Strategic Adviser
 Systems Design and Developer
 Organization Change Agent
 Instructional Designer
 Coach I Performance Consultant
 Researcher
Role and competencies
Roles Competencies
Analysis/assessment role Industry understanding, computer competencies data analysis skill, research skill
Development role Understanding of adult learning; skill in feedback writing electronic system, preparing objectivities
Strategic role Career development; theory; business understanding ; delegation skills; training and development theory, computer competence
Instructor/facilitator role Adult learning principle; skills related to coaching, feedback, electronic system and group processes.
Administration role Computer competencies; skills in selecting and identifying facilities cost benefit analysis; project management; records management.
Managers misconceptions about training
 Training is not valuable.
 Training is an expense, not an investment.
 Anybody can be a trainer.
 The training department is a good place to put poor performers .
 Training is the responsibility of the trainers.

What is development? Development refers to formal education, experiences, relationships, and assessment of personalities and abilities that employees prepare for the future. Development increasing knowledge.
Why is employee development important?Employee development is a necessary component of a company’s efforts to:
 Improve quality
 Retain key employees
 Meet the challenges of global competition and social change
 Incorporate technological advances and changes in work design
To be successful in their jobs employees must stretch their skills. they must be forced to learn new skills, apply their skills and knowledge in a new way, and master new experiences.
Training and development
The scope of Training and Development activities depends on :
 The Policy and
 The Strategy of the organization
Development = Increasing knowledge;
Systematic training – basic circle

Training Policy establish training department
Identify training needs.

Evaluate training plan training
Implement training
Comparison Between Training And Development
1 Focus Current Future
2 Use of work experiences Low High
3 Goal Preparation for current job Preparation for change
4 Participation Required voluntary
What is systematic training: This is a term used to describe well organized training and development.
Training policy: This is a policy statement detailing courses of action that an organization has decided to take on all matters related to t raining.
Training department: The sustenance of training function in any organization is by establishing a training department.
Plan training: This entails such matters as:
 setting budgets and time tables; deciding on the objectives; and content and methods to be employed in the training.
Evaluate training: Having implemented training, it is important to evaluate the result of the training itself. This will inform subsequent changes to content and method if necessary. Event will then move on to identification of new needs, which restart the cycle afresh.
Identifying training needs: At the stage, establish the training and development needs of the organization. This will involve the use of:
 Job descriptions; Employee appraisal records and Other data activities
Implement Training: The implementation of training is usually a joint affair between the training department and other departments in the organization.
Benefit of systematic training: To be benefits 0f systematic training includes:
• The provision of a pool of skilled manpower for the organization
• the improvement of existing skills
• An increase in the knowledge and experience of employees

CONCLUSION: Training can be distinguished from education development as follows:
Training is concerned with imparting knowledge and improving skills, in relation to a job or occupation, whereas, education is a personal preparation for life, and development so far as the work setting is concerned, is aimed at personal growth and realization of potential of an employee. Systematic training is the term used to describe a rational approach to training and development based on the following: A training policy, a training department, the identification of training needs, the planning and implementation of training and finally the evaluation of training.
Definition: It is a process of analyzing the symptoms, deficiencies and causes in order to provide a solution to a performance problem. it makes a trainer to take a stand whether to be proactive or reactive.
Introduction: Identification of Training Needs (I.T.N) is the First Step in Training Programme Development.
a) To diagnose the strength, weakness, remedies and to indicate where to deploy resources
b) Identify Human Skills Deficiencies (Training) and Non-Human Skills Deficiencies (non- training) in an organization.
c) To determine whether training should be focused on skills upgrading or skills broadening,
d) It makes a trainer to take a stand whether to be proactive or reactive.
Proactive trainer
a) Uses his initiatives.
b) Gives systematic training.
c) Uses a before -the-fact analysis of possible performance problems on a continuous basis
d) He verifies the need for training before the problem occurs.
e) He diagnoses areas of strengths and/or weaknesses of the individual! Organization.
f) He allows for identification of performance problems that are related to non- skills deficiencies.
Reactive trainer
a) Reacts to requests.
b) Gives specific type of training for specific group of employees for a specified period of time and at a specific date.
c) Wants to provide solutions to a problem.
d) He gives general training which are unspecific but to meet several needs of his clients.
Techniques for assessing individuals training needs.
1. Job Analysis and Job Description
2. Test and examination 7) questionnaire
3. Career Planning. 8) Interviewing.
4. Critical Incidents. 9) observation
5. Performance Appraisal. 10) Diary method
6. Assessment Centers 11) self assessment
12) Stimulation centre to provide behavior of participants.

Problem solving
 Create awareness
 Define and described the real problem
 Find and analyze facts
 Establish and verify real cause
 Verify that the likely causes did produce the observed effect
 Develop alternative solution
 Choose the optimum solution
 Implement the solution
 Source for the subject matter expert.
Levels of identifying training needs
 Individual
 Occupational/group.
 Organizational
Techniques for assessing group or occupational training needs
 Meeting of management teams.
 Group meeting and discussions.
 syndicates
 group projects
 group creativity techniques
 simulation
 case study method
 behavior modeling analysis
Techniques for Assessing Organizational Training Needs.
 Analyze of records and reports
 Analysis of future trends and opportunities
 Bench making
 Management diagnostic survey
 Management of human resource development Audit
 Attitude survey.
 Organization development
 Re-engineering, re-structuring and performance improvement programs
Hierarchy of skills/ cognitive


Types of objectives
A. COGNITIVE: is concerned with information and knowledge. It is measured through verbal and/or written tests. It has to do with the mental ability of the trainee.
B. AFFECTIVE: is concerned with attitudes, values, feelings and emotions. It is measured through subjective evaluation. This covers the mental and physical ability of the trainee.
C. PSYCHOMOTOR: is concerned with muscular and/or motor skills . It is measured through the results of muscular performance before and after training. It has to do more on the physical ability of the trainee.
Choice of words and types of objectives
A. COGNITIVE: this requires knowledge of specific information necessary for problem Solving (principles, concepts, and generalizations). Use words like DEFINE, DEVELOP, IDENTIFY. For CONDITIONS use words like DEFINE. For CRITERIA this calls for accuracy of information e.g. in not more than 100 words state or refer to a passage.
B. AFFECTIVE: this requires demonstration of feelings, attitude or sensitiveness toward their people, ideas or things. Use words SHOW concern, demonstrate. For condition it has to do more with simulation of ideas. Use words like IN ACTUAL WORK SITUATION, DEMONSTRATE. For CRITERIA this will usually contain action words or verbs. It is usually hard to measure Because of feelings and emotions. Try to introduce MODELS or DUMMIES in t raining situations
C. PSYCHOMOTOR: this requires skills performance. The manipulation of objects, tools, Supplies or equipment. Use words like TYPE, CONSTRUCT, DRAW. For CONDITIONS it has to consider the materials or environment under which the trainee will perform the activity. Use words like IN A GIVEN SITUATION as shown before For CRITERIA accuracy within a certain tolerance, limit, speed, degree of excellence or reference to other materials outlining the criteria for judgment. Use words like ACCORDING TO THE MANUFACTURERS MANUAL.
Definition: A training objective is a statement of expectations from training. It states what the trainees must be able to do (performance) on completion of a stage of training. The circumstances or conditions under which he will do it and the acceptable performance standard he must achieve. It is trainee centered. It has to do with the terminal behavior of the trainees.
 Simple
 Measurable
 Achievable/ attainable
 Time bound
 Evaluable
 Reward
A. It provides the document from which the trainer prepares the measuring instrument by which decision can be made about the adequacy or inadequacy of the trainees performance,
B. When learning objectives are made known to the trainees, they are better prepared to be able to organize their own activities and effect to lead them to the kind of performance their trainer would want to see.
C. It limits the training to clearly prescribed areas.
D. It constitute a complete but concise summary of a lesson, which serves as conceptual framework for the construction of the material itself..
Training objectives(summary)
 Terminal behavior of the trainees
 Required performance of the trainees
 Condition of performance
 Measurable standards of performance
 Avoid using qualifying adjectives (correctly) or satisfactorily as they are hard to measure.
A training aid is anything used by the trainer or trainees in a training or learning situation to enhance the acquisition of new or improved skill or knowledge.
Uses of senses in learning
Studies have shown that our eyes are by far the most important channel through which information is received. And knowledge is impacted.
Factors affecting selection of training Aids
 Learning objective
 Instruction
 Methods
 Special characteristics of the trainees
 Learning task
 Availability of media
Why use training Aids
 facilitate listening/ remembering
 To add interest to the presentation
 To clarify concept
 To increase human capacity for retention
 facilitate the understanding of abstract concepts and unfamiliar subjects.
Types of training Aids
There are basically 3 types of training acids;
 Audio aids e. g tape recorder, microphone, loud speaker lecturer’s voice, etc
 Visual aids e. g posters, picture, handouts, graphics insertions, over head projector, multimedia presentation , etc
 Audio visual aids e. g television, computer, close circuit, etc
Power point presentation
This is a graphic software package that enables the user to highlight important points to a target group.
 It is used today by most training outfits.
 The software once opened, gives four options.
You can work with three of the options. They are;
 BLANK PRESENTATION and the fourth option is;
 EXISTING PRESENTATION that has been prepared and saved.
Template in power point is a pre-design slide that makes presentation look artistic. It offer unique look for your presentation but gives no content suggestions.

Auto content wizard
This is an option that works you through creating a new presentation from the scratch. It provides designed presentations which already contains some suggestions to guide you through your domain of operation.
Blank presentation
This presentation is recommended for learners as it helps new users to learn from the basics. It allows you to start designing your presentation from the scratch that in this case there is no pre-designed template nor is there any suggested content.
Using training aids is very vital to the learning process therefore it is important that you select appropriate training aids to achieve maximum dissemination of information.

Choosing the right training methods and activities is critical in designing effective training. Of course, simply using the right training method isn’t enough to make training effective. You have to use the training activity or tool effectively and use it properly. Here we’ll cove r many of the training activities in the trainer’s tool box, explain them, when they are appropriate or not appropriate, and provide some hints and tips to use them properly. Commonly used delivery methods are:
A lecture is a talk given without much participation by the trainees in the form of questions or discussion.
A lecture is used for sharing knowledge, facts, theories and principles. This is the most commonly used and equally abused method. many have a fixation to this method.
What should be considered when choosing instructional method and strategies
 Trainer skills
 Time available
 Balancing of Various Methods To Suit Learner differences
 Ensuring Adequate Variety
 Taking Adult earning Principles Into Account
 Ensuring interaction Occurs
 Ensuring An Effective Workshop Pacing
 Other factors can also be considered — costs,
 Availability of technical resources, etc.
Lecture method – strength
The major advantages of using the lecture include:
 A large volume of materials can be covered in a short time;
 A sizeable number of trainees can be reached by one trainer;
 The content and sequence are largely under the trainers control;
 The method can be used with other methods;
 Ease of administration;
 Most people are familiar with the method
 It is fairly time saving and relatively inexpensive
Lecture method – weaknesses
The major disadvantage includes:
 Creates a one way communication
 Can be boring
 Difficult to determine the degree of learning
 It is inappropriate for behavior modification
 It lacks enough stimulation and motivation to learn.
Before preparing your lecture consider four(4) basic factors:
a) Who are the target audience
b) What is the objective of the lecture
c) Time
d) knowledge of subject matter.
Discussion method – strength
The major advantages of the discussion method include:
 Provides opportunity for everyone to make some contribution
 Creates an atmosphere of togetherness if effectively used
 Useful for sharing experience and knowledge, clarifying assumption, and increasing individual and group morale and efficiency
 Provides a synergistic effect in a learning situation
 Improves communication skills
 Arouses interest in trainees quickly
Lecture method – process:
For a lecture to be effective as a training method, some basic principles must be considered.
Plan the lecture, Prepare the lecture, Deliver the lecture and Confirm that the instruction has been assimilated.
Discussion method
DEFINITION: A discussion is a training method in which learning is derived essentially from the Trainees themselves rather than from the trainer who only provides guidance as a Facilitator. It involves interaction between two or more participants in a learning situation.
Discussion method – weaknesses
 It is only stimulating and rewarding to the active trainee
 It is time consuming
 Has to be extremely controlled
 To be effective, trainees must have opinions of the subject matter.
 The appropriate physical facilities may be inadequate e.g. there may not be enough syndicate rooms or if available may be some distance from each other.
Discussion method – process
 Determine the overall objectives.
 Why do you intend to lead or use the discussion method?
 What would be the end result you intend to achieve?
 What specific learning outcome do you intend to achieve?
 Define the topic clearly and concisely.
 Gather facts and other relevant information about the topic.
 Arrange your materials in a logical useable form .
 Consider the group. Check for what the group likely knows, feels or thinks about the subject, could there be probable objections or negative attitude to the topic?
 Prepare a Discussion Outline.
Uses of brainstorming
 To get as many ideas as possible from the group before the evaluative discussion takes place.
 To encourage practically minded people to think beyond their immediate day to day issues.
 To generate additional energy in training seminar.
 To encourage quieter or introverted participant to get involved.
 To get ideas and information From the group, so they can learn from each other and not just from the trainer or facilitator or group leader.
 Brainstorming is often used as an icebreaker, at the beginning of a training session to get people talking to each other and into the training, since it tends to be an engaging process.
What Is Demonstration? We can define demonstration as “a skilled performance of a task or technique showing precisely how it should and could be done on the job”. It’s a time old way of teaching, and one based on common sense. It’s one area of teaching and learning where common sense, research and theory converge.
Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a common technique often used by facilitators or in meetings focused on problem-solving in creative ways, but it’s also commonly used in training sessions as a Learning tool, to energize groups, and to provoke discussion.
Drawbacks associated with brainstorming
 During ‘ he evaluation phase (after initial idea generation), ideas are criticized, and some people may become defensive or frustrated, even angry.
 Some people (as with almost all instructional techniques) may not like brainstorming or see it as a waste of time.
 Brainstorming can be somewhat chaotic, which need not to be problematic; but for some it can be seen as too hectic and unorganized.
Role playing: Simply refers to any activity that involves taking on a role and enacting behaviors related to that role. For our purposes we consider it to be a training tool.
What are the advantages of Role playing in Training?
• It encourages transfer of learning by bringing the classroom closer to the real World.
• It is a very participative method of training;
• A good technique for depicting delicate and conflicting situations;
• It provides practical experience in human relations; and
• It is an effective means of changing attitudes.
Role play -Process
• The warm up, The Enactment and Post Enactment
Why use case studies and case based instruction?
• Can create the need to know by evoking curiosity.
• Provides an opportunity to think about application and practice, not just theory.
• Helps with development and application of critical thinking skills.
• Enhance the listening/cooperative learning skills.
• Develop problem solving skills
What are the Disadvantages of Role Playing
The major limitations include:
• It is time consuming and takes considerable time to teach;
• Needs proper handling or management to be effective;
• Some trainees may trivialize the exercise;
• It is difficult to assess effectiveness;
• Difficult in selecting the right type of persons’ who will benefit;
• You need competent players for good results;
• Many role plays suffer from the artificiality of the situation;
• Players and audience may not be serious.
Case Study: A case study is a story about a situation or event that contains a problem or issue, usually a real situation. The case study usually contains information about the problem PLUS information about how the situation was addressed, and the results of the actions taken to solve the problem.
Why use case studies and case based instruction?….con’t.
• Encourages examination of multiple points of view /hearing various voices.
• Builds partnership/ collegiality among learners and teacher.
• Encourages attention to and self-consciousness about assumptions and conceptions,
• Teaches students that there may not be one “right” answer, after all.
Case study – strengths
The major advantages of the case study method are:
• Provides concrete issues for discuss ion;
• Encourages exchanges of ideas and views by trainees and trainers;
• Provides an opportunity to relate theory to practice and thereby facilitate the learning process.
• Facilitates effective utilization of participants or trainees’ experience;
• It is a very participative group method of training
• Provides training in systematic thinking and reasoning about business issues.
Case study – Process
• Determining the session’s objective, Select the material, Analyze the case material, Formulate questions, Handling Questions and Conclusion

Business Game
APPLICATION: The major areas or application of a business game include:
Suitable for giving training managers practice in dealing with management problem/s; For decision making in business settings: Developing trainees’ skills in planning; Interpersonal skills development; and team building.
Case study – Weaknesses
• It takes time to produce or develop a case, Difficulty in validation, Very complex cases can cause frustration in the trainee and therefore loss of morale or motivation, Teaching with a case requires a great deal of skills and experience on the part of the trainer and Trainees can be overwhelmed by the volume of information contained in some cases.
Business Game
DEFINITION: A business game can be defined as a learning exercise in which trainees operates as management teams of imaginary companies in carefully defined competitive markets.
Business Game – Strengths
It is highly participative training method;
• Produces quick feedback of results, Tolerance to mistakes, Participants may identify and accept more readily their shortcomings, Learning can be sped up, Very effective method for teaching and decision making, Good for demonstrating inter-relationship between the business functions and their related activities, It is a creative process and
Motivates and stimulates new thinking
Business Game – Weaknesses
The limitations of the business game are:
• Needs exhaustive pre-game preparation, most trainers who use the method have inadequate knowledge and exposure to real business management;
• Participants may not play the game – may not take the game serious;
• Sometimes the learning objectives are lost sight of, and winning becomes more important;
• Most games are often too quantitatively oriented; and most of the trainers do not have adequate quantitative skills.
Field Visit Methods
This method entails taking the learners to particular site to see what goes on in reality.
• To break the monotony of the classroom situation
• To stimulate learners’ interest.
• To have participants learn at the site.
• Thoroughly brief participants before the field visit and ensure they understand the objective(s) of the visit;
• Give written instructions/guidelines on what to look for or what areas to ask questions on;
• Brief participants on interview/question techniques so as not to embarrass or pressure the owner/manager who will answer questions;
• You may have to split the group into several smaller groups;
• The group should write a report, which they will present in the plenary session.
Business Game – Process
The following process is involved in the use of business games:
• Prepare for the game by organizing the materials for the game;
• Identify and review the objectives of the game;
• Present trainees with information about the company financial position, markets, products etc.
• Assign them different management roles to perform; a group may be in charge of sales, another with production and another with finance, etc.
Using the Field visit
For the field trip to be successful, a lot of preparatory work should be done:
• Trainer should sit and assess its suitability and relevance;
• Trainer should gather as much information as possible to be given to the trainees as background information.
• Make necessary arrangements
• Thoroughly brief the owner/manager of the place to be visited.
• Formalize the arrangement by writing a letter and get the full cooperation and willingness of the organization.
• The group report may be sent to the visited organization if they want it;
• Field trips are time consuming and requires a lot of time for preparation;
• If properly coordinated field trips are a powerful source of learning, providing the bridge between what is learnt in the classroom and what happens in the real world;
• At the end of the presentations, the trainer should neatly tie up the field visit with the training programme.
Conclusion: As you can see, the choosing of the right instructional methods is really a balancing act, where different factors need to be considered and waited. The training designer, or trainer, has to exercise judgment, both in the design process, and in delivering. Often, trainers profit from having various activities to achieve the same objectives, so the delivery can be modified on the fly.
Learning is a change of behavior occurring from the process of internalizing knowledge, skills, or attitudes.

Definition & importance of Presentation
“A structured, prepared and speech-based means of communicating information, ideas, or arguments to a group of interested people in order to inform or persuade them”
To inform, inspire, entertain, demonstrate, prove and to persuade, that is an objective of a good presentation.
Why Presentation Skills Training?
• To structure your presentation to deliver your key messages
• To hide visible signs of nerves
• To maximize voice projection to create impact
• To develop powerful body language
• To design and use visual aids to support your message
• To deliver effective presentations
• What not to do while presenting?
Presentation outline
1. Definition of Presentation Skills.
2. You need to know the audience.
3. You need too rehearse, rehearse and rehearse.
4. You should be Receptive to the Audience.
5. You should structure and present your talk effectively.
6. Use visual aids where you can.
7. Remember that the audience will only remember 3 messages.
Definition of presentation skills
Presentation skills refer to the ability to create positive and lasting impression, by projecting ideas logically, concisely and creatively in tune with the disposition and needs of the audience.
Objective of Presentation
The single most important observation is that the objective of communication is not the transmission but the reception. The whole preparation, presentation and content of a speech must therefore be geared not to the speaker but to the audience
The main problem with this objective is, of course, the people to whom you are talking.
Structure and Deliver your Talk Effectively
Structure Your Talk;
Introductory section
Main section
Deliver your Talk effectively
Controlling ‘Nerves’,
• Aim to form a relationship with your audience.
Make it easy for people to hear and understand.
Use detail sparingly.
Keep any notes brief; Be alert to visual cues; Don’t try to fool people; Allow time for questions; and Handle questions Skillfully
Building Rapport and Trust
-Competence; -Respect confidentiality; -Give participants credit; -Keep your promises and -Be straight with participants.
Use visual Aids where you can
Ditch the bullet points- use pictures instead. The old adage that “ a picture is worth a thousand words” is as true today as it has always been.
You should be Receptive to the Audience
• You are seen before you are heard!
• You’re the first and best presentation tool is you!!
• Create rapport with the audience.
The Audience will only Remember 3 Mess
Veni, vidi, vici (I came, I saw, I conquered) – Julius Caesar.
” Friends, Romans, Countrymen lend me your ears” – William Shakespeare
“Our priorities are Education, Education, Education” – Tony Blair
A Mars a day helps you to work, rest and play – Advertising slogan
Stop, look and listen – Public safety announcement
The audience will only remember 3 mess
“I can promise you Blood, Sweat, Toil and Tears” (Blood, sweat and tears) – Winston Churchill’s: I come, I saw and conquered – Julius Caesar.
My first priority is the economy, my second priority is the economy, my third priority is the economy – Yar Adua, (Vision 20 20 20 – Nigeria) Friends, Romans and Countrymen by William Shakespeare, our priorities are Education, Education and Education by Tony Blair.

Structuring the Presentation
(a) “Middle, “Tell them”, “Points to be made, Support material, examples, references, visual aids and Possible audience objections/queries
(b) The Delivery
“The Eyes, “The Voice, “Expression, and “The Body

(c) “Beginning, “Tell them what you’re going to tell them”, “Getting attention, “Statement of theme, “Building rapport, and “Audience needs
Structuring the Presentation
(d) ‘End, “Tell them what you’ve told them”, Reiterate the theme and Summary of points
Body Language
Do not stand in front of the screen when the projector is on
“SMILE”, “Dress for success, “Knees unlocked, head up and shoulders released down, “Make eye contact, “Breathe and relax, “Do not lock your arms, “Move, “connect with the audience, “Close positively
What to wear
Hair Style, Make Up and The outfit
The three (3) presentation Essentials
• Rehearse, Rehearse, Rehearse
“If you fail to prepare, you are prepared to fail”
“Rehearse against the clock
“Plan to rehearse your presentation out loud at least 4 times
“Memorize your script
“Video or tape record yourself
You must give a structured presentation describing the best day or holiday that you have ever had IN 5 MINUTES, wedding day, birthday, honeymoon, sporting event, passing a driving test, success in education,
• Use Visual Aids where you can, “Use large, bold letters for headlines, “’Not more than 2 different types of fonts in the presentation, “Arial, Comic Sans to be used than Times New Roman, “Charts, Graphs, pictures, etc to be used,
“Transition effects: Blinds, Boxes, Checkerboards, Dissolves & Wipes, “Props: Toolbox, notepads and clock
“The Rule of Three- We remember three things, There are three parts to the presentation and Less is more
Overcoming the fear of public speaking (9Ps)
• “Prior Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance of the Person Putting on the Presentation”.
Know the room, Know Your Material, Learn How to Relax, Visualize Yourself Speaking, Concentrate on Your Message, Use involvement techniques (participation), Learn participants’ names and use them
Establish your credibility early by stating your experience, qualifications, successes etc
Use eye contact to establish rapport
“Obtain information about the audience in advance
‘Manage your appearance (dress comfortably and appropriately)
‘Use your own style (don’t imitate someone else)
‘Introduce yourself to the group in advance (via a social context)

Tips and Techniques For Delivery
If you have handouts, do not read straight from them, Do not put both hands in your pockets for long periods of time, Speak to the audience, NOT to the visual aids, Speak clearly and loudly enough for all to hear
12 tell tale signs that audience is not listening
Start to look down, Touch or rub the face, hand or hair, Eyes glaze over and look at the screen, Fidget Yawn, Flip through their notes, Make copious notes
Sigh heavily, Lie back in the chair and cross their arms, Scan across the room,
Whisper, Tap their feet
Tips and techniques for effective presentation skills
Maintain good eye contact, Talking as you stand, Vary your speaking volume, Use pauses, Do not read your presentation, Give handouts, Prepare and be confident, Use props, stories, questions, clips, examples etc
• Learn the name of each participant as quickly as possible
• Circulate around the room as you speak
• List and discuss your objectives at the beginning of the presentation
Get to the presentation before your audience arrives; be the last one to leave.
Presentation Planning Checklist
Pre – Presentation Check
‘Check the audience seating arrangement. If it is unacceptable to you, modify it to suit your needs
‘Check the podium or stage. Decide how you are going to arrange your workspace to make your talk run smoothly
‘Visualize yourself speaking & make sure you know all your participants name
‘If you plan to use the chalkboard at any point, make sure chalk and erasers are available
Appearance: Make sure you are dressed and groomed appropriately and in keeping with the audience’s expectations practice your speech standing (or sitting, if applicable), paying close attention to your body language, even your posture, both of which will be assessed by the audience.
Visual Aids: Are the visual aids easy to read and easy to understand?
Are they tied into the points you are trying to communicate?
Can they be easily seen from all areas of the room?
• Does your introduction grab participant’s attention and explain your objectives?
• Do you follow this by clearly defining the points of the presentation?
• Do the main points need support from visual aids?
·Is the conclusion strong?
• Have your tied the conclusion to the introduction?
• Are you knowledgeable about the topic covered in your presentation?
• Do you have your notes in order?
20 Most Common Mistakes of a Presenter
• Trying to make an existing presentation work with a different audience.
• Not adjusting “on the spot”.
• Much preparation – what you will say, little preparation – how you will say it, audience has left.
• Not maximizing the opportunity.
The presentation is built around PowerPoint, than making PowerPoint one of your media
• Failure to start at the end.
• Failure to think user-friendly.
• Too much content / Complex graphics.
• Not putting your audience at ease / Not entering your audiences’ world.
• Not stretching your style · A routine introduction, A routine conclusion
No thread running through it.
Lack of convincing passion
Not doing enough outside reading.
No speaking at your optimum speech
• Not learning from other speakers
• Not taking corrective action.
• Lack of learning tools.
Nervous habit.
• The impact of inadequate rehearsal on the audience
• Rehearse against the clock
• Video or tape record yourself

To produce a validated training programme, the following operations must be carried out:
• Analysis of occupation
• Job analysis
• Task analysis
In order to know all the requirements of the job for which training is to be designed, an analysis of the job, the task as well as the skill needed must be carried out.
A job description is a general statement about what a person on the job does and under which condition he does them. A job description consist of the following: Title of job Scope of job (in broad terms) etc.
Examples of Job Analysis
JOB; Service station mechanic
List of task identified with the job, carrying out oil changes in engine and transmission chassis. Servicing the engine cooling system, servicing air, oil and fuel filter.
Servicing battery and trafficator lights, Servicing tyres, Washing, cleaning and general body care, Selling petrol and accessories.
Job Analysis
Job analysis is the process of examining a job and identifying its component part and the circumstances in which each component is performed.
This can be done by either one or combinations of the following
• Direct observation, Interview with the supervisor or job holder, Do-it-yourself, Questionnaires, Work diaries, Other methods
Task Analysis
A task is an element of a job.
A job is made up of several elements called TASK.
Task analysis is the process of identifying the various elements of a task and examining the frequency (how often it is done), the criticality(how critical is it for the worker to have the skill ) and the difficulty(how difficult it is to learn the skill involved ) associated with each element.
Beginning A Task Analysis: An effective method that you can use in beginning a task analysis is to ask yourself:
When beginning a Task Analysis, it is extremely important to perform each of the task in order describe below:
• List out each major task you consider to be the desired performance needed to DO a specific job.
• Place each task in the order or sequence in which it needs to be performed.
‘Take each major task and list out all the subtask and sub-subtasks
‘Use numbering system to index each subtask in order to indicate its subordination.
A vital aspect of any sort of evaluation is its effect on the person being evaluated. Feedback is essential for people to know how they are progressing, and also, evaluation is crucial to the learner’s confidence too. And since people’s commitment to learning relies so heavily on confidence and a belief that the learning is achievable, the way that tests and assessments are designed and managed, and results presented back to the learners, is a very important part of the learning and development process. Learning is provided in order to improve performance on the present job. (Nadler, 1984). People can be switched off the whole idea of learning and development very quickly if they receive only negative critical test results and feedback. Always look for positives in negative results. So always remember – evaluation is not just for the trainer or teacher or organization or policy-makers – evaluation is absolutely vital for the learner too, which is perhaps the most important reason of all for evaluating people properly, fairly, and with as much encouragement as the situation allows.
EVALUATING TRAINING: It is a right process; it is a process of determining significance; it is the analysis and comparison of actual progress of pre plans; oriented towards improving plans for future implementation.
EVELUATION PROCESS: Conduct a Needs Analysis; Develop measurable loaning outcome; Develop outcome measures; choose an Evaluation Strategic plan and Execute the Evaluation
Functions of Training Evaluation
Here are some functions of evaluation :
• Answers the question “How well did we do?” (Qualitative evaluation)
• Answers the question “How much did we do? (Quantitative evaluation)
To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job. To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program. To gather data to assist in marketing training programs. To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs. To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments. To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program.
Here are some kinds of evaluations:
• Internal evaluation
• External evaluation
The evaluation should be done in a culturally appropriate way which gives an accurate picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the training program or activity.
There are three stages of evaluation:
• Pre training evaluation (Preliminary evaluation)
• Formative evaluation (Ongoing evaluation)
• Summative evaluation(Final evaluation)
Each stage involves the following tasks:
• Deciding what needs to be evaluated
Carrying out the evaluation
Collecting evaluation data
Analyzing the data
Reporting the outcome
Revising as necessary
Evaluating the revised program or activity
Choosing a method that you can use for evaluation and testing depends on factors such as the following:
‘What you are evaluating or testing.
‘The purposes of the evaluation.
‘The resources available.
‘Other factors unique to each situation and culture.
Outcomes used in Evaluating Training Programs
Affective Outcomes
Include attitudes and motivation, Trainees’ perceptions of the program including the facilities, trainers, and content.
Determine the training program’s payoff for the company
Training Outcomes: Kirkpatrick’s four-level Framework of Evaluation Criteria
Level Criteria Focus
1 Reactions Trainee satisfaction
2 Learning Acquisition of knowledge,
skills, attitudes, behavior
Improvement of behavior
on the job
Business results achieved
by trainees
Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs
Cognitive Outcomes: Determine the degree to which trainees are familiar with the principles, facts, techniques, procedures, or processes emphasized in the training program. Measure what knowledge trainees learned in the program,
Skill-Based Outcomes: Assess the level of technical or motor skills. Include acquisition or learning of skills and use of skills on the job.
Affective Outcomes: Include attitudes and motivation, Trainees perceptions of the program including the facilities, trainers and content.
Determine the training program’s payoff for the company
Return on Investment (ROI) -Comparing the training’s monetary benefits with the cost of the training. Direct costs, indirect costs and Benefits
Evaluation of Workplace Learning and Training
For effective training and learning evaluation, the principal questions should be: To what extent were the identified training needs objectives achieved by the programme? To what extent were the learners’ objectives achieved?
What specifically did the learners learn or be usefully reminded of? What commitment have the learners made about the learning they are going to implement on their return to work?
Evaluation of Training: There are the two principal factors which need to be resolved:
• Who is responsible for the evaluation processes?
• What resources of time, people and money are available for evaluation purposes?
SENIOR MANAGEMENT- Training Evaluation Responsibilities
Awareness of the need and value of training to the organization. The necessity of involving the Training Manager in senior management meetings where decisions are made about future changes when training will be Essential. Knowledge of and support of training plans. Active participation in training events. Requirements for evaluation to be performed and require regular summary report. Policy and strategic decisions based on results and return on investment data.
And back at work, the questions should be:
How successful were the trainees in implementing their action plans?
To what extent were they supported in this by their line managers?
To what extent has the action listed above achieved a Return on Investment (ROI) for the organization, either in terms of identified objectives satisfaction or, where possible, a monetary assessment.
Responsibility for the Evaluation of Training
Senior management, the trainer, Line management, the training manager, The trainee Each has their own responsibilities.
The line Manager –Training Evaluation Responsibilities
Work-needs and people identification, Involvement in training programme and evaluation development. Support of pre -event preparation and holding briefing meetings with the learner. Giving ongoing, and practical, support to the training programme.
Holding a debriefing meeting with the learner on their return to work to discuss, agree or help to modify and agree action for their action plan.
Reviewing the progress of learning implementation. Final review of implementation success and assessment, where possible, of the Return on Investment,
Here are some benefits of assessing Training:
• Evaluation helps determine the extent to which training objectives have been achieved, Evaluation gives insights for reviewing, adjusting, and revising goals, schedules, and procedures.
• Evaluation improves the future planning and implementing of training.
THE TRAINEE OR LEARNER- Training Evaluation Responsibilities
Involvement in the planning and design of the evaluation process where possible. Obviously, to take interest and an active part in the training programme or activity. To complete a personal action plan during and at the end of the training for implementation on return to work, and to put this into practice, with support from the line manager. Take interest and support the evaluation processes.
N.B. Although the principal role of the trainee in the programme is to learn, the learner must be involved in the evaluation process. This is essential since without their comments much of the evaluation would not occur. Neither would the new knowledge and skills be implemented.

There are many different ways to assess and evaluate training and learning.
Remember that evaluation is for the learner too -evaluation is not just for the trainer or organization. Feedback and test results help the learner know where they are, and directly affect the learner’s confidence and their determination to continue with the development. Evaluation of training can only be effective if the training itself is effective and appropriate.
Consider people’s learning styles when evaluating personal development. Written tests do not enable all types of people to demonstrate their competence. Evaluating retention of knowledge only is a very limited form of assessment. It will not indicate how well people apply their learning and development in practice. Focus as much as you can on how the learning and development is applied, and the change and improvements achieved, in the working situation.



I crave the indulgence of distinguished participants to please permit me thank the organizers of this special Workshop for deeming me fit to present a key note paper in this august gathering. The title, ‘Managing Change from Public Service Orientation and Mentality to that of Private sector’’ in my opinion, is the best subject for Key-note Paper in a workshop of this nature. We must be ready to adapt to ever changing world condition otherwise an individual may be seen as outdated. We are in a dynamic society “the scene of this world is changing”. The selection of the title as a Key-note Paper is a proof that the Consultant is very conversant with the common problems affecting mostly retired public servants. I have no doubt in his knowledge in this sort of training having known him for over three decades in this profession.

I can say for certainty that when I retired as a Director from the service of Akwa- Ibom State Government, nine (9) years ago, I can remember vividly what I passed through in managing change from public sector orientation and mentality which I was used to for good thirty five (35) years. Private sector is truly different terrain for retired civil servants to track on hence paper of this nature becomes absolutely necessary for those who are retiring from the service. Participants should therefore thank the Commission for this magnanimity.

You should note that this paper is aimed at projecting your mind to type of life you are likely going to experience in retirement. I have looked through the title of all papers that are to be presented at these paper facilitators. All of them are on life you are likely going to experience when you leave the public service finally. Therefore it is my candid advice for all of you participants to pay more than usual attention to every paper and discussions to be presented. This is the best thing Government has done for you. You may not have this privilege again. The level of absorption of every points discussed here will determine to what extent you have personally appreciated and benefit from this gesture otherwise, you have yourself to blame. Facilitators on the other hand are experienced retired high profile public servants. The experiences they are going to relate in their papers and discussions should be taken note of by each of you.

At the end of this paper, participants will be able to:
• Define change.
• Discuss change as needed among retired civil servants and how they can manage it.
• Examine public service orientation and mentality and,
• Identify the need to adjust to private sector orientation and mentality.

According to Merrian – Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10th Edition, change is defined as follows:
‘To make different in some particulars
‘To give a different position, course or direction to’’
‘To make a shift from one to another’’
‘To undergo transformation, transition or substitution’’
From the above, Change can be broadly defined as the alteration, rearrangement or total replacement of a phenomenon, activity, value or process through a succession of events. This definition helps to place events at the centre of our analysis.
As a retiree you will see the need to change many things in your life once you will leave service, e.g. your pattern of spending and attitude towards people in particular. This is the essence of this paper: to groom you to identify the necessary change(s), you need to make to enable you live a happy and satisfying life in retirement. “life After Retirement, Employee’s Companion”. Is a book I encourage you to buy and read it as you will not Regret having it.

WHAT IS ORIENTATION? In most organizations, new employees are normally given an orientation course before they settle down to do the work they were employed to do. The purpose of orientation course is to enable new employees to know and understand how work is done in that organization. It is a process that introduces new employees to their job, superiors and peers. Effectively performed, it reduces start-up cost, amount of anxiety and hazing that new employees are likely to experience. Employees in the public sector are not different. After being trained on particular way of doing things, and the person become used to the routine work for thirty five(35) years or thereabout, that individual becomes completely used to and familiar with the routine work of his employer. His actions, attitudes and understanding of issues are tight to the system he has been for such a long period of time.

DEFINITION OF MENTALITY: Mentality is defined as “the particular attitude or way of thinking of a person or group”. Civil servants in Nigeria are known for having mentality that is very different from those of private sector in many aspect of life. Some of these mentality would be highlighted in this paper and other papers. In the public sector – nay – government, cash profit is not necessarily the basics of setting up some establishment but to provide social or essential services. Hence some civil servants exhibit care free attitude to their work. If the organization fails, employees may be transferred to another Ministry, Department and Agency (MDA). Whether the organization succeeds or not, they are sure of their salaries and allowances.
PRIVATE SECTOR ORIENTATION AND MENTALITY: In the context of this paper, private sector is not limited to organized organizations that are not owned by government but by private individual(s) who employs people to work for them like Government, e.g. Bank, Dangote Group of Companies etc. Private sector here includes business that is set up by one man or woman to provide himself or herself with employment. These are normally called “self-employed”. Most Civil Servants may opt for being self employed soon after your final exit in Government service, while some may like to take up part-time employment with organized private sector.
Whatever your decision may be, orientation and mentality in private sector is quite different. For example, in private sector, an outstanding orientation and mentality is to make reasonable profit on whatever business the organization or individual is engaged in. To achieve this, the life style of workers is such that must attract potential customers to the organization and at the same time, retain the existing customers. When employees or self-employed fail to exhibit this qualities, the organization and or the business of the self-employed is bound to fail.

It is sad to observe that the standard of living of most civil servant dropped drastically within a very short time after retirement. This is one of the reasons that have prompted Governments, Federal and States to make this provision (Retirement Training) for retiring employees so that such trend may not continue as it is an embarrassment to the government as employer. Managing change from public service orientation to that of private sector stem from employee’s mental awareness and acceptance that whatever thing that has a beginning must also have an end. An employee who had this mental awareness right from day one he or she started work will not have problem of managing change when retirement comes. Change from public sector orientation and mentality are needed because you will move into a system where success depends on your goodwill, satisfied service to your customers or patrons and making of profit on whatever thing you intend to do. Such attitude like laziness, care-free life, egoism, random spending etc need complete changed. You have to embrace the attitude of hard-work, honesty, punctuality, friendly life, humility, prudent management of lean resources, making of profit and proper book-keeping.

CONCLUSION: I congratulate you all for your diligent service to Government over the years until this glorious period of your approaching retirement. Therefore, look forward to your retirement day with confidence and optimism. Beware of self pity, it tears people down and ruins their progress. Rather, be determined to succeed. People like you have made great name for themselves for what they have done after retirement.

INTRODUCTION: Ten people bought brand new motor vehicles of the same make in, the same month of the same year. At twenty years, only two or 20% of the people were able to have their car still serviceable. Three or 30% of the people find the scrap of their car in their compound. Five or 50% of them could not trace even the scrap of their vehicle. What could be the reason for this? Hold your answer to the end of this paper.

Similarly, one hundred (1OO) people got employed in Government service the same month of the year. They all retired at the same time after thirty five ( 35) years of service. Twenty (20) of these people or 20% live comfortable life in retirement whether pension is paid or not. Thirty (30) of them or 30% live manageable life after retirement even if pension is not regular. But fifty (50) or 50% of them made headline news of suffering due to non-payment of pension for their survival.

Hold this two illustrations as food for thought to see which group of these people you will belong when you retire.

AIM: This paper is to identify, discuss and examine the areas that normally posses challenge to mostly retired civil servants and how you can overcome challenges.
Such areas will include:
i. The perception of people towards retirement.
ii. Improper management of time, diet, health, and leisure in retirement.
iii. Self pity and feeling of regret.
jv. Inability to know the cause of unhappiness in retirement and key to living a happy and satisfying life in retirement.

OBJECTIVES: At the end of this paper, participants will be able to:
a) Identify how to overcome common problems that retired civil servants normally face.
b) Examine what attitude they could lead in retirement that will enable them to live a happy and satisfying life in retirement.
c) Identify the challenges of life in retirement and how to face them.

Before discussing perception of people towards retirement, let us first of all know what is retirement.

DEFINITION OF RETIREMENT: Collins Concise Dictionary (1986 Reprint) defines retirement as “giving up or being caused to give up one’s work, especially on reaching pensionable age”
Another school of thought, Phil Long in his book, “Retirement: planned liberation”, defines retirement as: “the state or condition of being withdrawn from society or publicity, or a withdrawal from occupation or business activity”.
Still, another school of thought, N. S. Akpanmkpuk in his book, “Life After
Retirement, Employee’s Companion”, defines retirement thus: “a time or period of withdrawal, departure, giving up or leaving what a person used to be doing for his employer over the years because of expiration of period of his employment, whether he is old or not”.
All the above definitions confirm what the Bible says, in everything, there is an appointed time”, This means employment has an appointed time. But sadly not all employees accept this simple fact hence some used to grumble when notice of retirement is given to them. Such ones form the fifty ( 50) percent stated in the introductory part of this paper. Acceptance of retirement in good faith is therefore the first challenge that many employees used to face. is any of you here among such group of employee?

How are the four words above pass challenge to retired employees? Before we find answer to this question, let us know, what is challenge in the first instance?
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 7th Edition defines challenge as: “a new or difficult task that tests somebody’s ability and skills”. This definition fits our discussion and how it affects retired employees.

Ability and skill of retired employees to manage his own time, diet, health and leisure is a new and difficult task to him/her hence, it becomes a very big challenge which many have been unable to cope with. The reason is that these individuals have been in position of carrying out directive of somebody for good thirty five (35) years or thereabout that some of them lost sense of initiative. All employee is bound to comply with the terms of his employment and consequently, his time, diet, health care and leisure are predicated by his employer’s condition of service. On retirement, an employee has the whole twenty four (24) hours of the day at his disposal to use as it pleases him. This task must be difficult as the dictionary says and also a big challenge considering the fact that he had depended on somebody to direct him on what to do for good thirty five (35) years or thereabout. This fact has been major problem that have caused many retired civil servants to drop in standard so soon after retirement. Many of them did not believe in retirement so as to start planning for it early enough.

HOW TO ABATE THE CHALLENGE: The book, “Life After Retirement, Employee’s Companion” has given detail Remedies to overcome this perennial problem. Please, permit me to quote a portion of the book in this paper thus:
‘this book has given a comprehensive and simple guide on how to plan for one’s retirement for comfortable living in old age no matter a person’s level. Individuals who adapt the ideas and put them into practice will certainly benefit and enjoy a reasonable standard of living his old age.
Government Ministries, Department and Agencies as well as other employers of labour can see employee’s retirement planning as a collective responsibility. They can assist employees to understand how to put the ideas given in this book into practice by inviting the Author to address them in a special seminar on “Retirement Planning”.
SELF PITY AND FEELING OF REGRET: Self pity and feeling of regret is another area of challenge to most retired employees. To such people, they did not have mental acceptance that one day, they will retire from the service of their employer. For this reason, they failed to plan but depended solely on the employer’s benevolence. Since retirement is inevitable, one day those employees proceed on retirement and as far as they are concerned, their only hope for survival is pension from their employer. When the expectation fails, they make headline news and feel regret for having been a civil servant. Self pity and feeling of regret for the work one was doing from youth is suicidal and none of you here should think of making such a mistake. This Paper is to inspire you to understand that there are opportunities you can exploit and become employer of labour when you retire finally. That Is why information in all papers are rich enough for you to adapt and put into practice. All facilitators are successful officers who retired many years ago in government service and or private sector and they have no regrets one day for being a retiree.

CONCLUSION: Retirement is a time when an employee should live in happiness after spending all his youthful and adult years for the service of his employer and humanity. But regrettably, some retired people lost their happiness and satisfaction due to many factors. These factors are discussed in Chapter 10 of the book, under reference.


INTRODUCTION: A reasonable knowledge and understanding of business and investment opportunities suitable for retired employees are necessary for retiring employees if they have intention to go into business after retirement. I have chosen, therefore, to discuss this paper under the following sub-headings:
• Introduction to business (i.e., what is business?)
• The objective of doing business
• Business Environment
• Ways of setting up a business and giving life to it
• Factors influencing the choice of the business we want do
• Pre-startup activities
• Effective management
• Effective keeping of business records
• Ways of attracting and keeping customers, and conclude with
• Investment opportunities suitable for retired employees.
I have also chosen to use interactive and participative methods of presentation.
Therefore, please be ready to interact with me and participate in the presentation.

What does this paper seek to achieve? The following:
• To state and explain the true concept and nature of business and the effective and profitable ways of doing it;
• Explain clearly the factors influencing the choice of a business; and
• Disclose the types of business suitable for retired employees.
Hopefully, these objectives will be achieved at the end of this presentation. The question is: What do you (participants) stand to gain from this paper?

The benefits of this paper include the following:
• A clearer understanding of business, the most effective way(s) of setting it up managing it successfully and profitably;
• Gaining the capacity to pinpoint precisely the particular type of business suitable for retired employees which they can do successfully.

INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS: What is business? Business is any legitimate, commercial activity carried on by an individual (or group) to generate revenue (or income) to meet one’s needs. Every business activity that generates income must be carried out in such a way that the cost of running it is more than the profit made. (When the cost of running a business the profit made, that business is running at a loss, When it is equal to profit, it is just a breakeven point. When it is reasonably lower than the profit it has made, it is a breakthrough (has made profit). Such profit should be the net profit.

THE OBJECTIVE OF DOING BUSINESS: Why do we do business? Business is done to meet the needs of the businessman/woman such as shelter, food, clothing, etc; also to meet the needs of society, e.g. bore hole business to give people water. The Objective of doing business varies but basically it is for survival of man and the society at large.

BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: This refers to the framework, atmosphere or condition under which we do business-political instability/stability, insecurity, depression, low value of Nair low government encouragement (not providing enabling environment – electricity, road and other infrastructure.) This can affect the way we conduct our business, e.g. we cannot do any meaningful business without electricity.

WAYS OF SETTING UP A BUSINESS: As private enterprise (one man business or sole proprietor); as partnership(two people joining together to do business); as private Limited Company – Ltd; as Public Limited Company – Plc; as Cooperative Society. All of these require registration with Government, i.e. with CAC. Each has its advantages/disadvantage in terms of ownership, control and raising of capital. Most SMEs are sole proprietorships- distributorship business, service provider, trading, repairs, etc.

This simply refers to demand and supply consideration – will people patronize the business? Will I be able to meet the demand for the goods or services I want to provide?

The following are the things to do before starting a business:
• Business Feasibility Study -This is done to find out if the proposed business will succeed or not. This is conducted by experts; it will help the businessman determine whether to go into such business or not.
• Site/location – Choosing a good site will enhance success while a bad site will decrease or diminish success.
• Choosing a Business Name – A name of a business is chosen to separate the business from the owner and make it easy for people to deal with the company as an entity. Only Ltds, Plcs, and Unltds Companies can use fictitious names (names not directly traced to owner(s) of the company). A business name should be coined to be catchy to the eyes, sweet to the ears and simple to pronounce, not too long, not too common.
• Registration with Government (CAC) – It is legally required to register, your business with Corporate Affairs Commission to have a Certificate of Registration or Certificate of Incorporation so as to protect the business approved for you to do and concentrate on what has been approved for your company to do, Sometimes registration with CAC alone is not enough, Some professional bodies and Commissions must give license before your company can carry on such business, e.g., NBA, NMA, COREN, Pharmacy Council, NCC, etc.
• Raising start-up capital – The money you need to start your business can be yours entirely or jointly raised or a loan obtained from a financial institution such as: BIO, Micro Finance Bank, Thrift Organization, etc. The larger the capital the larger volume of business and vice versa. One must also know and follow up what Government is doing to provide start-up capital.
• Equipping Your Business Office – Equip your office in an attractive way using good paint and arranging things attractively. Let your business place look inviting, good-looking and neat.
• Opening for Business – Some business require intimating the locality that you are opening for business. Some do not require doing this. Whatever is the case, set a definite date to open for business officially. There are other activities involved to open for business.

MANAGING THE BUSINESS: Having your own business is a good thing but it can also be challenging to run or manage successfully. This is actually the aspect of a business that makes people different some are good managers, some are not. To manage your business successfully, the following principles should be put into practice:
• The Principle of Customer Satisfaction. This is a core principle in managing a business profitably. Every customer coming into your business place to do business with your company expects to be specially well treated and well served on his own merit whatever is his status/class in life unless a mad person. In fact this is what the Government is trying to do by what is called SERVICOM (Service Compact or Service Delivery). In the principles of Customer Service, the customer is regarded as the king, and is always right. His complaints whether genuine or not must always be listened to and given sincere attention even if there are many customers to attend to. Customer Relations is therefore very important to successful business management. When customers are well-treated and well-served, they feel happy to come back next time; if they are not, they will not. And if your business continues to lose customers, you can be sure that you will be out of business.
• The principle of Quality & Reliability of Service. The product or service given to customers must be of good quality. Poor quality will not impress him. To this end, qualified and trained staffs must be employed to handle your business correctly. Reliability of service/product means that the customers can always be sure of getting the service they have been getting each time they come. This means that the service provider must always be there to provide the needed service / product. It is discouraging if a customer comes today and gets service but the next day no one is there to provide the service/product.
At this point we want to brainstorm a little to assimilate the principle of QRS.
Let us use PHCN (NEPA) as a case to examine the principle of business management called QRS. PHCN renders a public service of providing electricity to the public. Using the principle of QRS, will you agree that PHCN is doing well? If you open your business, is that the way you will run it?

WAYS OF ATTRACTING AND KEEPING CUSTOMERS: This has to do with advertising or publicizing your business. Business has to with turnover and making profit. So what do you do to attract more people or greater patronage of your business? A lot of things can be done. You will recognize that much marketing strategies are used. Some advertise their business on TV, Radio, Newspaper and Billboards. Some use promotions. If you do not have much money to do these, you use what is called grass root method. It involves a simple flyer that is well written and distributed randomly but sensibly to advertise your business. Experts can help you do your flyer in the most effective way.

KEEPING BUSINESS RECORDS EFFECTIVELY: Whatever the nature/size of business, the records of stocks, sales, income and expenditure must be faithfully kept properly. This is simple book-keeping. This will make it easier for you to determine if your business is profitable or not. Proper and accurate receipting must be adopted to check fraudulent activities. Other internal control measures must also be put in place.
INTRODUCING YOUR BUSINESS TO OTHER ORGANIZATIONS: This will involve writing proposals and simple letters of introduction on what your company does and approaching other organizations to present and discuss this with them to patronize your services/products. Doing this means that you are looking for bigger jobs or contracts. It means that you or your Manager(s) will be outgoing to represent your company and that your company will be prepared to do the job if it is awarded to it. After completing the job/contract your company is likely to be paid in cheque. Therefore, opening a bank account for your company with the Bank of your choice will tell you the requirements for opening such account. Not quite long, your company will become completely corporate, handling big contracts even for Government, employing many hands and existing on its own permanently, while you enjoy the benefits for as long as you live and hand down the company to generations to come just as Mr. A.G. Leventis.

• Ability to plan, organize, direct, supervise and control;
• Patience, self-control, dedication, hard work, diligence, intelligence,
Integrity, honesty, reliability and good human relations, among others.
At this point we want to brainstorm a little and see if we remember what we have learned so far.

ACTIVITY ( For Readers):
• What is business?
• Why do we engage in business?
• What condition or environment ensures a successful business?
• In what forms can we establish a business and which form falls under SMEs?
• What is advisable to do before going into a particular business?
• What are some things to do to ensure good management of a business?
• What are some business a retired employee can do and why?
. • How important is accurate keeping of business records?
• What can be done to introduce your company to outside world?
• What are the attributes of a good business manager?

We shall now examine the crux of this paper, namely, business and investment opportunities for retired employees. So let me ask you first: What will you like to do after leaving service? One basic consideration for answering this question is known as “what I can do”. lt is not “What I think I can do”
If an employee has been a sedentary worker (white collar staff) or factory worker (blue collar staff) for 35 years or there about and now leaves that orientation to start afresh a
new work, what type of new work will suit him? Experts agreed that it should be something he can do, something similar or nearer to what he was used to. Do you agree?
Based on this principle, let us brainstorm a little:
• Can you think of a private business that is closer in nature or similar to sedentary work? Please tell us. Raise your hand and answer.
• Can you think of a private business that is closer or similar to non-sedentary (blue collar) work? Please tell us.
In his book titled “Life After Retirement, Employees Companion, 2nd Edition”,
Akpanmkpuk, N. S. (2011) listed some of the businesses a retired employee can do to include:
• Distributorship, Nursery School, Health Clinic, Barbing/Hairdressing, Small scale manufacturing, Hotel/Catering services, Business Centre, Video Coverage/film production, Chairs/Canopy rentals, Supermarket, part-time teaching, Consultancy service, farming/poultry, publishing/book writing.
A closer look at these businesses reveals that they are not too stressful and do not require much physical strength and are almost similar to the nature of work which some retired employees are used to, bearing in mind the principle of “What I can do.”

1. Akpanmkpuk, N.S (2011): “Life After Retirement – Employees Companion, 2nd Edition”, published by N.S. AKPANMKPUK & CO., Abuja, Nigeria.
2. Prof. Nwachukwu, C.C (2006): “Management Theory & Practice, Revised Edition.” Africana First Publishers Ltd.
3. Dr. Itauma, E. (2012): “Performance Improvement in Organization through training & development.” A paper presented at a Workshop on Target Setting, Feb. 2012.


INTRODUCTION: Prior to promulgation of pension decree 102 of 1979, a retired government employee did not bother himself on what to do after retirement. This was so because, age cheats was the order of the day, hence, employees could remain in office until they become very old before they were allowed to retire. Pension was as certain as salary and was enough to sustain the old man who did not have any child to train or any other responsibility to carry. Pension Decree 102 of 1979 abolished age cheat and made it mandatory for employees in both public and private sectors to retire from service on attainment of age sixty(60) or by serving his employer for thirty five(35) years whichever comes first. With improved standard of living in Nigeria, an employee who retires from service either on age or years of service is very strong and vibrant with many still having children in school and other basic responsibilities to carry.
This therefore, requires retired employees to engage in something else to do and earn income as pension is never enough and regular, and also, to be socially relevant in the society to ensure his longevity.
AIMS: This paper is designed to give participants background information on:
i) The objective and principles of doing business after retirement.
ii) Risks associated with business and how to abate.
iii) Dangers and challenges of managing retirement benefit/gratuity – short, medium and long-term implications.

OBJECTIVES: At the end of this paper, participants will be able to:
i) Examine the right motive or objective of doing business after retirement
ii) Discuss the basic principles of doing business after retirement.
iii) Identify the dangers and risks of managing a business.

OBJECTIVE AND PRINCIPLES OF DOING BUSINESS: It may be obvious that all or most of you participants must have made up your mind on what business venture you may likely engage in once you retire. Whatever you might have decided, I am sure you will find information given in the last paper on Overview of Nigerian Business Environment as useful guide. The next paper will equally give you a good guide too. Now, we want to discuss on the objective of doing business by retired employees and principles to be observed in carrying out any business venture by a retiree.
OBJECTIVE: Generally, it is believed that the objective of doing business is to make money. But for a retired person his objective of doing business is different. The objective of doing business by a retired person include the following:
i) To prevent him from being isolated.
ii) To enhance longevity.
iii) To be socially relevant in the society.
iv) To make money to augment income from pension.
The principles to guide retirees in setting up business can be summarized as follows:
1. Health,
2. Interest and capacity to do the business,
3. Financial standing,
4. Training and Experience in the business, and
5. Location of the business.
Many retirees who did not take into consideration the importance of the above principles have suffered great loss of their retirement benefits and health before they come to realize it. A retiree should note that the business he intends to do should be such that will not require too much of his physical exertion, otherwise he will have many health problems. They should also note that the primary aim of doing business after retirement is to make him to be socially relevant in the society. This will prevent him from being isolated as such can affect his longevity. Ignorant of this fact have been a major factor of early death of most retired public servants.

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH BUSINESS AND HOW TO ABATE: When the motive of doing business after retirement is solely on making money and become famous, there is every tendency for that individual to ignore the general risks associated with running a business. He will equally not know the risks that are peculiar to certain business ventures. Unfortunately, many Nigerians, especially retired public sector employees do not believe in getting business knowledge and or advised from business Consultants before they start setting up the business. They do not also believe in doing ‘feasibility studies’ so as to foresee the risks or otherwise and profitability or otherwise of the business he intends to do. The reason is simple, most of them do not believe in expert advice. They consider such expenditure as a waste of money.
The consequences of going into business after retirement without knowledge of business etiquette always result in:
1. Making wrong choice of business.
2. Improper management of time, diet, health and leisure.
3. Failure in the business.
4. Regret etc.

Section 4 – sub-section 1. a, band c of Pension Reform Act 2004 allow retired employee to manage his retirement benefits by himself. To this end, the total retirement benefits are made available for retiree. He has the option to decide who should manage his pension nay-his PFA or Insurance Company. He is also to decide the percentage of his retirement benefits to be given to his PFA or Insurance Company to pay him his pension monthly or quarterly on system called Programmed Withdrawal or Annuity. He is however to follow and comply with the guidelines given in the aforementioned section of the Act. The new pension law is to relief retired employees of the suffering and delay in receiving their pension and gratuity. But on the other hand, it posses danger and challenge to retirees to manage the funds by themselves especially, the improvident ones. At this juncture, I feel it is necessary to give you a little brief about the scheme.
The reason is that there is a plan to amend the Act to make the scheme to bind States and Local Government employees. Secondly, there is a move by Federal Government to abolish completely, the pay-as-you-go scheme and the accrued pension for those presently receiving pension under pay-as-you-go be transferred to PFA to pay as stated in section 4.1 a, band c. of PRA 2004.

Retired employees in the Unified local Government service of Akwa Ibom State are not immune from the dangers and challenges of managing their retirement benefit, nay-gratuity. Many retired employees in the past have made grievous mistakes in managing their gratuity. The consequences they have paid for this need not be overemphasized here. You can abate the dangers of mismanagement of your retirement benefits by reading carefully from time to time all the papers and the book “Life After Retirement, Employee’s Companion”. If you put the advices given in these publications into practice, you will definitely overcome the dangers of out-living your retirement benefit due to improper management. Seeking the advice of sound Business Consultants before embarking on any business after retirement could be most rewarding.

THE CHALLENGES: The challenges that most retired employees normally have in managing their retirement benefit include:
1. Inexperience in business management.
2. Refusal to seek advice from experts.
3. Lack of expertise in the business of choice.
4. Inability to comprehend the implication of their health condition especially in the spate of longevity vis-a-vis the business of choice.
5. Inability to adapt to private sector orientation and mentality.
6. Bearing all risks.
When you plan your post retirement life, don’t base you plan on your health condition at the time of your retirement. Think of yourself when you clock eighty(80) or ninety(90) years or above and ask yourself, the following quest ions:
a) Will I be able to manage my business when I am eighty (80) or ninety (90) years or above.
b) Will my business and pension give me income that will enable me take care of health problems that are common to old people?
c) How will my life be if I am incapacitated?
Questions like these can help you see how your future might be and how decisions you take today will affect you tomorrow, positively or negatively.
Another area of challenge is that most retired employees who want into business do not know they are now an entrepreneur. An entrepreneur is a person who perceives certain needs or gaps in his environment thereafter, he thinks or conceives ideas that would culminate in provision of goods and or services to meet those needs or fill these gaps. He does that through mobilization of factors of production, and subsequently, creates markets for these products and services for profit.
In doing this, an entrepreneur is known by economists as risks bearers. That is he bears the risk of making profit or ‘loss. To mobilize factors of production to achieve his aim involves more than bearing risk of loss of profit which could be a consequence of improper management. The more vital risks are physical and moral risk which should be transferred to experts in risks management – nay-Insurance, through the services of Insurance brokers and consultants. Failure to do that means the entrepreneur bears these risks on his own, and consequently, if any of the risks strikes, he suffers great loss which can get him off the business.
Facts available prove that these emergence entrepreneurs do not believe in the process of managing a business, hence, most of them fail and their retirement benefits or gratuity goes down the drain. By this, an English adage that says NO penny wise, a pound foolish” becomes true of them. You can avoid this challenge by seeking expert advice before you get into any business venture when you retire.

CONCLUSION: This paper has given reasonable information on how you can run a successful business in retirement. If the advice is put into practice, I am sure you will have success in whatever business you intend to do after retirement.

The local government as the third tier of government happens to be the closest to the grass root (local populace). It is to note that all projects executed by the local councils have direct impact (positive or negative) on the citizens. One of the vital functions of Local Governments is the conception and execution of developmental projects that will impact positively on the lives of the dwellers within its sphere of influence and authority. The essence of-such projects, in whatever form, is to improve on the living conditions of the people by meeting their felt needs, aspirations and desires. The overall goal is an improved standard of living. Over the years, huge sums of money have been invested on several people oriented projects by the various councils. Unfortunately most of these projects fail even at the incubation stages. Some even suffer stillbirth as they fail just at the point of planning. Some projects even adorn the’ keep in view’ files because of the inability of project planners to convince management of the needs and importance of such projects.
The management of projects is a profession. It is a science as well as an art. Projects should be managed by those who are familiar with the demands, plans, objectives and the technicalities involved. You are the people. Without projects, the impacts of local councils are not felt. Poorly executed projects aggravate the peoples’ problems. It is therefore not untimely to acquaint project managers at the local councils with the processes of identifying and conceptualizing projects. Moreover, the modalities of having a successful project implementation need to be imbued by project planners. Local Governments implement projects as one of the main strategy to deliver services. They are classified as, ‘Multi Project Organizations’ MPOs; they execute multiple capital & social projects consecutively and/or simultaneously, using the same institutional resources. To succeed as MPOs, Project Cycle Management (PCM) is a vital process for Local Governments and has an impact on how well they deliver quality projects.
It is therefore of fundamental importance that Local Government operators understand and apply project cycle management through the detailed stages involved in the life of a project, from involving the stakeholders right from the design to the implementation of the project. Project Cycle management (PCM) is very vital for the success of projects in LGAs. It ensures and enhances their capacity to design and deliver more systematic, participatory and results-oriented projects. This workshop is a contribution towards positive changes to the ways Local Governments operate service delivery projects. Application of these tools is therefore of a particular emphasis and priority for LGCs, the ministry of Local Government should play a crucial role in fast tracking the application of the content of this workshop.
The various papers that will be presented will address different aspects of the project cycle management and at the end of the day you will have a holistic and complete picture of the relevance and importance of PCM as a management tool in service delivery at the Local Government Level. This workshop is meant to acquaint and equip participants (who are deemed council project managers) with the necessary processes of planning, monitoring and executing projects successfully. It is hoped that at the end of the workshop, participants will be properly loaded with adequate project management processes.
A discussion on a project identification and conception will ipso facto begin with an understanding of the concept of a project. People have been undertaking projects since the earliest days of organized human activity. The hunting parties of our prehistoric ancestors were projects for example; they were temporary undertakings directed at the goal of obtaining meat for the community. Large complex projects such as the pyramids of Egypt and the Great wall of China, have also been with us for a long time. We use the term project frequently in our daily conversations. A husband, for example may tell his wife “my main project for this weekend is to fix up broken down appliances in the house” Going hunting, building pyramids, and fixing faucets all share certain features that make them projects.
Project exist to bring about a product service that hasn’t existed before. In this sense, a project is unique. Unique means that it is new, this has never been done before. Maybe it’s been done in a very similar fashion before but never exactly in this way. The project is completed when it’s goals and objectives are accomplished. It is these goals that drive the project and all the planning and implementation efforts are undertaken to achieve them. Sometimes projects end when it is determined that the goals and objectives cannot be accomplished or when it is determined that the goals and objectives cannot be accomplished or when the product or service of the project is no longer needed and the project is cancelled.
We may define or conceptualize a project as a sequence of tasks, planned from beginning to an end bounded by time, resources and required results. A project will also have a defined outcomes or deliverables with a deadline and a budget that limits the number of people, supplies and capital that is put into it. It’s a temporary group activity in that it has a defined beginning and end in time, and therefore defined scope and resources. it is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal. A project, therefore is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables) undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value.
Therefore a project will have
 A sequence of tasks
 Defined outcome or “deliverables”
 Deadline and
 Budget
We can therefore identify five features of a project to include:
 Defined beginning, end, schedule, and approach
 Use resources specifically allocated to the work
 End results have specific goals (time, cost, performance/quality)
 Follows planned, organized approach
 Usually involves a team of people
For any project, there are always Resources and Constraints in terms of;
Time, People, Money, Equipment and Facilities.
The project Life Cycle (phases)
The project manager and project team have one shared goal: to carry out the work of the project for the purpose of meeting the project’s objectives. A standard project typically has the following five major phases (each with its own agenda of tasks and issues): initiation, planning and design, execution or implementation, controlling (monitoring and evaluation) and closure. Taken together, these phases represents the path a project takes from the beginning to it’s end and are generally referred to as the project life cycle.
Phase 1: Identification or Initiation: During the first of these phases, the initiation phase, the project objective or need is identified; this can be a business problem or opportunity. An appropriate response to the need is documented with recommended solution options. A feasibility study is conducted to investigate whether each option addresses the project objective and a final recommended solution is determined. Issues of feasibility (“can we do the project”) and justification (“should we do the project”) are addressed.
Once the recommended solution is approved, a project is initiated to deliver the approved solution and a project manager is appointed. The major deliverables and the participating work groups are identified and the project team begins to take shape. Approval is then sought by the project manager to move on the detailed planning phase.
 Recognize the project should be done
 Determine what the project should accomplish.
 Define the overall projects goal
 Define general expectations of the citizens of the LGA, management, or other stakeholders as appropriate
 Define the general project scope
 Select initial members of the project scope
 Select initial members of the project team

Phase 2: Planning and Design: The next phase, the planning phase is where the project solution is further developed in as much detail as possible and you plan the steps necessary to meet the projects objective. In this step, the team identifies all of the work to be done. The project’s tasks and resource requirements are identified, along with the strategy for producing them. This is also referred to as scope management. A project plan is created outlining the activities, tasks, dependencies and timeframes. The project manager coordinates the preparation of a project budget; by providing cost estimates for the labor, equipment and materials. The budget is used to monitor and control cost expenditure during project implementation.
Once the project team has identified the work, prepared the schedule and estimated the costs, the three fundamental components’ of the planning process are complete. This is an excellent time to identify and try to deal with anything that might pose a threat to the successful completion of the project. This is called risk management. In risk management, “high-threat” potential problems are identified along with the action that is to be taken on each high threat potential problem, either to reduce the probability that the problem will occur or to reduce the impact on the project if it does occur. This is also a good time to identify all project stakeholders, and to establish a communication plan describing the information needed and the delivery method to be used to keep the stakeholders informed.
Finally, a document detailing a quality plan; providing quality targets, assurance, and control measures along with an acceptance plan; listing the criteria to be met to gain customer acceptance. At this point, the project would have been planned in detail and is ready to be executed.
 Refining the project scope
 Listing tasks and activities
 Optimally sequencing activities
 Developing a working schedule and budget for assigning resources
 Getting the plan approved by stakeholders
Phase 3: Executing or Implementation
 Leading the team
 Meeting with team members
 Communicating with stakeholders
 Fire-fighting to resolve problems
 Securing necessary resources to complete the project plan
Phase 4: Controlling (Monitoring and Evaluation)
 Monitoring deviation from the plan
 Taking corrective action to match actual progress with the plan
 Receiving and evaluating project changes requested
 Rescheduling the project as necessary
 Changing the project scope
 Returning to the planning stage

Phase 5: Closing
 Acknowledging achievements and results
 Shutting down the operations and disbanding the team
 Learning from the project experience
 Reviewing the project process and outcomes
Like most social science issues, dividing lines between phases are blurred and in some cases items from one phase overlaps another. Even the naming and categorizations of the phases may differ with some authors.
In the main, for this discussion, project identification and conceptualization relates to the first phase of the project cycle which we can define as consisting of initiation (policy setting, project identification and Appraisal).
This paper recognizes the fact that Local Government Councils are responsible for successfully planning and executing projects within their jurisdiction in the midst of many challenges- including doing “more with less” juggling numerous requests from different stakeholders, satisfying different political groups, ensuring equitable and even development. Local Government Councils (LGCs) implement projects as one of the main strategy to deliver services. They are classified as “Multi Projects Organisations” MPOs they execute multiple capital and social projects consecutively and/or simultaneously, using the same institutional resources.
Stage 1: Policy Setting: Stage 1 of the project cycle is policy setting and this is the establishment of the development vision guiding the LGCs. Policy setting includes the strategic planning process whereby the long term direction of the Local Government is established which ensures that all systems and budgets support that strategic direction. The strategic plan therefore is considered a long-term plan and is often inspired by the council’s own mandate for service delivery, and also by the National policy framework such as vision 2020, and National poverty reduction goals and state Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (SEEDS) or even such vision as encapsulated in Local Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (LEEDS). Once the strategic plan is adopted, it becomes the policy guideline or strategic framework of a Local Government and the strategic goals and objectives are then implemented in a systematic incremental manner.
Integral Planning Approach to Service Delivery: Integration here refers to consistency and close relationship between the various plans that constitute Local Government planning; i.e integration between National Development plans (NEEDS), State development plan (SEEDS), LEEDS plan etc. integrated planning therefore, is a process of coordinating, harmonizing all the different development plans by different tiers and agencies of government into a unified strategic master plan with clear goals, objectives, strategies, activities and procedures to meet them.
Salient Consideration in Integrated Planning for Service Delivery
 Capacity Building: Internal issues of capacity building and financial management are equally important to support the implementation of integrated development plans, because strategic planning requires strong institutional capacity. Local Government must find ways to support their teams to learn the skills of strategic planning and how to implement strategic plans. They must also address operational and human resources weaknesses and threats so that the strategic plans can become a reality. Investing in organizational development programs is therefore necessary to sustain integrated Development Plans (IDP).
 Public/Community/Stakeholder Participation: In planning and implementing service delivery, Local Government Councils should involve the people- communities, stakeholders, beneficiaries, benefactors; while looking out for the interests or concerns of special group such as the poor, women the marginalized and vulnerable requiring affirmative action, as envisaged in vision 2020 or other development goals like millennium Development Goals, MDGs.
Throughout the planning cycle of the LGCs, community participation is a crucial ingredient. Community participation harnesses the ideas and resources from the community. it also engenders ownership of the plans and projects, thus guaranteeing sustainability of the planned projects. Throughout these plans public participation is assured through stakeholders workshops and consultations. Community participation should be institutionalized through the Local Government Act and promoted though citizen advisory groups or community consultative groups, public force, like workshops and seminars, neighbor-hood group such as residents associations etc. joint ventures or private/public partnership should be encouraged in service delivery.
The participatory nature of strategic structure planning encourages stakeholders participation so that it is as possible of all the groups, individuals, rate payers and citizen within the LGCs area of jurisdiction. This ensures that good practices are more likely to be sustained because all the stakeholders have a common interest in their success.
Stage 2 : Project Identification: Stage 2 of the project cycle is Project identification or initiation, where LGCs identify projects from an assessment of existing demand for goods and services based on 3 main sources,
 The Council’s Strategic Plan derived in stage 1
 The annual LGCs consultations where citizens articulate their needs and included in budgets
 Baseline surveys and diagnostic studies to meet special needs
All of which must derive from their primary mandates in the choice of projects, with additional “demand” led planning and is often disjointed from the more proactive policy and strategic planning process that has been described in stage 1. The problem with this demand approach is that project feasibility and sustainability is affected because the demands led planning comes with vested interests not matched with an objective appraisal of projects. As a result, LGCs invest in a fragmented portfolio of projects that are neither linked to the national plans nor to their own strategic plans.
It is important therefore, that at the project identification/initiation stage, LGCs choose projects from many alternative ideas or schemes that balance between local demands, strategic priorities, ongoing diagnostics, and research or baseline studies. To determine “demand” projects from communities or stakeholders, 2 key elements are involved; (i) needs analysis and (ii) situation analysis.
Needs Analysis: Analyzing the present actual situation can be problem based or opportunity based. It concerns identifying the priority problems/opportunities and their main causes, and identifying the causes that can be addressed by the project intervention. It is essential to understand the resources within the community or from others that are relevant to tackling the problems. It is important therefore that as many citizens and stakeholders groups get the chance to express the problems they experience and recommend solutions. Discussions, opinions and clarifications by the problem ‘owners should be respected’.
Situation Analysis: Situation analysis concerns identifying the priority problems/opportunities and their main causes. This is an important factor because people’s desires and assessment of their needs, may be based on symptoms of an underlying or situational factor, addressing the symptoms will not solve the problems because the cause and effect have not been properly analyzed. A properly planned intervention should therefore combine both needs analysis and situational analysis, based upon a correct and complete analysis of the existing situation. This involves analyzing the present actual situation through various methods. The method chosen, can be ‘problem based’ e.g what are the prevalent problem situation or ‘opportunity based’ e.g what are the prevalent problem situations or ‘opportunity based’, e.g is there an opportunity to serve people with disability?
The aim is to create a picture of reality. The existing situation should be interpreted according to the views, needs, interests and activities of parties concerned. It is essential that all those involved accept the plans and are committed to implement them. A greater involvement of the beneficiaries and stakeholders in defining local problems, identifying solutions and implementing to ensure that the resulting projects are more effective and sustainable. Participatory methods aim to create ownership and commitment among the involved parties.
Once the projects are identified from needs and situational assessments, the LGCs should consider the priority projects to be undertaken, and to do this, they must subject those needs/priorities to further review. This introduces the 3rd stage of the conceptualization process called project appraisal stage.
Stage 3: Appraisal: Stage 3 of the project identification and conceptualization is the appraisal stage. The aim of an appraisal is to identify and design projects that have a clear foundation for success. If the initial idea is perceived to offer sufficient potential benefit, it may be subjected to an appraisal, also considered as a pre-feasibility which, if affirmative, is followed by a comprehensive feasibility study. The appraisal of projects proposals is an essential task of LGCs project managers, because their decisions will lead to the most crucial decision in project cycle management, which is to move the proposal forward to the planning, commitment and implementation stages.
Proper appraisal is done in two steps (i) Firstly, to decide whether the project is good enough in terms of effectiveness and impact (ii) Secondly whether the project proposal concerned is better than other proposals. In other words whether it is worthwhile to spend scarce funds on this project or that these funds can better be allocated to other, more cost-effective projects.
In reality projects should be appraised a number of times in the project cycle.
• After initial identification, when the decision has to be made whether to continue with an identified project to the formulation/planning phase.
• After formulation, when the decision has to be made whether or not the project will be proposed for funding.
• After an approved project has been tendered, when the project proposals as written by the parties participating in the tender are appraised. Strictly speaking, this appraisal does not concern the project proper but the bid proposals.
The practice in LGCs should be to table projects from consultations whereby each wards presents their ‘priority projects’ combined with LGCs internal priorities. A list of projects is then tabled before the technical committee for deliberations. At this stage, the technical committee should not just pick projects as prioritized, but they should subject each project idea to a pre-feasibility review, or appraisal. Objective appraisal criteria should be used to ensure that the appraisal process is guided by objective criteria, rather than personal desires/opinions. The list of projects from wards is then ranked to determine the most feasible options. Projects that score high marks are determine the most feasible options. Projects that score high marks mean that pre-feasibility is positive, and the technical committee will then proceed with the prioritized proposals in the consensus meeting.
Measuring project success or failure: Projects are said to have failed because they do not meet 5 criteria of success conditions which are used to judge them namely: (i) Efficiency (ii) Effectiveness (iii) Feasibility (iv) Viability (v) Sustainability.
The quality of projects is therefore not measured on arbitrary standards, but through objective criteria listed above. The most significant is ‘effectiveness’ because this Criteria measures whether the ultimate objective of a project has been met i.e. did the project deliver expected results? did the conditions of beneficiaries improve? An appraisal report and the project plan should be presented to the full council for commitment. The report should be guided by the following criteria.
Relevance: When it is concluded that the project purpose contributes in a meaningful way to an overall objective, which reflects one or more political, economic and social priorities, one can say that the project is relevant. It also reflects the validity of the overall goal and project purpose to the needs of the communities.
Effectiveness: When it is concluded that it is likely that (a) by implementing the mentioned activities the projects results will be achieved and that (b) achieving all project results will lead to the realization of the project purpose one can conclude that the project is effective. It could also have to do with the extent to which the project objectives will be achieved and meet the identified needs of beneficiaries.
Efficiency: When it is concluded that the relation between activities and resources is fair and realistic it can be said that the project is efficient. In other words a project is efficient when the project costs are necessary and quantity and quality to achieve planned objectives. It is also the degree to which inputs will be converted into outputs and absence of waste for a given output.
Feasibility: When it is concluded that the assumptions and risks at activity and result level are sound, realistic and acceptable one can conclude that the project is Feasible. Planned activities will be/can be realized when there are no major obstacles/risks to affect expected results (economic, physical, environmental, social, technological risks factors). The project is realistic from technical, social/cultural and political perspective.
Hence when a project is thought to be relevant, effective, efficient and feasible there remains one important issue to be addressed: sustainability.
Sustainability: Depends on a number of factors. The importance of the various factors might differ from project to project, but in principle the following questions needs to be answered.

• Do the competent authorities provide adequate policy support?
• Is the technology appropriate for the local conditions?
• Will the ecological environment be preserved after the project?
• Is the permanent part of the project properly embedded in local organization
• Are the feelings of ownership by host organization or beneficiaries adequate and genuine?
• Are there sufficient financial and economic benefits induced by the project that can compensate for investments?
The basic goal of sustainability is that the project will continue to meet the needs of beneficiaries long after its completion.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Local Governments implement projects as one of the main strategy to deliver services. They are classified as ‘Multi project Organizations’ MPOs; they execute multiple capital and social projects consecutively and/or simultaneously, using the same institutional resources. To succeed as MPOs, PCM is a vital process for Local Governments and has an impact on how well they deliver quality projects. It is therefore of fundamental importance that Local Governments understand and apply project cycle management through the detailed stages involved in the life of a project, from involving the stakeholders right from the design, including the Implementation of the project, Project identification and conceptualization as a component of Project Cycle managements (PCM) is very vital for the success of projects in LGAs. It ensures and enhances their capacity to design and deliver more systematic, participatory and results oriented projects. This paper is a contribution towards positive changes to the ways Local Governments operates service delivery projects. Application of these tools is therefore of particular emphasis and priority for LGCs; the Ministry of Local Government should play a crucial role in fast tracking the application of the guidelines stated above.

This paper presents an overview of the first phase of projects Cycle management (PCM), a management approach that should be used to guide Local Governments in the design and implementation of effective and efficient projects. Research has shown that a lack of clear project methodology reduces the success rates of projects.

PCM is an important function of project management and can assist Local Governments to learn from past experiences, improve decision making and streamline communication between various departments. PCM should not be considered as a purely technical method with a number of instruments and stages to be applied mechanically. On the contrary, it should be seen as a management method to achieve more effective and efficient communication within departments, with stakeholders, beneficiaries, financiers and sponsors, with information feeding backwards and forwards at every project stage. PCM has an instrumental role in improving the level and quality of planning, improved ways of working and ultimately, through improved service delivery, benefits to communities and citizens will be realized. The application of PCM is dependent upon the relative size, complexity, urgency, importance, novelty and interdependence of other projects. This means that small projects with nominal costs, may not be programmed through a formal project cycle; for example buying of school desks, or issuing a bursary may not require PCM, but the construction of a school building requires PCM.

When PCM is applied effectively, the following benefits can be realized;
 Goal/Objective oriented: Implementation of projects will be in accordance with predetermined objectives and not on the whims of individuals
 Coordinated project management: Project execution will be coordinated and overseen by appointed project managers, and not by those randomly picked without proper consideration of capacity and skill
 Sound & objective appraisal: The project will be designed and appraised based on sound research and feasibility criteria, and not on voting consensus which does not capture the viability issues.
 Good management & governance: The Local Government will pursue good management practice including risk assessment, good planning and prioritizing, assessment of progress through monitoring, and use of monitoring feedback to guide corrective action. Such management promotes good governance and professionalizes the project management process.
 Long term planning: PCM improves long term planning because the policy setting’ stage includes strategic review of long term goals and objectives
 Increased accountability: There will be increased accountability for results because individuals and teams will be assigned specific results that they must deliver
 Standard methods and procedures: As opposed to a mixed up process of managing a project, the PCM approach introduces a standard method and procedures for running projects stage by stage, which provides officials and stakeholders with a road map of expected results, at each stage of the process. All these benefits of PCM start with a proper identification and conceptualization of projects which has been clearly stated.

• The practice in LGCs should be to plan projects from consultations whereby each wards presents their ‘priority projects’ combined with LGCs internal priorities. A list of projects is then tabled before a technical committee for deliberations.
• Such projects are then put through the PCM process and projects which meet objective appraisal criteria are selected for implementation.

Introduction: Project Management over the years has had its fair share of controversy over its identity and where it should rightly belong: engineering or management, with its present status as a profession, it must operate within defined boundaries and be distinctive enough to be accepted as a discipline. Project management is actually directed at the management of a project and project in many cases are technology based or engineering in nature. It can be viewed to be an art and also a science hence the involvement of engineers, technologists and management experts in the discipline of Project management should be explicitly encouraged. In order to have a project with no regrets, management must be expertly focused at all levels of the project planning, execution, monitoring, evaluation and completion. All involved must show concern and take responsibilities seriously.
Definitions: Before attempting a discussion of the project implementation process, it is first important that some of the key concepts be adequately defined, so as to remove some of the ambiguities from concepts that are often subject to a wide range of individual interpretations.
What Is a Project? While almost everyone has had experience with projects in one form or another, developing a definition of what exactly a project is often difficult. Any definition of a Project must be general enough to include examples of the wide variety of organizational activities which managers consider to be “project functions,” However the definition should narrow enough to include only those specific activities that researchers and practitioners can meaningfully describe as “project-oriented,” Some of the many definitions of projects that have been offered are as follows:
A project is an organization of people dedicated to a specific purpose or objective. Projects generally involve large, expensive, unique, or high-risk undertakings that have to be completed by a certain date, for a certain amount of money, within some expected level of performance.
The second definition as offered by Leland and Kerzner goes thus: “A project is a combination of human and nonhuman resources pulled together in a temporary organization to achieve a specified purpose”.
According to Akpan (1987), a project may be defined as a series of jobs that individually have to be completed in order for the system (project) to be satisfactorily consummated. Project management therefore involves planning. Scheduling and controlling so that the required resources are optimally employed throughout a sequence of successfully completed tasks.
The term “project” as is generally used, connotes any unique activity, situation, process, task, program, scheme, or any human endeavor in which human, time and other resources are utilized to satisfy a definable and definite one-off (single or multiple) objective. The realization of the set objective generally Signals the completion of this unique activity (project).
Characteristics of a project: The general usage of the term “project” as given above could give the wrong impression that a project is any human activity under the sun. this is not quite correct, as some fine-tuning is necessary. Though the sectorial affiliation of a project does span all known human activities; agricultural, educational, health, industrial, environmental, social, military, etc; within these scope of existence, projects are however recognized by distinguishable or identifiable characteristics. These include the following:
a) Is usually a unique one-time operation ; non-repetitive as distinct from what obtains in industrial production of goods.
b) Is transient in nature and usually of relatively short short duration although some may be pretty long depending on the complexity of the project
c) Has an identifiable beginning and end dates
d) Generally has a budget for its execution, that is, the cost constraint.
e), Has an identifiable work scope that can be broken down into definable work package or activities. The project is deemed completed when all the work packages or activities have been executed.
f) May require the establishment of a special temporary organization that could change in composition during the currency of its existence; the established organization set up is generally disbanded with the realization of the project objective.
g) Requires the utilization of multiple resources for its implementation.
h) Has elements of uncertainty and risk associated with its execution.
i) Has a well-defined objective(s).
In short a project, then, can be defined as possessing a defined beginning and end (specified time to completion), a specific, pre-ordained goal or set of goals and a series of complex or interrelated activities and a limited budget. A careful study of the listed characteristics would certify that any of the following could qualify as a project:
(i) Political campaign
(ii) Construction operation
(iii) Research and development program
(iv) Equipment installation and maintenance
(v) Setting up an industry or business
(vi) Introduction of new products or services
(vii) A wedding
(viii ) Turn around maintenance of a refinery
(ix) Engineering design activity
(x) Organizing and holding of a conference/seminar
(xi) Sales campaign.

The Project Life Cycle: One method that has been used with some regularity in order to help managers conceptualize the work and budgetary requirements of a project is to make use of the idea of the project life cycle. Life cycles are used to explain the rise demise of organizations, phases in the sales life of a product, etc; in a similar fashion, managers often make use of the life-cycle concept as a valuable tool for better understanding of the stages in a project and the likely materials requirements for the project through each distinct phase.
The project’s life cycle can be divided into four distinct stages, including:
Conceptualization-The initial project stage. At this stage a project is determined as being necessary. Preliminary goals and alternatives are specified, as well as the possible means to accomplish those goals.
Planning- this stage involves the establishment of a more formalized set of plans to accomplish the initially developed goals. Among planning activities are scheduling, budgeting, and the allocation of other specific tasks and resources.
Execution- The third stage involves the actual work of the project. Materials and resources are procured, the project is produced, and performance capabilities are verified.
Termination- Once the project is completed; there are several final activities that must be performed. These activities usually include the release of resources and transfer of the project to the clients and, if necessary, the reassignment of project
team personnel.
The life cycle enumerated above can be regrouped into the following stages:
a) Strategy setting stage
b) Program development stage
c) Resource mobilization stage
d) Implementation and monitoring stage and
e) Evaluation stage
Project Implementation: The Implementation phase of the Project Management Process puts the project into action. The day-to-day work ‘ of project implementation is to lead and manage the application of the project implementation plan. This task can be relatively simple, or can become, extremely complex, depending on the nature of the project. This phase consists of four sub phases: Execution, Monitoring & Control, and move to Production. Success during implementation is partially an art (managing people, leading teams, communicating with clarity), but it is also a science (involving technical interpretations). It is the responsibility of the Project Manager to implement the project plan. This phase also presents serious challenges for project managers.
The project implementation process is complex, usually requiring simultaneous attention to a wide variety of human, budgetary, and technical variables. As a result, the organizational project manager is faced with a difficult job characterized by role overload, frenetic activity, fragmentation, and superficiality. Often the typical project manager has responsibility for successful project outcomes without sufficient power, budget, or people to handle all of the elements essential for project success. In addition, projects are often initiated in the context of a turbulent, unpredictable, and dynamic environment. Consequently, the project manager would be well served by more information about those specific factors critical to project success. The project manager requires the necessary tools to help him or her focus attention on important areas and set differential priorities across different project elements.
What Is Successful Project Implementation? Before attempting any discussion of the steps leading to a successful project, it is important to describe just exactly what a “successful project” is. Project implementation success has been defined in many ways to include a large variety of criteria. However, in its simplest terms, project success can be thought of as incorporating four basic facets. A project is generally considered to be successfully implemented if it:
* Comes in one-schedule (time criterion).
* Comes in one budget (monetary criterion).
* Achieves basically all the goals originally set for it (effectiveness criterion).
* Is accepted and used by the clients for whom the project is intended (client satisfaction criterion).
By its basic definition, a project comprises a defined time frame to completion, a limited budget, and a specified set of performance characteristics. Further, the project is usually targeted for use by some client, either internal or external to the organization and its project team. It seems reasonable; therefore, that any assessment of project implementation success should include the four measures enumerated above.
Project Implementation Skills: The project manager must apply a number of technical skills to succeed during implementation. These skills include:
* Managing Issues
* Managing People
* Managing internal Controls
Managing Issues: An issue is an unresolved decision, situation or problem that will significantly impact the project and that the project team cannot immediately resolve. Issues management consists of having a process for identifying these problems and managing them until they are resolved. Resolving issues is frequently beyond the authority of the team. However, even if an issue needs to be escalated to the next level or delegated to another person to resolve, it still needs to be tracked by the project manager. The Project Manager needs to be ready throughout the project Implementation Phase to apply resources to address and resolve these issues. Issues Management is a collaborative endeavor. Consequently, everyone on the project team is responsible for the following:
Identifying project issues; Contributing to the resolution of project Issues (Note; experience has shown that the people closest to the work usually know best how to resolve issues. Therefore, it is the job of the project manager to establish an environment in which each team member is in a position to resolve as many issues as possible at their level).
Escalating important issues to the project Manager as soon as possible; Nevertheless, while issue management is a collaborative endeavor, the project manager is ultimately accountable for issue management. Having a well- documented issue management process is crucial to communicating and enforcing that process across the team. If issues are not resolved, the negative consequences can include the following:
• Inability to meet project timelines, cost, and schedule;
• poor or unacceptable project quality;
• Poor reputation among communities, donors and others; and
• Post implementation disputes.
Issue Identification and Tracking – Identifying outstanding questions, decisions and other problems before they adversely affect the project.
Issue Analysis – Understanding the issue sufficiently to consider future consequences of action plans designed to resolve it.
Issue Communication Communicating issues to the right level of the organization to get them resolved. Furthermore, it is important to communicate when and how issues are resolved.
Issue Control – The Project Manager is responsible for establishing an environment where the project team and implementing partners can carry out actions to ensure issues are resolved in a timely and effective manner. The most important control tool is the issues log, which summarizes the issues, describes their current status and identifies who is responsible for addressing the issue. The issues log can take on a variety of technical forms from paper to a fully integrated database. A sample format can be found in the issue log table below.
Figure 28: Issue Log
Issue Reference Report-ed By Descri-ption Date Repo-rted Assign-ed To Date Assigned Status Status Date Resoluti-on

Managing People: The importance of good people management cannot be overstated. Project Managers work in teams and often are only able to achieve their goals as a result of the commitment, cooperation and contributions of the people on the project team. As a result, managing people can become the Project Manager’s most important, and most difficult job. Most often, when we think of project managers who are especially talented at managing people, we tend to focus on their mastery of “soft skills” of people management. These are the Project Managers who are especially effective at motivating team members, communicating vision, empowering staff, recognizing achievements, listening, leading by example, resolving conflicts and building trust. All of these “soft skills” are related to the inter-personal competency of the Project Manager and are extremely important to project success. Therefore, Project Managers should strive to enhance their capacity to lead, motivate, inspire, mediate, communicate and encourage.
This does not mean, however, that there are no “hard skills” involved in people management. A comprehensive project plan will not rely solely on the inter-personal skills of the project manager to ensure success in managing people. Instead, a comprehensive project plan will identify the concrete activities required to proactively manage all elements of the project team. These concrete activities that will be implemented during the Project Implementation include:
Acquiring Project Staff – As part of the function of managing the team, the project team leader must be clear on the systems for identifying staff candidates, interviewing candidates, identifying selection criteria and making final selections of project staff.
Creating Staff Job Descriptions – Staff job descriptions include the list of project duties, roles and responsibilities for team members. Job Descriptions are not only used to recruit, orient and manage staff, but are also used to evaluate individual team member performance.
Documenting Project Organization Charts- Project charts represent the reporting relationships among the project team
Developing Project Staff – What skills are needed? What are the training needs? are there certification requirements?
Conducting Performance Assessment – Performance assessments are the
documented formal or informal assessment of the project team members’ performance. After analyzing the information, project managers can identify and resolve problems, reduce conflicts, and improve overall teamwork.
Establishing Team Communication Norms – As the leader of the project team, the project manager must concretely plan the communications (via meetings, workshops, report, memos, newsletters, blogs, etc.) that allow the project team to share inform actively work to ‘Identify issues and conflicts, and interact creatively to resolve these issues.
Managing Internal Controls: One of the challenges of the project manager is to oversee the valuable assets that have been allocated to conduct the work of the project. To assist with this challenge, internal control systems should be put in place to provide reasonable assurance regarding the responsible use of project assets. Internal control processes should be designed with the objectives of:
• Promoting the effectiveness and efficiency of operations;
• increasing the reliability of project outcomes;
• Promoting compliance with applicable laws and regulations;
• Protecting organization resources, both physical (e.g., machinery and property) and intangible (e.g., reputation, intellectual property).
• Reducing risk of fraud and corruption.
Internal controls include the processes through which an organization’s resources are directed, monitored, and measured. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the organization’s resources, both physical (e.g. machinery and property) and intangible (e.g., reputation or intellectual property such as trademarks). At the organizational level, internal control objectives relate to the reliability of financial reporting, timely feedback on the achievement of operational or strategic goals, and compliance with laws and regulations.
A key component of the organizational capacity of the project includes establishing internal controls that comprehensively address the entirety of the support, administrative and logistic systems required for successful implementation. areas that benefit from internal controls include,
Human Resources Capacity and systems: are Human Resources policies documented in compliance with local laws and organizational regulations? Do systems exist for time-sheets, performance reviews, and employee separation?
Procurement: Do systems exist to select suppliers? Do Supplier selection criteria exist?
Do systems exist to manage suppliers? Do similar systems exist for consultants?
Financial: Do systems exist for cash management? Expenses management? Financial reporting? Is there a segregation of duties for financial roles?
Inventory: Do systems exist for the identification and tracking of inventory?
Do systems exist for the transfer/disposal of equipment following project closure?
Contracts and Agreements: Do systems exist for grants management?
Do systems exist to manage relationships with implementing organizations?
Infrastructure: What systems exist for communications? Telephones, Internet, radio?
What systems exist to manage vehicles and transport?
Security protocols: Is there need for special security arrangements? Travel guidance? Accompaniment programs? Other?
Fleet Management: Are there mileage logs that control the use of service vehicles?
Information Management: Is there a record keeping system (paper/electronic) in place? Do policies and standards exist for information management? Are documents, contracts and receipts accessible to meet the audit requirements of the project?
It should however be noted that poor or excessive (internal controls reduce productivity, increase the complexity of systems, increase the time required to complete processes and add no value to the activities. However, good internal controls are essential to ensuring the accomplishment of goal and objectives. They help ensure efficient and effective operations that accomplish the goals of the project and still protect employees and assets.

ISSUES CRITICAL FOR SUCCESS IN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION: The project manager must apply a number of technical skills to succeed during implementation. These skills include;
Project Mission: The importance of having clearly defined goals at the outset of the project cannot be overemphasized. The initial stage of project management can be classified as consisting of a feasibility decision. Are the goals clear and can they succeed? As the implantation process begins it is instructive to state clearly the plan and its objectives: Project Mission has been found to refer to the condition where the goals of the project are clear and understood, not only by the project team involved, but also by the other departments in the organization. Underlying themes of responses classified into this factor include statements concerning clarification of goals as well as belief in the likelihood of project success.
Top Management Support: Management support for projects, or indeed for its implementation, has long been considered of great importance in distinguishing between their ultimate success or failure. Project management is seen as not only dependent on top management for authority, direction, and support, but as ultimately the conduit for implementing top management’s plans, or goals, for the organization. The degree of management support for a project will lead to significant variations in the clients’ degree of ultimate acceptance or resistance to that project or product. For tile purposes of our classification, the factor Top Management Support refers to both the nature and amount of support the project manager can expect from management both for himself as ‘ leader and for the project. Management’s support of the project may involve aspects such as allocation of sufficient resources (financial, manpower, time, etc.) as well as the project manager’s confidence in their support in Hie event of crises.
Project Schedule Plans: Project schedule refers to the importance of developing a detailed plan of the required stages of the implementation process. Planning and scheduling should be viewed as the first step in the “Moving” stage. Planning should also be viewed as a two-directional stage, not only as necessary to the forward going change process, but as an additional link to subsequent evaluation and possible reentry into the system. The planning process involves formulation, conceptualization, detailing and evaluation. Moreover, Project Schedule/Plans refers to the degree to which time schedules, milestones, manpower, and equipment, requirements are specified. Project scheduling/planning should be accorded serious consideration to ensure a successful project implementation. Further, the schedule should include a satisfactory measurement system as a way of judging actual performance against budget and time allowances.
Client Consultation: The “client” is referred to here as anyone who will ultimately be making use of the result of the project as either a customer outside the company or a department within the organization. The need for client consultation has been found to be increasingly important in attempting to successfully implement a project. Indeed, it is found that the degree to which clients are personally involved in the implementation process will cause great variation in their support for that project. Further, in the context of the consulting process, client consultation expresses the necessity of taking into account the needs of the future clients, or users, of the project. It is, therefore, important to determine whether clients for the project have been identified. Once the project manager is aware of the major clients, he is better able to accurately determine if their needs are being met.
Personnel issues: This includes recruitment, selection, and training. An important, but often overlooked, aspect of the implementation process concerns the nature of the personnel involved. In many situations, personnel for the project team are chosen with less-than-full regard for the skills necessary to actively contribute to implementation success. Some current writers on implementations have included the personnel variable in the equation for project team performance and project success.
The people’s knowledge, skills, goals, and personalities must be considered in assessing the environment of the organization. Only after such a diagnosis have taken place, before the project management team begin to set objectives and design the implementation approach. Personnel, as a factor, are concerned with developing a project team with the requisite skills to perform their function. Further, it is important to determine whether project management has built sufficient commitment toward project success on the part of team members.
Technical Tasks: Technical Tasks refers to the necessity of not only having the necessary personnel for the implementation team, but ensuring that they possess the necessary technical skills and have adequate technology to perform their tasks, Steven Alter, writing on implementation risk analysis, identifies two of the eight risk factors as being caused by technical incompatibility: the user’s unfamiliarity with the systems or technology, and Cost ineffectiveness. In addition to client consultation at an earlier stage in the project implementation process, it remains of ultimate importance to determine whether the clients for whom the project has been initiated will accept it.
Client Acceptance; This refers to the final stage in the implementation process, at which time the ultimate efficacy of the project is to be determined. Too often project managers make the mistake of believing that if they handle the other stages of the implementation process well, the client (either internal or external to the organization) will accept the resulting project. In fact, as several writers have shown, client acceptance is a stage in project implementation that must be managed like any other. As an implementation strategy, Lucas discusses the importance of user participation in the early stages of system development as a way of improving the likelihood of later acceptance. Bean and Radnor examine the use of “intermediaries” to act as a liaison between the designer, or implementation team, and the project’s potential users as a method to aid in client acceptance.
Monitoring and Feedback: Monitoring and Feedback refer to the project control processes by which at each stage of the project implementation, key personnel receive feedback on how the project is comparing to initial projections. Making allowances for adequate monitoring and feedback mechanisms gives the project manager the ability to anticipate problems, to oversee corrective measures, and to ensure that no deficiencies are overlooked. Schultz and Slevin demonstrate the evolving nature of implementation and model building paradigms to ‘have reached the state including formal feedback channel 3 between the model builder and the user. From a budgeting perspective, Souder et al. Emphasizes the importance of constant monitoring and “fine-tuning” of the process of implementation for the model. Monitoring and Feedback refers not only to project schedule and budget; but to monitoring performance of members of the project team.
Communication: The need for adequate communication channels is extremely important in creating an atmosphere for successful project implementation. Communication is not only essential within the project team itself, but between the team and the rest of the organization as well as with the client. As the factor Communication has been developed for the model, it refers not only to feedback mechanisms, but the necessity of exchanging information with both Client and the rest of the organization concerning project goals, changes in policies and procedures, status reports. etc.
Trouble Shooting: As the participants in the study often pointed out, problem areas exist in almost every implementation. Regardless of how carefully the project was initially planned, it is impossible to foresee every trouble or problem that could possibly arise. As a result, it is important that the Project Manager make adequate initial arrangements for “troubleshooting” mechanisms to be included in the implementation plan. Such mechanisms make it easier not only to react to problems as they arise. But also to foresee and possibly forestall potential trouble areas in the implementation process.

SUMMARY: The different steps to ensure a successful project implementation can be summarized as follows:
• Project mission-initial clearly defined goals and general directions.
• Top management support-Willingness of top management to provide the necessary resources and authority/power for project success.
• Project schedule/plan –A detailed specification of the individual actions steps for project implementation.
• Client Consultation-Communication, consultation, and active listening to all Impacted parties.
• Personnel-Recruitment, selection, and training of the necessary personnel for the project team.
• Technical ‘Tasks-Availability of the required technology and expertise to accomplish the specific technical action steps.
• Client Acceptance-The act of “selling” the final project to its ultimate intended users.
• Monitoring and Feedback-Timely provision of comprehensive control information at each stage in the implementation process.
• Communication-The provision of an appropriate network and necessary data to all key actors in the project implementation.
• Troubleshooting-Ability to handle unexpected crises and deviations from plan.

CONCLUSIONS: The main focus of this paper has been to enunciate possible steps that should be taken to ensure a successful project implementation. The fact that many lofty projects fail at different stages of implementation is not surprising. It is indeed appropriate and timely that local government councils should start to follow proper guidelines governing successful project implementation.
It is important that the implementation be well managed by people who understand the project. In addition, there must exist adequate technology to support the project. Technical Tasks refers to the necessity of not only having the necessary personnel for the implementation team, but also ensuring that they possess the necessary technical skills and have adequate technology to perform their task. In addition to Client Consultation at an earlier stage in the project implementation process, it remains of ultimate importance to determine whether the clients for whom the project has been initiated will accept it. It should be noted that many of these activities need to be completed ahead of time. You cannot start planning for implementation while you are actually implementing.
Usually the project team will spend some period of time monitoring the implemented solution. If there are problems that come up immediately after implementation, the project team should address and fix them. I have pointed out the need for planning and communication to help ensure a successful implementation. If you think through implementation from a holistic approach and communicate well, there is a much greater likelihood that your project will end as a win.
Akpan, E. O. P. “Optimum resource determination in project scheduling,” Production Planning and Control, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1996, pp. 462-470.
Adams, J. R. and Barndt, S. E.”Behavioral Implications of the Project Life Cycle,” in Project Management Handbook, ed. Cleland, D. I. and King, W. R. (Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York, 1983), pp. 222-244.
Bardach, E. The Implementation Game (MIT Press. Cambridge, Mass., 1977).
Bean. A. S. and Radnor, M. ‘The Role of Intermediaries in the Implementation of Management Science,” in The Implementation of Management Science, ed.
Doktor. R., Schultz, R. L. and Slevin, D. P. (North-Holland. New York, 1979), pp. 121-138.
Beck, D. R. “Implementing Top Management Plans Through Project Management,” in Project Management Handbook, ed. Cleland, D. I. anct King, W. R. (Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York, 1983), pp. 166-184.
Cleland, D. I. and Kerzner, H. A Project Management Dictionary of Terms (Van
Nostrand Reinhold. New York, 1985).
Ginzberg, M. J. “A Study of the Implementation Process. ‘in the implementation of Management Science, ed. Doktor, R., schultz:; R. L and Slevin, D. P. (North-Holland.New York, 1979), pp. 85-102.
Hammond, J. S. 111. “A Practitioner-Oriented Framework for Implementation,” in The implementation of management science, ed. Dorktor R Schultz R.L and Slevin Pinto, J. K and Slein D. P Critical factor in Successful Project 1111 IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-34 (1987) pp. 22-27.
Project Managers. “Project Management Journal, Vol. 18 (1986), pp. 57-71.

As soon as the boss decides he wants his workers to do something, he has two problems: making them do it and monitoring what they do. Evaluation, however, plays a distinct role at all stages of the project cycle. Monitoring and evaluation activities are integral parts of the project cycle management and a pre.-requisite for successful results-based management (RBM) as they are measurement tools.
Monitoring: Monitoring is the systematic, regular collection and occasional analysis of information to identify and possibly measure changes over a period of time. Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness and direction of an activity and involves making a judgment about progress and impact. The main differences between Monitoring and Evaluation are the timing and frequency of observations and the types of questions asked. However, when monitoring and evaluation are integral as a project management tool, the line between the two becomes rather blurred. Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PM& E) is the joint effort or partnership of two or more stakeholders (such as researchers, farmers, state, local government officials, extension workers) to monitor and evaluate, systematically, one or more research or development activities.
Why Monitor and Evaluation?
In general, the purpose of monitoring and evaluation can be:
• To assess project results in order to find out if and how objectives are being met and are resulting in desired change.
• To improve project management and process planning: to better adapt contextual and risk factors such as social and power dynamics that affect the project.
• To promote learning: to identify lessons of general applicability, to learn how different approaches to participation affect outcomes, impact, and reach, to learn what works and what does not and to identify what contextual factors enable or constrain the project.
• To understand different stakeholders’ perspectives: to allow, through direct participation in the monitoring and evaluation process, the various people involved in a research project to better understand each other’s views and values and to design ways to resolve competing or conflicting views and interests.
• To ensure accountability: to assess whether the project is effectively, appropriately, and efficiently executed, to be accountable to the key agencies supporting the work (including, but not exclusively the donors).
Project Monitoring Methods and Techniques of Monitoring Projects/Programs
Project even with a good planning, adequate organizational machinery and sufficient flow of resources cannot automatically achieve the desired result. There must be some warning mechanism, which can alert the organization about it’s possible success and failures, off and on. Constant watching not only saves wastage of scarce resources but also ensure speedy execution of the project. Thus monitoring means keeping a track of implementation process. Monitoring involves watching the progress of a project against time, resources and performances schedules during the execution of the project and identifying lagging areas requiring timely attention and action. Monitoring is a management signed to guide the intended direction and to check performances against pre-determined plans. Monitoring means periodic checking of progress of work against the targets laid down in order to ensure timely completion of the projects.
Efficiency, Effectiveness and Relevance of Monitoring: Efficiency, Effectiveness and Relevance underlying reasons for monitoring and evaluating are frequently framed in terms of:
• Efficiency refers to the amount of time and resources put into the project in relative to the output and outcomes. A project evaluation may be designed to find out if there was a less expensive, more appropriate, less time-consuming approach for reaching the same objectives (getting more output from input – do less and accomplish more).
• Effectiveness describes whether or not the research process was useful in reaching project goals and objectives, or resulted in positive outcomes.
• Relevance or Appropriateness describes the usefulness, ethics, and flexibility of a project within the particular context. Combined, these criteria enable judgment about whether outputs and outcomes of the projects are worth the cost of the inputs.
Purpose of Monitoring: Project Monitoring helps to provide constructive suggestions like – Rescheduling the project (if the project run behind the schedule). Re-budgeting the project (appropriating funds from one head to another; avoiding expenses under unnecessary headings. Re- assigning the staff (shifting the staff from one area to the other; recruiting temporary staff to meet the time schedule).
What to Monitor and Evaluate: Understanding the condition of the community/target group before the ” ect was
initiated is useful in order to provide a point of comparison for monitoring and evaluating changes that occur during the project. Baseline survey conducted at the beginning of the project can provide a point of reference for comparison and for understanding change in the community/target group. lt Is useful distinguish between the different kinds of results generated from the project: outputs, processes, outcomes, impact and reach. These can be briefly defined as follows:
• Outputs describe the concrete and tangible products of the research/project as
well as the occurrence of research/project activities themselves.
• Processes describe methods and approaches used for the project
• Outcomes describe the changes that occur within the community or with the project manages that can be attributed, at least in part to the project process and outputs.
• Impact describes overall changes that occur in the community to which the Project is one of many contributing factors. One such impact often expected from project is positive transformation of the community/target group.
• Reach describes who is influenced by the project and who acts because of this influence.
Steps in Monitoring: Identify the different units involved in planning and implementation.
• Identifying items on which feedback is required.
• Developing proforma for reporting.
• Determining the periodicity of reporting.
• Fixing the responsibility of reporting at different levels.
• Processing and analyzing the reports.
• Identifying the critical/unreliable area in implementation
• Providing feedback to corrective measures.
Indicators for Monitoring: Projects are usually monitored against whether the projects are:
• Running on schedule.
• Running within planned costs.
• Receiving adequate costs
Methods/Techniques of monitoring: Project reporting) Project appraisal, Project monitoring, Project evaluation are interrelated terminologies with minor differences in their meanings. In project evaluation monitoring as interim or concurrent evaluation. So many of the methods used for evaluation also be relevant for monitoring the project:
*First Hand Information,
*Formal Reports,
*Project Status Report,
*Project Schedule Chart,
*Project Financial Status Report,
*Informal Reports and
*Graphic Presentations.

Meaning, of Evaluation: Evaluation has its origin in the latin word “Valpure” which means the value of a particular thing, ideas or action. Evaluation, thus helps us to understand the worth, quality, significance, amount, degree or condition of any intervention desired to tackle asocial problem.
Evaluation means finding out the value of something. It simply refers to the procedures of fact finding .;Evaluation consists of assessments whether or not certain activities, treatment and interventions are in conformity with generally accepted professional standards. Any information obtained by any means on either the conduct or the outcome of interventions, treatment or of social change projects is considered to be evaluation.
Evaluation is designated to provide systematic, reliable and valid information on the conduct, impact and effectiveness of the projects. Evaluation is essentially the study and review of the past of operating experiences.
Evaluation involves the systematic collection of information about the activities, characteristic and outcomes of an activity or action, in order to determine its worth or merit (Dart et al, 1998). It is a major part of learning, and can provide a wealth of useful information on the outcomes of a project or action, and the dynamics of those who undertook the work.
Through the identification of the highlights and lowlights of the project, evaluation draws conclusions, which can inform future decision making, and assist to define future projects and policies (Patton, 1997).
Purposes of Evaluation: From an accountability perspective: – the purpose of evaluation is to make the best possible use of funds by the project managers who are accountable for the worth of their programs. Measuring accomplishments in order to avoid weaknesses and future mistakes; Observing the efficiency of the techniques and skills employed; Scope for modification and improvement; Verifying whether the benefits reached the people for whom the project was meant.
From a knowledge perspective: the purpose of evaluation is to establish new knowledge about social problems and the effectiveness of policies and programs designed to alleviate them. Understanding peoples participation and reasons for the same. Evaluation helps to make plans for future work. For example, evaluation of local government projects and actions may be undertaken in order.
To contribute information, for example for the review of council management strategies.
To be accountable to those who are funding the project.
As a debrief to the council on the completion of project
To reflect on whether the area is developing and whether there is need to improve the ways things are being done.
To reflect on whether the area is developing and whether there is need to improve the ways things are being done.
To review and adjust the management methods and technique used in the council.
To develop the skills and understanding of people involved in a project by enabling them to reflect on, and learn from their experiences.
To provide information for planning council managed projects
To determine the worth of any council managed project
To justify and promote a management action to the wider community
To create a historical record of management success over time
To review management methods and techniques, and how effective they were
To see if the work is contributing to the management objectives for an area
To determine whether council have met project objectives. Evaluation also serves as a :
 Context for open discussion on project performance.
 Pointer of strengths & weaknesses, obstacles to project progress.
 Means of recommendations to continue, modify, and/or delete a project.
 Tool for improving the quality of the project and project outcomes.
 Means of involving of the whole partnership, the target group(s) and other actors.
 Tool for enhancing the culture of quality assurance.
 Help for quantifying result.
 Means for predicting how the project work will develop.
 Means of reducing the work of the final report
It is important to be aware of the reasons for undertaking an evaluation before commencing, as this will define how the evaluation process should be designed, and what outcomes are expected as a result.
Principles of Evaluation
The following are some of the principles, which should be kept in view in evaluation:
• Evaluation is a continuous process (continuity)
• Evaluation should involve minimum possible costs (inexpensive Evaluation should be done without prejudice to the day-to-day work (minimum hindrances to day to day work).
• Evaluation must be done on a cooperative basis in which the entire staff and the board members should participate (total participation).
• As far as possible, council should itself evaluate its project progress but occasionally outside evaluation machinery should also be made use of (external evaluation).
• Total overall examination of the councils activities will reveal strength and weaknesses.
• The result of evaluation should be shared with workers of the agency (sharing)

Stages in Evaluation
• Programme planning stage: pre-investment evaluation or formative evaluation or exante evaluation or early/formulation pre-project evaluation or exploratory evaluation or need assessment.
• Program Monitoring stage – Monitoring Evaluation or Ongoing/Interim or Concurrent evaluation.
• Program Completion Stage – Impact evaluation or Ex – post evaluation or (Summative/Terminal/Final) Final evaluation.
At the proposal stage, before the application was submitted council should agree who will be responsible for evaluation across the partnership, agree the priorities for evaluation for it is impossible to evaluate everything (What are we going to evaluate? The processes of the project? the outputs of the project? The outcomes of the project?)
An evaluation work plan should be created immediately the project funding was approved. The evaluation should be worked using a logical schedule (e.g. not every four months but rather in connection with some milestones).

Types of Evaluation
Evaluation can be categorized under different headings:
• By timing (when to evaluate) – Formative evaluation done during the program development stages (Process evaluation, Ex ante evaluation, project appraisals). Summative evaluation taken up when the program achieves a stable operation or when it is terminated (outcome evaluation, ex-post evaluation, etc).
• By Agency: Who is evaluating? Internal evaluation, external evaluation. It is a progress/impact unbiased, objective, detailed monitoring by the management itself assessment by an outsider (ongoing/concurrent evaluation).
• By Stages: On going terminal, Ex-post during the implementation. At the end of, after a time lag of a project or immediately from completion after the completion of a project.

Internal /External Evaluation
Internal evaluation; or (Enterprise Self Audit) Internal evaluation (or otherwise monitoring, concurrent evaluation) is a continuous process, which is done at various points and in respect of various aspects of the working of an agency by the agency staff itself i.e. staff board members and beneficiaries. It is usually performed by staff of partnership members, preferably directly involved in the project work.
External/Outside Evaluation: This is done by outside/certified Management Audit team. This evaluation is often performed by an expert not attached to any of the partnership members, who has no other task in the project. Grant giving bodies in order to find out how the money given is utilized by agency or how the program is implemented sent experienced and qualified evaluators (inspectors) to assess the work e.g. Central Social Welfare Board.
Some donors may send consultants in order to see how far the standards laid down are put into practice. Inter agency evaluation – In this type, two agencies mutually agree to evaluate their programs by the other agency.
Planning Evaluation: Evaluation leading to an Inception Report and a QA plan. Formative Evaluation leading to Progress Reports and Quality Assurance Recommendations.
• Summative Evaluation (leading to Impact Reports and Quality Assessment)
Summative Evaluation: Gather final evaluative information at the end of the event, discuss it. and use to improve the next event. External Evaluator, Role, rationale and requirements for the
external evaluator:
 to provide objectivity to the evaluation process (“second pair of eyes”).
 To bring additional experience and a wide range of evaluation methodologies.
 to be (preferably) a recognized expert, familiar with both the subject area and the management and evaluation of European Projects
Methods of Evaluation: Over the years, a variety of methodologies have been evolved by academicians, practitioners and professionals for evaluating any program/project. Some of the commonly used practices are given;
• First hand Information: one of the simplest and easiest methods of evaluation by getting first hand information about the progress, performance, problem areas etc; of a project from a host of staff, line officers, field personnel, other specialists and public who are directly associated with the project. Data is collected by listening, watching, and documenting what is seen and heard. Through asking questions, and by noting comments, behaviours and reactions, useful information is provided to the evaluation process. The participant observation method gathers accurate information about how a group and project operates in the field.
Direct observation and hearing about the performance and pitfalls further facilitates the chances of an effective evaluation.
• Formal/informal periodic Reports: Evaluation is also carried out through formal and informal reports. Formal reports consists of Project Status Report, Project Schedule Chart project financial Status Report
i. Project Status Report – From this one can understand the current status, performance, schedule, cost and hold ups, and deviations from the original schedule.
ii. Project Schedule Chart – This indicates the time schedule for implementation of the project. From this one can understand any delay, the cost of delay and the ultimate loss.
iii. Project Financial Status Report – It is through financial report, one can have a look at a glance whether the project is being implemented within the realistic budget and time.
• Informal Reports: Informal reports such as anonymous letters, press reports, complaints by beneficiaries and petitions sometimes reveal the true nature of the project even though these reports are biased and contain maligned information.
• Graphic Presentation: Graphic presentations through display of charts, graphs, pictures, illustrations, etc; in the project offices is yet another instrument for a close evaluation.
• Standing Evaluation Review Committees: Some of the organizations have set out standing committees, consisting of a host of experts and specialists who meet regularly at frequent intervals to discuss about problems and to suggest remedial measures.
• Project Profiles: Preparation of the project profiles by ,investigating teams on the basis of standardized guidelines and models developed for the purpose, is also another method of evaluation.
Evaluation can also be carried out through direct measurement of an aspect of the site is considered objective and less prone to bias as it physically exists (or doesn’t exist). Direct measurements can be combined with other evaluation information,
Examples of direct measurements are;
• plant survival rates
• increased number of local volunteers working in the area
• a reduced incidence of vandalism
• reduced presence of weeds
• evidence of trespassing in fenced areas
• degree of community support of changes to management direction
• degree of implementation of management recommendation
Views about Project Evaluation
Evaluation is primarily perceived from three perspectives:
• Evaluation as an analysis- determining the merits or deficiencies of a program, methods and process.
• Evaluation as an audit – systematic and continuous enquiring to measure the efficiency of means to reach their particular preconceived ends.
• In the agency context evaluation of administration means appraisal or judgment of the worth and effectiveness of all the processes (e.g. planning, organizing,
Staffing, etc) designed to ensure the agency to accomplish its objectives.
Areas of Evaluation: Evaluation may be split into various aspects so that each area of the work of the agency or of its particular project is evaluated. This may be: Purpose, Programs, Staff Financial Administration and General.
• Purpose: – To review the objectives of the agency/project and how far these are being fulfilled.
• Programs: – Aspect like number of beneficiaries, nature of services rendered to them, their reaction to the services, effectiveness and adequacy of services, etc. may be evaluated.
• Staff: – The success of any welfare program/agency depends upon the type of staff an agency employs. Their attitude, qualifications, recruitment policy, pay and other benefits and organizational environment. These are the areas, which help to understand the effectiveness of the project/agency.
• Financial Administration: – The flow of resources and its consumption is a crucial factor in any project/agency. Whether the project money is rightly consumed, any over spending in some headings, appropriation and misappropriation. These are some of the indicators that reveal the reasons for success or failures of any project.
• General: – Factors like public relations strategies employed by the project/agency, the constitution of the agency board or project advisory committee and their contribution to future plans of the agency are important to understand the success or failure of any project

CONCLUSIONS: The need to monitor and evaluate local government council projects cannot be over emphasized. In order to determine the worth of any project, it is imperative that monitoring and evaluation of the entire project be carried out. The plan of a project involves all the necessary details- designs, materials, equipments, etc, for the accomplishment of the task/project under consideration. These details are sometimes presented in form of bill of quantity (cost estimates) for the purpose of financial appraisal that is the main crux of evaluation. It is on the basis of this financial appraisal that the decision to accept the plan or project is made.
Findings of evaluation reports are precious input into the decision-making and planning processes. evaluation enables continuous improvement and learning through implementation of recommendations, understanding and incorporation of lessons learned from past evaluations into new strategies, programmers’ and projects.
Evaluation reports, through evidence based findings and thorough. analysis, allow local government councils to show State government or Donor organizations the work that has been achieved, the positive outcomes of projects as well as the gaps that remain to be filled. A suitable monitoring and evaluation approach should be developed in consultation with stakeholders such as the community, local government, State government or the funding body. It is important to ensure that all relevant parties have an understanding of the evaluation process, and its anticipated outcomes. Regardless of the method or approach, councils should organize, monitor and evaluate all their projects following the recommended steps below:
1. Design and plan the evaluation, 2. Gather information, 3. Analyze the information
4. Use the conclusions. 5. Begin early in the project. 6. involve others (external evaluator, but also target group representatives). 7. Use all types of evaluation. 8. Use evaluation mechanisms that predict the development of the project. 9. Record all data and data analysis and use it in project implementation. A stitch in time, they say, saves nine.

Beck, D. R. “Implementing Top Management Plans Through project management, in Project Management Handbook, ed Gle1ond, Project ent Handbook, ed. Cleland, D. I. and King, W. R. (Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York, 1983), pp. 3-36.
Pinto, J. K. and Slevin, D. P. “Critical Factors in Successful Project III! EEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-34 (1987) pp. 22- 27.
Tuman, G. J. “Development and Implementation of Effective Project Management I Information and Control Systems,” in Project Management Handbook, ed. Cleland I
D. I. and King, W.R. (Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York, 1983), pp. 495-532.

Decentralization of the authority of administering to local communities has recently become widespread in the developing world. These initiatives have transferred responsibility of procurement, selection; of local projects, and identification of beneficiaries from central ministries to local governments or community representatives. The presumed argument in favor of decentralizing delivery systems is that local governments will be subject to electoral pressures from local citizens, who are able to monitor delivery better than a distant central authority. The trend toward greater decentralization has been motivated by disenchantment with previous centralized modes of governance, due in part to a perception that monolithic government breeds high levels of rent-seeking corruption and lack of accountability of government officials. The policy inherently decentralizes service delivery institutions and their governance in order to improve access to services for the rural poor.

As noted by Bardhan and Mookherjee (2006), however, this presumption of greater accountability under decentralization is frequently questioned, and some case studies exist on development programs reveals the capture of local governments by powerful local elites.

THE EFFECT OF DECENTRALIZATION ON RURAL PROJECTS: Decentralization of social services, including education, health, agricultural advisory services, and rural infrastructure (rural roads, water, electricity, and so on), is embedded in the larger decentralization processes that are occurring in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. Although the motives of decentralization differ across countries (Naidoo 2002), the major arguments supporting decentralization in developing countries include economic and political gains. The economic justification for decentralization is a locative and productive efficiency a public service delivery through implementation the well-being of citizens of the area. One of the bases for the existence local governments is the provision of services to the citizens at the grassroots. The provision of services requires the harnessing and mobilization of available resources within the local Government and executing projects of different types.
This paper recognizes the fact that local Government councils are responsible for successfully planning and executing projects within their jurisdiction in the midst of many challenges including juggling numerous requests from different stakeholders, satisfying different political groups, ensuring equitable and even development. Local Government Councils (LGCs) implement projects as one of the main strategy to deliver services. They are classified as, ‘Multi Project Organizations’ MPOs; they execute multiple capital & social projects consecutively and/or simultaneously, using the same institutional resources.

LGAs are expected to provide public services. Public services are those services, which require jointness of use or consumption and are not easily divisible. It is available to all citizens without let or hindrance. It is this jointness of use that creates special issues in projects executed by Local Government Councils because both the people that the project was meant for and those it was not meant for will benefit from it. Some projects may have effects that were not intended ab initio. This gives rise to the issue of externalities.
CONCEPT OF EXTERNALITY: An externality is an effect of a purchase or use decision by one set of parties on others who did not have a choice and ken into account. It is an external effect, often unforeseen or unintended, accompanying a process or activity or project. It is unintentional side effects of an activity affecting people other than those directly involved in the activity. A consequence of an economic activity that is experienced by unrelated third parties, sometimes referred to as “neighborhood effects” or “spillovers”. Those aspects of the cost of an environmentally sensitive project that are not dealt with directly by the project funding, but instead are left for those “external” to the project to deal with; primarily the governments at various levels but in effect, the general population.
From these myriad of definitions and different contexts of the definitions we can summarize the term externalities as unforeseen or unintended/unintentional side effects, accompanying a process or activity or Project affecting people other than those directly involved in the activity or Activities.
TYPES OF EXTERNALITIES: Externalities could be negative or positive. A negative externality (also called “external cost” or “external diseconomy”) is an action of a project on consumers that imposes a negative effect on a third party; it is “external cost”.
Today, the most pressing and complex externality problem is greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from human activity has been identified as a major cause of global warming. Barring policies to curb GHG emissions, scientists expect this problem to grow and eventually lead to climate change and its accompanying costs, including damage to economic activity from the destruction of capital (for example, along coastal areas) and lower agricultural productivity. Externalities come into play because the costs and risks from climate change are borne by the world at large , whereas there are few mechanisms to compel those who benefit from GHG-emitting activity to internalize these costs and risks.
The atmosphere, in fact, is a global public good, with benefits that accrue to all, making private bargaining solutions unfeasible. Identifying and agreeing on policies for internalization of the social costs of GHG emissions at the global level are extremely difficult, given the cost to some individuals and firms and the difficulties of global enforcement of such policies.
Many negative externalities are related to the environmental consequences of production, projects and use. Examples of which include;
• Air pollution from burning fossil fuels causes damages to crops, buildings and public health.
• Anthropogenic climate change is attributed to greenhouse gas emissions from burning oil, gas, and coal.
• Water pollution by industries that adds effluent which harms plants,
animals, and humans.
• Noise pollution which may be mentally and psychologically disruptive.
• Industrial farm animal production, on the rise in the 20th century, resulted in farms that were easier to run, with fewer and often less skilled employees, and a greater output of uniform animal products.
However, the externalities with these farms include ‘contributing to the increase in the pool of antibiotic-resistant bacteria because of the overuse of antibiotics; air quality problems; the contamination of rivers, stream, and coastal waters with concentrated animal waste etc.
• The harvesting by one fishing company in the river depletes, the stock of available fish for the outer companies and overfishing may be the result. The stock fish is an example of a common property resource, and that, in the absence of appropriate environmental governance, is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons.
• When car owners use roads, they impose congestion costs and higher accident risks on all other users.
• Consumption by one consumer causes prices to rise and therefore makes other consumers worse off, perhaps by reducing their consumption. these effects are sometimes called “pecuniary externalities” and are distinguished from “real externalities” or “technological externalities”.
• Shared costs of declining health and vitality caused by smoking and/or alcohol abuse. Here, the “cost” is that of providing minimum social welfare.
Antibiotic use contributes to antibiotic resistance, reducing the future effectiveness of antibiotics. Individuals do not consider this efficacy cost when making usage decisions, leading to socially sub-optimal antibiotic consumption.
Positive externalities are often associated with the free rider problem. For example, individuals who are vaccinated reduce the risk of contracting the relevant disease for all others around them, and at high levels of vaccination, society may receive large health and welfare benefits; but any one individual can refuse vaccination, still avoiding the disease by “free riding” on the costs borne by others. On the other hand, a positive externality would increase the utility of third parties at no cost to them. Since collective societal welfare is improved, but the providers have no way of monetizing the benefit, less of the good will be produced than would be optimal for society as a whole.
Examples of positive externalities (beneficial externality, external benefit, external economy, or be Merit goods) include:
• Increased education of individuals can lead to broader society benefits in tile form of greater economic productivity, lower unemployment rate, greater household mobility and higher rates of political participation.
• A beekeeper keeps the bees for their honey. A side effect or externality associated with her activity is the pollination of surrounding crops by the bees. The value generated by the pollination may be more important than the value of the harvested honey.
• An individual who maintains an attractive house may confer benefits to neighbors in the form of increased market values for their properties.
An individual buying a product that is interconnected in a network (e.g., a cell phone) will increase the usefulness of such phones to other people who have a cell phone. When each new user of a product increases the value of the same product owned by others, the phenomenon is called a network externality or a network effect.
• In an area which does not have a public fire department, homeowners who purchase private fire protection services provide a positive externality to neighboring properties which are less at risk of the protected neighbor’s fire spreading to their (unprotected) house.
• An individual receiving a vaccination for a communicable disease not only decreases the likelihood of their own infection, but also decreases the likelihood of others becoming infected through contact with the individual.
• Purchase a car of a certain model demand and thus availability for mechanics who know that kind of car, which improves the situation for others owning that model.

Positive externalities are beneficial to the system and may not be of too much concern to us, but the negative externalities will have to be managed in some way or the other. A good appraisal of projects and a good feasibility study can be a useful tool in managing negative externalities. In other words the project should be analyzed in detail and subjected to the highest level of scrutiny from different perspectives. The aim of an appraisal is to identify and design projects that have a clear foundation for success and with the least likelihood of negative externality. The appraisal of project proposals is an essential task of LGCs Project Managers, because their decisions will lead to the most crucial decision in project cycle management, which is to move the proposal forward to the planning, commitment and implementation stages. Another way whereby negative externalities could be managed is through legislations that places penalties of projects that are likely to or which actually causes negative externalities like in the case of pollution. The effect of externalities affects social groups differ. For example, removal of forest cover for development projects leads to loss of non-timber products and fuel wood for local poor. This should be considered during project conception and implementation.
In rural areas, land is a important resource and projects that affects land usage creates externalities for the rural populace, therefore project considerations., should aim at minimizing land take. Projects that have tendency for different kinds of pollution (Air, water, soil) should be discouraged as much as possible because they impose health and clean-up costs on the whole society. Public safety considerations and social cost are important in project identification and implementation as they help to reduce externalities to acceptable or minimum levels. The existence or management of externalities may give rise to political or/and legal conflict. Within our climes externalities of projects could take the form of social costs in terms of such vices as prostitution, robbery and such economic issues as increase cost of living in terms of housing and food costs etc. To mitigate this, a well articulated public enlightenment and good education can be useful.
Also a functional health service system could come in handy. Collective solutions or public policies are sometimes implemented to regulate activities with positive or negative externalities. However, the most common type of solution is tacit agreement through the political process. Governments are elected to represent citizens and to take strike political compromises between various interests. Normally governments pass laws and regulations to address pollution and other types of environmental and social harm. Government intervention may not always be needed. Traditional ways of life may evolved as a ways to deal with external costs and benefits. Alternatively, democratically run communities can agree to deal with these costs and benefits in an amicable way. Externalities can sometimes be resolved by agreement between the parties involved. This resolution may even come about because, of the threat of government action.

SUMMARY: Decentralization of the authority of administering to local communities has recently become widespread resulting in the transfer of responsibility of procurement, selection of local projects, and identification of beneficiaries from central ministries to local governments or community representatives. The trend toward greater decentralization has been motivated by disenchantment with previous centralized modes of governance, due in part to a perception that monolithic government breeds high levels of rent-seeking corruption and lack of accountability of government officials. The policy inherently decentralizes service delivery institutions and their governance in order to improve access to services for the rural poor through well-thought out projects.
Local Government Councils (LGCs) implement projects as one of the main strategy to deliver services. They are classified as, Multi Project Organizations MPOs; they execute multiple capital and social projects consecutively and/ or simultaneously, using the same institutional resources.

LGAs are expected -to provide public services. Public services are those services, which require jointness of use or consumption and are not easily divisible because it available-to all citizens. This jointness of use creates special issues in projects executed by Local Government Councils because both the people that the project was meant for and those it was not meant for will benefit from it. Some projects may have effects that were not intended ab initio. This gives rise to the issue of externalities. Externalities is defined as unforeseen or unintended/unintentional side effects, accompanying a process or activity or Project affecting people other than those directly involved in the activity or Activity, They could be positive or negative. It is negative if a project imposes a negative effect on a third party or the environment or negatively affects the social or cultural order. On the other hand, a positive externality would increase the utility of third parties at no cost to them. Since collective societal welfare is improved it has beneficial effect on society.

A good appraisal of projects and a good feasibility study can be a useful tool in managing negative externalities. In other words the project should be analysed in detail and subjected to the highest level of scrutiny from different perspectives. The aim of an appraisal is to identify and design project that have a clear foundation for success and with the least likelihood of negative externality.

Political, economic and legislative processes can be used to mitigate the effects of negative externalities.

• A good appraisal of projects and a good feasibility study should be carried out for every project by Local Government Councils to reduce the effect of negative externalities.
• Legislation could also be a tool.
• A well articulated public enlightenment and good education can be useful.
• A well functional health service system could help mitigate project externalities.
• A well developed civil societies, citizen advisory groups or community consultative groups, neighbor-hood groups such as residents associations etc. could help in articulating and identifying eternities during project conception


INTRODUCTION: Power and light are major sources of man’s survival and technological growth. In view of these major roles played by power and light in human existence, their sources, their security and their maintenance are inevitable.
DEFINITION: To begin with let us know what equipment and plant are:-
“In general terms equipment is any technological device, -fuel or none- fuel driven, fabricated by man to be used for further production of other equipments, plants, tools and services,” It can come in the forms of light or heavy equipments, movable or immovable equipments. Some examples of equipments are:-
 Earth work equipment:-Bulldozers, Grader, Roller, etc
 Dragging equipments :- Dryer, Extractors etc
 Farm work equipment:- Tractors etc
 Drilling equipment:- Rig, Excavators etc
 Hospital equipment:- Ex-Ray Machines etc
 Power generating equipment:- Generator, Hydro Plant etc
 Factories equipment:- Crackers, Milling Machine etc
For the purpose of this paper our concentration is on ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT” GENERATORS.”
GENERATOR-(ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT): Generator or generating plant can be described as a technological device, fuel or solar driven, fabricated by man to be used for the generation of electrical power, Electrical power in turn is required for lighting and for the operation of allied equipments and appliances.
Lighting, allied equipments and appliances are in turned required for further production of other equipments and services.
SOURCES AND CLASSIFICATION: There are three classes of light sources mostly available to man in his industrial and domestic life namely:-
1. The electrical power/light source which is processed from the generators, (fuel or hydro or turbine driven.)
2. The non-processed light/power known as necked flame which is mechanically produced from stones (as in ancient days,) matches, lighter etc.
3. Solar power and light which come from the sun powered by nature. This can be used directly for vision, heating/drying in the day time unprocessed and can also be processed in to power and lighting with solar panels through a modern technological process.
There are two basic components (units) of the electrical generating plant namely:-
a) The engine component
b) The coil or alternator component
THE ENGINE: The engine is made up of many mechanical spare parts coordinated by strokes to produce torque (rotary energy or energy in motion) needed to turn the coil through shaft in direct coupling or through belt for the generation of current.
Some of the major spare parts of the engine are:-
1. Crank shaft:-
2. Connecting rod:-
3. Piston:-
4. Others are:-
Crank case, metals, valves, Exhaust, Nuzzles, Top Cylinder, injector, carburetor, fuel, oil, starter, battery, key, gasket, bearing, tank, frame, plug, hose, bolts, nuts etc.
Some engines depending on “make” and “capacities” have different number of strokes ranging from 2 to 4 but the regular and the majority of engines have 4 strokes. A combination of these parts when fueled through the transmission line (tank, tap, pipe filter, carburetor, and valves) produces upward and downward or left and right or angle to angle movement of the piston as the crack shaft turns through the following strokes; ignition, induction firing and exhaust.
WHY /HOW ENGINE WORKS BASICALLY: Ignition passes current from the battery to the kick starter the kick starter turns the crank shaft through the fly wheel or the gear tooth. The crank shaft movement/turning opens and closes the valves systems (in-let and exhaust) as well as pushing and pulling the piston front and back. The piston builds up compression with the rings on it while the inlet valves suck fuel as it opens and closes and then sprays the fuel on the head of the piston where the head of the plug is facing, (induction). A combination of the fuel, the pressure and plug then sparks static fire and sound inside the barrel. The ignited pressure then in search of where to escape keeps pushing the piston back and front, (firing) while excess pressure, static fire and sound return to the exhaust system through exhaust valve, (Exhaust) this process continues as long as fuel keeps entering the barrel/combustion chamber-hence the running of the engine continuously. The running of the engine in turn propels the shaft connected to the coil component of the generator thus causing the coil to produce current through a magnetic process.
THE COIL COMPONENT (ALTERNATOR): The coil component is the “current” generating side of the generating plant. It is also referred to as the alternator. The alternator is made up of many electrical spare parts coordinated by a set of copper or aluminum wire coiled in specific circular form to create electrical magnetic field as it turns. Some of the major spare parts and units of the alternator are:-
(1) The armature: (a piece of metal with coiled wires on it)
(2) The field coil: (a round metal frame with coiled wires in it)
(3) Others are:- The magnator, the brushes, the AVR (Automatic voltage Regulator), positive and negative wire polarities, pulley, positive and negative diodes, Exciter, capacitor, insulator, bolts and nuts. In brief, the alternator is made up of three major units namely: The casing, the field coil and the armature.
THE WORKING OF THE ALTERNATOR: As the-armature assembly turns inside the field coil through direct coupling shaft or belt driven an electrical magnetic field is created between the field coil and the armature which in turn is absorbed by the magnator then sent to the AVR or capacitor connected to the armature. The AVR or capacitor then processes and regulates the electrical magnetic field and sends it in the form of electric current through the positive and negative cable polarities to the field coil which in turn sends it to the diodes in Electrical panel board for adaptation and for further regulation before consumption as Electric power. The electrical power can now be taped and distributed with appropriate capacity of wire network and used through allied fittings such as bulbs, fans, AIC, fridges, iron, TV, Computers, welding factory machines etc.

IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS AND MAINTENANCE: This equipment or plant (Generator) being man-made device is not without technical and operational problems. It therefore calls for problem identification or diagnose, repairs, maintenance and preventive measures. Below is a technical table suggesting periodic problems, possible causes and maintenance strategies.
THE ROLE OF THE GENERATING PLANT OPERATORS: It is usually said that prevention is better than cure. Therefore besides the normal duties of starting and switching off the generating plant it is expected of the plant operator to ensure the safety and security of the plant as well as his own life. To achieve these, the following roles and preventive measures are of absolute necessary.
1. Secure the plant in a well ventilated power house.
2. Upon entering the power house observe first the entire plant to see if there is any fraudulent attempt by thieves to steal the plant or its parts.
To see if there is any leakages of lubricant and refill them before starting after stopping the leakages (if any)
3. Check the battery terminals/belt to be sure that they are in place properly.
4. Stop the engine before refueling.
5. Avoid naked flame and sparking of light at the generator room where petrol is used.
6. Keep the generating plant clean and in a dry environment.
7. Call for a periodic general servicing to avoid a major break down.
8. Monitor the plant while on operation to observe the fuel level as well as timely detection of any sudden change from its normal working condition.
9. Use safety attire while on operation of the plant.
10. Ensure installation of fire extinguisher at the appropriate corner of the power house.
11. Turn of the plant immediately if any adverse sound or condition comes up.
APPROPRIATE TOOLS FOR GENERAL REPAIRS/MAINTENANCE OF GENERATING PLANT: It is important to note that wrong tools or wrong use of appropriate tools as well as wrong diagnose of plant problems can cause more damages to the plant. Hence the following tools are necessary for proper use in the maintenance of electrical power plant:-
1. A set of flat spanners
2. A set of ring spanners
3. A set of socket spanners
4. A set of a line keys
5. A set of plug spanners
6. A set of pliers
7. A set of screw drivers
8. A vice
9. Ark saw
10. Meter and tester
11. Hand drill
12. Puller
13. Metal tool box with key
14. A set of hammer
15. Wire brush
16. Pen knives
17. A set of filler gauge
18. Wooden working table
Challenges faced by field technicians in plant maintenance
1. High cost of spare parts
2. High running cost (fuel and lubricant)
3. Lack of original parts and original working tools in the market
4. Lack of indigenous names for the plant and the spare parts-required for proper understanding by the un lettered technicians.
5. Contracting out or handling of plant maintenance by none specialist or quack technicians thus causing more damages.

Electric power has come to stay and is the pivot around which modern civilization and technological development revolves.
Therefore its generation, maintenance, its security and the safety of the
Operators and Maintenance Technicians are very important and should be given serious attention by their employers as the situation demands.

The following safety precautions are of a general nature: more specific precautions appear when they are relevant.
• ensure the engine is free to turn without obstruction,
• check that the water and lubricating oil levels are correct.
• the oil sump must be filled to the upper mark on the dipstick; do not overfill.
• check that the fuel supply is adequate and the system is primed.
• ensure that the battery is connected, fully charged and serviceable,
• where possible, disengage the driven equipment while starting.

The following points must be strictly observed when an alternator is fitter otherwise serious damage can be done,
• never remove any electrical cable while the battery is connected in the circuit
• Only disconnect the battery with the engine stopped and all switches in the off position,
• Always ensure that cable are fitted to their correct terminal.
• A short circuit or reversal of polarity will ruin diodes and transistors,
• Never connect a battery into the system without checking that the voltage and polarity are correct
• Never flash any connection to check the current flow.
• Never experiment with any adjustments or repairs to the system.
• The battery and alternator must be disconnected before commencing any electric welding when a pole strap is directly or indirectly connected to the engine,

• Do not smoke near the batteries,
• Keep sparks and flames away from the batteries.
• Batteries contain sulphuric acid — if the acid has been splashed on the skin. Eyes or clothes flush it away with copious amounts of fresh water and seek medical aid.
• Keep the top of the battery well ventilated during charging,
• Disconnect the battery negative (earth) lead first and reconnect last.
• Switch off the battery charger before disconnecting the charger leads.
• Never ‘flash’ connections to check current flow.
• Never experiment with adjustment or repairs to the system,
• A damaged or unserviceable battery must never be used,

• The following points must be considered before attempting to lift the engine,
• Ensure the lifting equipment to be used has the correct capacity to lift the engine, Single lifting equipment must only be used when a single lifting eye is fitted.
• When two engine lifting eyes are fitted Suitable lifting equipment designed to give two vertical lifts from directly above the engine lifting eyes must be used.
• Check that the engine lifting eyes are not damaged and that they are secure, to prevent damage to the cylinder head cover.
Improper practices or carelessness can cause burns, cuts, mutilation or other bodily injury or death.
Read & understand ail of the safety precautions and warnings before performing any repair. This list contains the general safety precautions that must be followed to provide personal safety.
• Make sure that the work area surrounding the product is dry, well lit, ventilated, free from clutter, loose tools, parts, ignition sources and hazardous substances.
• Always wear protective glasses and protective shoes while working on the engine.
• Rotating parts can cause cuts, mutilation or strangulation.
• Do no wear loose fitting or torn clothing.
• Disconnect the battery (negative) cable first and discharge before beginning any repair work.
• Use ONLY the proper engine barring techniques for manually rotating the engine. Do not attempt to rotate the crankshaft by pulling or prying the fan. This practice can cause serious personal injury, property damage or damage to fan bladed causing premature failure of the engine.
• if the engine has been operating and the coolant is hot, allow the engine to cool before you slowly loosen the filler cap and relieve the pressure from the cooling system.
• Do not work on anything that is supported only by lifting jacks or a hoist. Always use block or proper stands to support the product before performing any service work.
• Be alert for possible pressure when disconnecting any device from a system that utilizes pressure. Do not check for pressure leaks with your hand. High pressure oil or fuel can cause serious injury.
• Corrosion inhibitor contains alkali. Do not get the substance in your eyes. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with your skin. Do not swallow internally. In case of contact, immediately wash skin with soap and water.
• To avoid burns, be alert for hot parts and hot fluids in lines, tubes and compartments.
• Always use tools that are in good condition. Use only genuine Cummins replacement parts.
• Always use the same fastener part number when replacing fasteners. Do not use fasteners of lesser quality for replacements when necessary.
• Avoid inhalation of vapors, ingestion and prolonged contact with used engine oil.
• Ensure that there is clearance between the lifting equipment hooks and the cover.
• • The lifting eyes fitted to the engine are suitable for lifting the engine, and gearbox if fitted, and accessory assemblies.
• Extreme care must be taken to ensure that waste fuel, oil, filter elements, acid coolant concentrate, paint, solvent or other toxic wastes are disposed of in accordance with local regulations to percent contamination .
These safety precautions are important. You must refer also to the local regulations in the country of use.
Some items only refer to specific applications.
• Only use these engines in the type of application for which they have been designed.
• Do not change the specification of the engine.
• Do not smoke when you put fuel in the tank.
• Clean away fuel which has been spilt. Material which has been contaminated by fuel must be moved to a safe place.
• Do not put fuel in the tank while the engine runs (unless it is absolutely necessary).
• Do not clean , add lubricating oil, or adjust the engine while it runs (unless you have had the correct training ; even then extreme care must be used to prevent injury).
• Do not make adjustments that you do not understand.
• Ensure that the engine does not run in a location where it can cause a concentration of toxic emissions.
• Other persons must be kept at a safe distance while the engine or auxiliary equipment is in operation.
• Do not permit loose clothing or long hair near moving parts .
• Keep away from moving parts during engine operation.

Warning! Some moving parts cannot be seen clearly while the engine runs.
• Do not operate the engine if a safety guard has been removed.
• Do not remove the filler cap or any component of the cooling system while the engine is hot and while the coolant is under pressure, because dangerous hot coolant can be discharged
• Do not allow sparks or fire near the batteries (especially when the batteries are on charge) because the gases from the electrolyte are highly flammable. The battery fluid is dangerous to the skin and especially to the eyes.
• Disconnect the battery terminals before a repair is made to the electrical system.
• Only one person must control the engine.
• Ensure that the engine is operated only from the control panel or from the operators position.
• If your skin comes into contact with high-pressure fuel, obtain medical assistance immediately.
• Diesel fuel and lubricating oil (especially used lubricating oil) can damage the skin of certain persons. Protect your hands with gloves or a special solution to protect the skin.
• Do not wear clothing which is contaminated by lubricating oil. Do not put material which is contaminated with oil into the pockets of clothing.
• Discard used lubricating oil in accordance with local regulations to prevent contamination.
• Ensure that the control lever of the transmission drive is in the “out-of-drive” position before the engine is started.
• Use extreme care if emergency repairs must be made in adverse conditions.
• The combustible material of some components of the engine (for example certain seals) can become extremely dangerous if it is burned, Never allow this burnt material to come into contact with the skin or with the eyes.
• Always use a safety cage to protect the operator when a component is to be pressure tested in a container of water. Fit safety wires to secure the plugs which seal the hose connections of a component which is to be pressure tested.
• Do not allow compressed air to contact your skin. If compressed air enters your skin, obtain medical help immediately.
• Turbo chargers operate at high speed and at high temperatures. Keep fingers, tools and debris away from the inlet and outlet ports of the turbocharger and prevent contact with hot surfaces.
• Fit only genuine Perkins parts, failure to do so can damage the engine and may effect the warranty.
• Do not wash an engine while it runs or while it is hot. If cold cleaning fluids are applied to a hot engine, certain components on the engine could be damaged.
• Ensure that the starter switch is in the off position before servicing or repairs are made to the fuel system, because fuel will be released if the lift pump has power.
• If the fuel level in the tank is higher than the fuel lift pump the supply and return fuel line valves must be turned off before servicing or repairs are made to the fuel system, because fuel will flow through the system.
Vilton seals
Vilton is used by many manufacturers and is a safe material under normal conditions of operation. Some seals used in engines and in components fitted to these engines are made of Vilton. If Vilton is burned, a product of this burnt material is an acid which is extremely dangerous. Never allow this burnt material to come into contact with the skin or with the eyes. If it is necessary to come into contact with components which have been burnt ensure that the precautions which follow are used:
• Ensure that the, components have cooled.
• Use neoprene gloves and discard the gloves safely after use.
• Wash the area with calcium hydroxide solution and then with clean water.
• Disposal of components and gloves which are contaminated must be in accordance with local regulation.
If there is contamination of the skin or eyes, wash the affected area with a continuous supply of clean water or with calcium hydroxide solution for 15-60 minutes. Obtain immediate medical attention.
How to care for your engine
Warning! Head the “Safety precautions” and remember them. They are given for your protection and must be applied at all times.
Caution: Do not wash an engine while it runs or while it is hot. If cold cleaning fluids are applied to a hot engine, certain components on the engine could be damaged. This handbook has been written to assist you to maintain and operate your engine correctly. To obtain the best performance and the longest life from your engine. You must ensure that the maintenance operation are done at the intervals indicated in “Preventive maintenance if the engine is operated in a very dusty environment or other adverse conditions, certain maintenance intervals will have to be reduced.



1. Use only recommended oils and lubricants. Use of thicker engine oil for higher engine oil pressure only reduces engine life.
2. Change oil in engine at prescribed intervals with recommended oils.
3. Use only genuine filter cartridge for engine oil and fuel system. Replace them at recommended intervals specified.
4. Always use ethylene glycol in cooling system to avoid deterioration of engine components due to corrosions.
5. after filling coolant fit radiator cap firmly to keep cooling system pressurized and to maintain coolant level. Use genuine radiator caps.
6. Check battery every week and top up electrolyte level, if necessary. Keep battery terminals clean and cable joints tight. Apply Vaseline/petroleum jelly on terminals.
7. Clean air filter regularly at recommended intervals or more often depending upon operating conditions. This is cheapest way of obtaining good engine life.
8. Disconnect all alternator terminals, while carrying out any welding.
9. Observe correct polarity while connecting alternator to battery.
10. For operating at low temperatures and high altitudes follow the instructions given under heading special operating conditions.
11. Ensure periodic servicing of engine by technicians from Authorized Cummins dealers for trouble free operation.
1. Do not use kerosene as fuel. It reduces engine and fuel pump life.
2. Do not remove thermostat but get defective one replaced. It increases engine life.
3. Do not top up radiator by pouring cold coolant in hot engine. The cylinder head may crack.
4. Do not over fill engine oil in sump. This may cause engine smoking and high engine oil consumption.
5. Do not keep starter push button pressed, after the engine has fired. Release it immediately. Do not press starter push button when the engine is running. This will damage the starter pinion and/or flywheel ring gear.
6. Do not run the alternator without battery or disconnect any lead of the alternator while the engine is running.
7. Do not flash the alternator leads to check for current flow.
8. During running in do not overload or over speed.
9. Do not let the engine to lug.
10. Do not idle the machine for stops over a minute. This will save fuel.
11. Do not tamper fuel injection pump setting. Tampering of FIP seals makes warranty null and void.
12. Do not start the engine at full throttle. This will damage the moving parts of engine. Idle the engine for a few seconds after starting before accelerating the engine.
13. Do not over-speed the engine resulting in exhaust valve hitting the piston crown.
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS: The engine operator must assume responsibility of engine care while engine is being operated. There are comparatively few rules which operator must observe to get best service from a Cummins Diesel Engine.

New Engine Break-In
All X-series engines are tested before being shipped from the factory and are ready to be put to work. You will get better life from engine by,
1. Avoiding operation for long periods at engine idle speeds, or at maximum horsepower levels in excess of five minutes.
2. Developing the habit of watching engine instruments closely during operation and letting up on throttle if oil temperature reaches. 250c F (121 °C) or coolant temperature exceeds 98*C
3. Checking engine oil level prior to engine start.
4. For continuous rating, load can be applied after the engine is commissioned New Engines
Pre-Starting Instructions-First Time Priming the Fuel System.
1. Fill fuel filter with clean No. 2 diesel fuel oil meeting the specification outlined. 2. Check & fill fuel tanks.
Oil Pan Capacities
X 1.7G1 X 2.5G1 X 2.5G2
(liters) (liters) (liters)
5 6.5 6.5
1. Fill engine with amount of oil listed as low-level oil pan capacity.
2. Allow five (5) minutes or more for oil to drain to the oil pan. If engine and/or oil temperature is below 40° F (4° C), a longer period may be required for full drain.
3. Insert dipstick into gauge tube fully seated; hold for five (5) ten (10) seconds, then withdraw slowly.
4. Add enough additional oil to fill engine to listed high-level capacity. The dipstick has mark to high & low oil level.
5. Start engine and operate at idle for 3 minutes. Stop engine wait for 10 minutes and fill to high mark. Additional oil may be required to fill oil fillers and lines.
Do not confuse with complete oil system capacity which also includes drilled passages, lines and filters.
Check Air Connection
Check air connection to air cleaner and air crossovers to assure all are secured.
Check Engine Coolant Supply
Remove the radiator cap and check engine coolant level. Add coolant as needed.

Check and top up radiator with clean, coolant daily.
If the coolant starts boiling, there could be a defect in the cooling system which may be on account of:.
i. Less coolant or dirt/scale having accumulated inside cooling water passages, especially in the radiator cores.
ii. Choking of the radiator air passages due to foreign material or damaged radiator fins
iii. Loss of coolant by evaporation and leakage through defective radiator cap.
.iv. Loose water pump drive belt.
v. Coolant leakage from the cooling system.
Always use genuine radiator cap. A proper radiator cap firmly fitted maintains pressure in the cooling system and makes the engine more efficient by permitting a slightly higher operating temperature.
The vacuum in the radiator is relieved by a valve provided in the cap. The radiator pressure cap value is 7 PSI.
A. Prevention of Rust Formation: To prevent rust formation, the water in the radiator should be mixed with one of the recommended anticorrosive agents.
Caution : Do not add cold water too quickly to hot engine.
B. Fuel System
The photograph shows different points for fuel system. The description of these points are,
1. Bleeding screw primary filter
2. Bleeding screw secondary filter
3. Drain plug secondary filter.
4. Drain plug primary filter.
5. Bleeding screw on fuel injection pump.
Overflow Valve: In case the engine running is found to be irregular or shows a tendency to fall or there is loss of power, this may be due to faulty operation of the overflow valve in the fuel filter system.
If necessary, replace it.
Nozzle Operation: If the engine is running irregularly or there is a diesel knock or the fuel consumption is abnormal, faulty injection nozzle operation may be the cause.
Generally, this is due to dirt in the fuel system.
If excessive black smoke is emitted on acceleration, it could be due to drubbing of nozzles. Get the nozzles checked at BOSCH Service Station.
CHANGING ENGINE OIL: The engine oil should be drained while it is still hot.
a. Unscrew sump drain plug and allow the oil to drain out for 20 mins.
b. Unscrew filler plug of oil filter. drain out Oil and refit filler plug.
c. Unscrew centre bolt and remove oil filter bowl. Discard oil filter cartridge. The filter cartridge should not be cleaned or reused.
d. Check ‘0’ ring and seal for any damage. Replace if found damaged.
e. Clean the bowl thoroughly and insert a new genuine fuel flow oil filter cartridge into the bowl.
f. During re-assembly of the oil filter. fill the filter bowl with one litre of engine oil through the drain plug and fit the filter bowl to the top cover and tighten the centre bolt to the specified torque. Before starting, crank the engine with the help of ignition key, so that the oil can immediately flow to the bearings and the time required by the oil to attain the correct pressure is minimized.
If this instruction is ignored the bearing may get damaged. The oil filter must be kept clean as far as possible to protect the engine components from rapid and excessive wear and tear due to abrasion. Tighten the centre bolt to 4 Kg-m torque.
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL: Note In case the old filter cartridge was found damaged/punctured, the filter top cover assembly should also be removed and refitted after thorough cleaning. Proceed as below:
(i). Remove the two screws holding the filter top cover to the crankcase and remove it with its gasket.
(ii) Remove the bypass valve assembly and clean the valve and its seat.
(iii). Clean all oil passage in cover thoroughly.
Replace ‘0’ ring and seals if found damaged.
(iv). Reassemble bypass valve with new sealing washer if necessary.
(v). Fit new gasket on the cover.
(vi). Refit oil filter cover assembly to the crankcase taking care that the gasket does not get damaged during fitment.
(vii). Tighten evenly and equally the two mounting bolts of cover to 6 Kg-m torque.
(viii): Clean the drain plug of the engine oil sump and refit with a new sealing washer if necessary Tighten to 4 to 6 Kg-m torque.
(ix.) Fiil engine oil into the sump.
(x). Start engine and allow it to run for a few minutes and stop.
(xi). After 20 minutes check level of oil indicated on the dipstick. It should be at the upper mark and if not, top up.
(xii). Check oil level In fuel injection pump and governor. Top up if necessary.
Caution: Make sure that only genuine oil filter cartridge is used. inspection of non genuine filter cartridges available in the market at low prices have revealed:
i. Use of inferior filtering material which cannot properly filter the engine oil.
ii. Improper dimensions which cannot prevent filtered oil getting mixed with unfiltered oil.
Since it is extremely difficult to distinguish between genuine and non-genuine filter elements. obtain these only from Cummins Representative.

Check the following:
1. Fuel level in fuel tank, Top up, if necessary and secure cap.
2. Engine oil level – First thing in the morning or at least 20 minutes after stopping the engine. Top up, if oil level is less than midway between minimum and maximum marks.
The oil should not exceed the maximum level mark. Use only approved brand of oil.
3. Radiator coolant level. Top up, if necessary, and secure radiator cap.
4. Condition and tension of fan belt. Adjust tension, if necessary.
5. Leakage of coolant, fuel or oil at all joints of hoses and pipes and rectify, if necessary
Starting the Engine: Starting requires the clean air & fuel to be supplied to the combustion chambers in proper quantities at the correct time.
Caution : While starting the engine do not touch the throttle or throttle lever.
1. Start engine with starting key. if engine misfires and stops, wait for 30 to 60 seconds before pressing starter push button once again. This practice should be strictly adhered to. otherwise the starter motor will be damaged
2. Allow engine to warm up at fast idling speed until cooling system temperature is at least 40 deg. C
Engine Warm-up: When the engine is started, it takes a while to get the lubricating oil film reestablished between shafts and bearing and between pistons and liners. The most favorable clearances between moving parts are obtaining only after all engine parts reach normal operating temperature. Avoid seizing pistons in liners and running dry shafts in dry bearings by brining the engine up to operating speed gradually as it warms up.
Oil Temperature: The oil temperature should between 1670 F (750 C) and 221°F (105°C) . Under full load conditions, an oil temperature of 2400 F (116° C) for a short period is not a cause for alarm.

Caution: Any sudden increase in oil temperature which is not caused by load increase is a warning of possible mechanical failure and should be investigated at once.
During warm-up period, apply load gradually until oil temperature reaches 140 F (60C C). While oil is cold it does not do a good job of lubricating. Continuous operating or long periods of idle with oil temperatures below 1400 F (60·J C) may cause crankcase dilution and acids in the lubricating oil which quickly accelerate engine wear.
Water Temperature: A water temperature of 750C to 980C is the best assurance that working parts of the engine have expanded evenly to the most favorable of clearances. Maximum engine coolant temperatures should not exceed 98 C. keep thermostats always in the engine, avoid long period of idling and take necessary steps to keep water temperature up to a minimum of 167F (75 0C). If necessary in cold weather, use radiator shutters or cover a part of the radiator to prevent overcooling.
Oil Pressure: Normal engine oil temperature at 221 F (1050 C) should be between 2.5 to 5 Kg/cm at rated speed and 1 to 2 Kg/cm2 at low idle speed.
Note: Please note that oil pressure will vary with temperature.
Engine Exhaust: The engine exhaust is a good indicator of engine operation and performance. A smoky exhaust may be due to a poor grade of fuel, dirty air cleaner, over fueling or poor mechanical conditions.
If engine exhaust is smoky, corrective action should be taken.
High Altitude Operation: Some engines, particularly naturally aspirated, lose horsepower when operated at high altitude because the air is too thin to burn as much fuel as at sea level. This loss is about 5 percent for each 1800 ft of altitude above sea level for a naturally aspirated engine. Operate the engine using a lower power requirement at high altitude to prevent smoke and over-fueling.
Engine Shut-Down: Idle Engine A Few Minutes Before Shut-Down: It is important to idle an engine 3 to 5 minutes before shutting it down to allow lubricating oil and water to carry heat away from the combustion or chamber, bearings shafts etc .
Do Not Idle Engine For Excessively Long
Periods: Long periods of id ling are not good for an engine because combustion chamber temperatures drop so low the fuel may not burn completely. This will cause carbon to clog the injector spray holes and piston rings and may result in sucked valves. If engine coolant temperature becomes too low, raw fuel will wash lubricating oil off cylinder walls and dilute crankcase oil so all moving parts of the engine will suffer from poor lubrication. If the engine is not being used . Shut it down.
Switch off the engine with the shut down coil provided on engine. Or the engine can be shut down by pulling down mechanical lever fitted on BOSCH pump.
Radiator: The radiator used on X series engine are state of the art aluminum radiators. These radiators are with aluminum tubes & fins. The top and bottom radiators tanks are molded plastic materials. These radiators do not have de-aeration cooling system.

The principal components of the equipment for delivering the fuel oil to the engine are as follows:
Fuel Lift Pump (when fitted)
Fuel Injection Pump
INJECTOR (NOZZLE): So accurate is the manufacture of the fuel injection equipment that the importance of cleanliness when handling fuel cannot be over stressed. Adequate filters are provided in the system, but much can be done by the operator to ensure that the equipment is maintained in first class condition. All fuel used must conform to:
British standard No. BS. 2869 : 1970 Class A or I.S. : 1450/2000 Grade special or Grade A and must be clean, free from water, suspended dirt and other foreign matter. Filtering of fuel before it enters the tank will help, and regular filter changing will ensure that only perfectly clean fuel reaches the fuel injection pump. Given these conditions, ninety per cent, at least of potential engine troubles would be eliminated. Attention is on that account earnestly directed towards the section of this manual which refers to the care and upkeep of filtering apparatus.

In a pressure fed system, the lift pump lifts the fuel from the tank via the. Pre-filter (fitted) and then passes it through the dual filter to the fuel injection pump, which delivers it in measured quantities and at appropriate intervals, to the atomizers.
Fuel Lift Pump (Pressure Fed System Only): The lift pump is of the plunger type and is driven by a cam on the camshaft of the fuel pump on the side of which it is fitted. A hand primer is fitted for use if the supply of fuel from the tank has at any time failed, and for bleeding. The fuel pump is’ an instrument of precision. Its working parts are made to extremely fine limits and mishandling in any shape or form, or the entry of the smallest particle of dirt into its working parts may damage it and diminish its accuracy of operation. Hence the importance of ensuring that the fuel is thoroughly filtered before it reaches the pump.
When requesting information regarding the fuel pump, the type and number should be quoted. This can be obtained from a plate fitted to the pump gallery above the inspection plate.
Fuel Pipes: No of the pressure pipes from the fuel pump to the atomisers are alike. Keep this in mind when replacing. Examine the nipples which will be found on each end of these pipes. If the union nuts at any time have been over tightened, the nipples may have been damaged. If so, leakage will result and the complete fuel pipe will have to be replaced. In this connection, bear in mind that the working pressure which these joints must sustain is several thousand pounds per square inch. Only a perfect joint is satisfactory. Offer up the pipe to the fuel pump and atomizer unions to check that the pipe fits square at both ends. Do not fit one end and then bend the pipe to square it with the other union.
When fitting the pipe, tighten the unions alternately a little at a time, first one end and then the other. If the pipe is square to the unions at each end as described above. No force will be needed to make a good joint. No force should be used. Use only a standard open ended spanner. If the union is tightened excessively, the nipple may be damaged. The same danger exists if the pipe is not square to and central with the union. When changing an atomiser, always remove the pipe entirely. Never undo only one end leaving the other tight. Never bend the pipe.
Injectors: Each injector consists of a steel body, held to the cylinder head by means of a flange and two studs. The joint between the injector and cylinder head is made by a special copper washer between the lower face of the nozzle cap nut and the recess in the cylinder head. When preparing to fit the injector in its place in the cylinder head, care should be taken that only special type of copper washer is used to make this joint. The recess in the cylinder head, the faces of the copper washer and the corresponding face on the nozzle holder cap nut should be perfectly clean if a leak proof joint is to result. It is advisable to fit a new joint washer when the injector is replaced, after having been removed for any reason.
Ensure that the old washer has been removed from the cylinder head or injector. This joint washer should be an easy, but not loose fit for the atomiser nozzle and it is because this is such an important feature that only washers specially made for the purpose should be used and none other. On no account should ordinary sparking plug type washers be used.
The injector can now be fitted in place, care being taken to see that it is an easy fit in the cylinder head and on the holding down studs, so that it can be placed down on the copper joint without force of any kind. The nuts on the flange should then be tightened down evenly in order to prevent the atomiser nozzle being canted and so “nipped” in the cylinder head. This is very important since any unevenness in tightening down may cause failure and will most certainly result in blow by.
Maintenance: Injector should be taken out for examination at regular intervals. How long this interval should be is difficult to advise, because of the different conditions under which engines operate. When combustion conditions in the engine are good and the fuel tank and filtering system are maintained in first class order, it is often sufficient if the atomisers are tested at lengthy intervals. For details refer to Maintenance Section C. It is no use taking atomisers out for attention unless an atomiser testing pump is available or spare atomisers are at hand for substitution .-
The nearer the ideals of good fitting with adequate cooling and absolutely clean fuel are realised, the less attention the atomisers will need and so the longer their efficient life. In this connection, since there is no other item upon which the performance of the engine depends so much, it pays the user handsomely to see that the engine never runs with any of its atomisers out of order.
Troubles in Service: The first symptoms of atomiser trouble usually fall under one or more of the following headings:
1. Misfiring
2. Knocking in one (or more) cylinders.
3. Engine overheating
4. Loss of power
5. Smoky exhaust (black)
6. Increased fuel consumption
Often the particular atomiser or atomisers causing trouble may be determined by releasing the pipe union nut on each atomiser in turn, with the engine running at a fast ‘Tick-over’. This will prevent fuel being pumped through the nozzle to the engine cylinder, thereby altering the engine revolutions. If after slackening a pipe union nut, the engine revolutions remain constant, this denotes a faulty atomiser.
After stopping the engine the nuts from the flange of the doubtful atomiser should be removed and the complete unit withdrawn from the cylinder head and turned round, atomiser nozzle outwards, ‘unwiped’ on its pipe, and the unions retightened. After slackening the unions of the other atomizer pipes (to avoid the possibility of the engine starting), the engine should be turned until the nozzle sprays into the air, when it will be seen at once if the spray is in order. If the spray is unduly ‘wet’ or ‘streaky’ or obviously to one side or the atomiser ‘dribbles’, the complete unit should be replaced, the. Faulty unit being securely wrapped in clean grease-proof paper or rag for attention on the maintenance bench .
Great care should be taken to prevent the hand from getting into contact with the spray, as the working pressure will cause the oil to penetrate the skin with ease.
Injector Pressures: No attempt should be made to service or reset the pressure of an atomiser unless the proper equipment is available.
When renewing atomisers, reference should be made to the appropriate Parts list to ensure fitment of the correct type.

On any engine not in service, whether installed in equipment or waiting to be installed, the unpainted surfaces and various internal passages are subject to rust and corrosion.
Every engine going out of factory is processed and is suitable for storage up to six months from the date of dispatch. However sometimes engines are required to be stored for more than six months, also on many occasions engines as installed in equipment are not put in service. Hence it is necessary to process such engines for storage. Based on above the procedure for preservation can be categorized as below

(i). Engine preservation procedure for engines to be stored up to six months, from the date of engine shipment from factory.
(ii). Engine preservation procedure to be carried out for engine storage beyond six months from date of shipment from factory.
(iii). Engine preservation procedure for engines installed in equipment.

Note i
The rate of corrosion varies with climatic condition. Variance in climatic condition makes it very difficult to; state the length of time an engine can be stored without rust and corrosion damage. However the procedures outlined below are useful for various climatic conditions except for arctic conditions and vary low temperatures.
1. Engine preservation procedure for engines to be stored up to six months, from the date of engine shipment from factory.
Note ii
Every engine going out of factory is processed for storage up to six months. Hence no additional processing is required except proper storage, as given on next page.
i) If engine has to be stored in the engine box, as received from factory.

S/N Description
A Store Engine box along with kit boxes, in enclosed place protected from water/ rain water , dust etc
B Tag all these boxes indicating following
C Do not stack any material on the engine box to avoid damage to engine/engine box
ii) If Engine has to be stored without engine box, and/ or skid

S/N Description
A Store Engine box along with kit boxes, in enclosed place protected from water/ rain water , dust etc
B Tag all these boxes indicating following
C Ensure that all engine openings and opening on kit items such as radiators, air cleaners, silencers etc are covered by water proof protective caps / plastic tapes.
D Do not rotate the Engine, as Engine is in dry condition.

2) Engine preservation procedure to be carried out for engine storage beyond six months from date of shipment from factory.
The Engine system with details of the process are described below:
Cooling system passage:
S/N Description Remarks
A Prepare engine for Ensis, long storage process Fabricated and install a plate to close the water pump inlet connection.
B Fill the cooling system with Ensis oil up to thermostat outlet connection, using external priming pump trolley. Leave the drain cocks open until all air is completely vented out. Progressively close the cocks until the Ensis oil flows from the thermostat housing.
C Keep the Ensis oil in the engine for 5 minutes and then drain it completely from engine. Remove the fabricated plate at water pump inlet and close the opening by plastic cap.(collect the drained oil in clean container for reuse.)

iii) Fuel passage:
No External treatment is required.
iv) Lubricating Oil Passage:
S/N Description Remarks
A Prepare engine for lub oil priming Use lub oil priming pump for priming
B Prime the engine with engine lub. Oil 15W40 (CF-4 category) Use engine lub oil trolley pump for priming.
Circulate the lub oil till the lub pressure guage shows 1kg/cm sq. pressure. It will take max five minute to reach this lub oil pressure.
Bar the engine during the process
C Drain the lub oil from the oil pan
Note iii:
a) The above procedure for engine preservation is to be carried out repeated at the end of every six months during the storage period. The procedure may have to be done at OEM works or at customer’s place depending upon location of engine.
b) Loosen the belt tension on fan belt, alternator belt, water pump belt and other accessories driven by belt.
c) Tag the engine indicating preservation process date and due date for next preservation (6 months period).

3) Engine preservation procedure for engines installed in equipments.
Many times, the engines shipped from factory are installed on the equipment or Generating set within six months from date of shipment from factory. However these engines as installed in the equipment are not put in the service for a long period. For such engines the engine coolant and engine Lub oil is generally filled in the engine. Hence no special enosis process is required. But periodic running of engine as given below is mandatory requirement. Run the engine once in every week for 5 to 10 min. at Low idle RPM. ” B” c heck to be carried out at every six months as mentioned in Section 6.
4) Preparing a preserved (treated) engine for putting in service.
When an engine is removed from storage and put into service the operation listed below should be performed.
i) Clean off all accumulated dirt from exterior of engine
ii) Remove all protective caps, tape and wrappings from connections such as Breathers, Fuel in and out, connection Water in and out connections etc.
iii) Use suitable solvent, cleaner or degreaser to remove rust preventive compound from unpainted external surfaces of the engine.
iv) Refill oil pan with fresh lubricating oil. Replace the fuel, lub oil filters and lub oil bypass filters, only in case wherein engine is stored beyond six months from the date of shipment.
v) Check and correct the engine belt tensioning.
vi) Refer Section 1 for engine starting instructions.
MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS: Maintenance is the key to lower operating costs. A diesel engine requires regularly scheduled’ maintenance to keep it running efficiently.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE: Preventive maintenance is tile easiest and least expensive type of maintenance. I permit the Maintenance Department to do the work at a convenient time.
A good Maintenance Schedule Depends on Engine Application: Actual operating environment of the engine governs the maintenance schedule. The suggested check-sheet on the following page indicates some checks have to be performed more often heavy dust or other special conditions.
Using the Suggested Schedule Check Sheet: The maintenance schedule check-sheet is designed as guide until adequate experience is obtained to establish a schedule: to meet a specific operation.
A detailed list of component checks is provided through several check periods; also a suggested schedule basis is given for hours of operation, or calendar of time. A maintenance schedule should be established using the check-sheet as a guide; the result will be a maintenance program to fit a specific operation.
The check-sheet shown can be reproduced by any printer. The person making each check can then indicate directly on the sheet that the operation has been completed. When a complete column (under A, B, C etc) of checks is indicated, the engine will be ready for additional service until the next check date is due.
Storage for Engines Out of Service: If an engine remains out of service and its use is not immediately forthcoming, special precautions should be taken to prevent rust as per procedure.
Scheduled Maintenance
For Maintenance Schedule of Starter & Alternator
1. Check engine oil level, top up is necessary.
2. Check fuel level in fuel tank: and secure the tank cap.
3. Check coolant level in radiator & top up if necessary and secure the cap.
4. Check for leakage of coolant, fuel and lube oil and rectify.
5. Check if all instruments are functioning.
Make a Daily Report of Engine Operation to the Maintenance Department
The engine must be maintained in top mechanical condition if the operator is to get optimum satisfaction from its use. The maintenance department needs daily running reports from the operator to make necessary adjustments in the time allotted and to make provisions for more extensive maintenance work as the reports indicates the necessity.
Comparison and intelligent interpretation of the daily report along with a practical follow-up action will eliminate practically 2.11 failures and emergency repairs.
Report to the Maintenance Department any of the following conditions:
1. Low lubricating oil pressure.
2. Low Power.
3. Abnormal water or oil temperature.
4. Unusual engine noise.
5. Excessive smoke.
6. Excessive use of coolant, fuel or lubricating oil
7. Any fuel, coolant or lubricating oil leaks.
Check Engine
Check Engine Oil Level
1. Check oil level with dipstick oil gauge located on the engine. For accurate readings, oil level should not be checked for approximately 15 minutes after engine shutdown. Keep dipstick with the oil pan with which it was originally shipped. Keep oil level as near “H” (High) mark as possible.
Caution : Never operate the engine with oil level below the “L” (low) mark or above the “H” (high) mark.
2. If necessary, add oil of the same quality brand as already in the engine.
Check Belts
Visually check belts for looseness. If there is evidence of belt Slippage adjust as follows:
Using appropriate gauge. check and/or adjust belts to tension as indicated in table,
TO ADJUST FAN BELT TENSION: The tension of the belt should be such that it is not loose to a degree that it can slip at the crankshaft pulley, thus preventing the full operation of the water pump and also not turning the alternator, at sufficient speeds to charge the battery.
if the belt is over tightened this can cause overloading of the bearing fitted in the water pump and alternator. The belt itself can be damaged internally creating an early failure condition.
When fitting a belt never press it onto a pulley by using a lever, always close in the adjustment on the alternator and “place” the belt in position. At least “wind” the belt over the pulley by turning belt and pulley together by hand
The method of tensioning belts by the practical way as installed, is to decide which is the longest run of belt between any two pulleys and apply pressure in the centre of the run and adjust the tension until the belt defects about 3/8 in (10rr:m.).
When making adjustments loosen all the setscrews and/or nuts securing the alternator to its brackets as well as both ends of the adjustable linkage. On obtaining the correct tension, retighten all the securing points.
Air System
All the 2 cyl. 3 cly. engines, Dry Type Air cleaner, dry paper element ‘filter is used.
Check Air Cleaner
Check Inlet Air Restriction
Vacuum Indicator
A restriction indicator is available to indicate excessive air restriction through a dry type air cleaner. This unit is mounted on air cleaner outlet pipe or on instrument panel. The red flag (1, Fig. 5-1) in window gradually rises as cartridge loads with dirt. After changing or replacing cartridge, reset indicator by pushing reset button (2)
Air restriction for naturally aspirated engines must not exceed 15 inches (381 mm) of water column.
Do not direct the air jet from outside to inside. This will make the dirt to penetrate the paper, allowing the dirt to go into the clean side, damaging the engine. Penetration of dirt will make tiny holes, reducing the efficiency.
Handle the element carefully. Do not strike the element against hard surface to loosen the accumulated contaminants.
Cleaning will reduce the dust holding Capacity or the filter element. Replace the outer element after 4/5 cleanings or as soon as red band appears even after cleaning.
Inspection of the Element After Cleaning
If small holes or parts are found on element when it is checked with an electric bulb after cleaning and drying replace the element.
Do not use element whose folds or gasket or seal is damaged.
Caution: Holes, loose end seals, dented sealing surfaces and other forms of damage render cleaner inoperative and require immediate element replacement.
To change element
Loosen clamp assembly which holds cup assembly to body air cleaner.
2 Remove cup assembly.
3. Loosen wing nut of outer element and remove it. Heavy duty air cleaners have pre-cleaners with Cyclone tube addition to elements.

At each “8” Maintenance Check perform all the ‘A· checks in addition to the following. ‘B’ Check period for engine is 250 hours of operation or every 3 months/whichever is earlier.
Lubricating Oil System
Lubricating Oil Change Intervals
Note: If the lubricating oil is drained from the oil pan to make an engine repair, new oil must be used. Do not use oil after it has been drained from the oil pan. Maintaining a proper “8” maintenance check internal is a very important factor in preserving the integrity of an engine, Lubricating oil contamination is the direct result of engine operation and load factor involved. The amount of contamination generated depends on the amount of fuel the engine consumes, at each “8” check internal it is recommended to change the full-flow filters.
The total lubricating system up to capacity in liters can be determined by adding high level of the lubricating oil in the oil pan and the capacities of the full-flaw filters.
Lubricating Oil Change Period: Lubricating oil and filter change period can be determined by laboratory tests of used oil the analysis used are for the purpose of determining the amount of contamination in the oil; not for predicting potential engine failures, It is recommended that new engines be operated through at least one oil change interval of 250 hrs / 3 months.
Oil Sample Collection: 1. Oil Drain Method: Clean the area around the drain plug to avoid foreign contamination. Immediately after stopping the engine at operating temperature, remove the drain plug.
After approximately’ 8 liters (2 gallons) of oil have streamed out collect the sample the continuous stream.
Change Engine Oil: Factors to be checked and limits for oil analysis are listed below. Oil change at “8” Check, as shown in the maintenance chart is for average conditions.
1. Bring engine to operating temperature, shut down engine, remove drain plug from bottom oil pan, and drain off.
2, Fill the crankcase to “H” (High level) mark on the dipstick,
3, Start engine and visually check for oil leaks.
4. Shut down the engine, allow 15 minutes for oil to drain back into the pan; recheck the oil level with the dipstick. Add oil, as required,
Note: Use lubricating oil, meeting specifications and genuine Cummins filters on engines.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM: Care should be taken to ensure proper cable connection at battery posts and starter motor. Reverse polarity should be strictly avoided. To avoid premature failure of the battery, the starter push button switch must not be held in the “start” position for more than 10 sec. at a time. Sufficient time gap must be allowed for the battery to recoup before using the self-starter again for engine starting.
Under no circumstances should the starter button be operated after the engine has started. This will damage the starter motor and ring gear on the flywheel. For obtaining proper life from the battery, it is necessary to periodically check the electrolyte level and top up with distilled water (and not acid) to about 10 to 12 mm above the top of the battery plates. The terminals should be kept clean and tight.
Petroleum jelly/Vaseline should be applied to the terminals for protection against corrosion. For any repairs on the electrical equipment, viz. alternator and starter, please contact local Cummins representative, No periodical lubrication is necessary for the alternator assembly. Similarly periodical lubrication of the starter motor is not required. The drive end bearing is lubricated by oil from a large reservoir sufficient for approximately three years of normal running time. Re filling can be conveniently done during overhauls. At the commutator end, an oil- less bearing is fitted. The regulator or alternator needs no maintenance.


The component units of motor vehicle can best be summarized into different systems as follows;
a) Transmission system. b) The Cooling system. c) The Fuel supply system.
d) The Electrical system. e) The Steering system. f) The Breaking system.
g) The Body and suspension system. h) The Tyres.
The above systems are hereby subdivided into different units to understudy their operations:
The engine develops the power and sends it through the transmission units to enable the vehicle to move. The following are the units of the transmission system;
i. The Engine, ii. The Clutch III. The Propeller shaft IV. The Universal joints
v. The Differential assembly, vi. The Axle shafts, vii. The Road wheels
The above units can be presented in a schematic diagram as shown below;
ENGINE: The engine develops the power to drive the vehicle. It comprise of the following main parts; Crankshaft, bearings, connecting rod, piston, crankcase, etc.
CLUTCH: The clutch enable smooth engagement and disengagement between the engine and gear box.
GEARBOX: The function of the gearbox is to regulate the speed of the vehicle. It comprises of different sizes of gear.
UNIVERSAL JOINTS: It allows for angular movement between the gear box and the back axle when the vehicle is in motion.
PROPELLER SHAFT: It transmits drive from the gearbox to the back axle.
DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING: It houses the differential gears. The differential gears allow an angular movement which the vehicle is negotiating a corner.
THE AXLE SHAFT: The axle shaft is also known as half shaft. The axle shaft transmits power from the differential housing to the road wheels.
THE BACK AXLE: The back axle serves as a housing to the differential gears and the half shafts. It carries the back wheel.
B. THE COOLING SYSTEM: The cooling system regulates the heat generated by the engine. It comprises of the following parts; the radiator, the hoses, the water pump, the thermostat, the water jackets. The functions of the parts of the cooling systems are as follows; The cooling system regulates the heat generated by the engine. It comprises of the following parts; the radiator, the hoses, the water pump, the thermostat, the water jackets. The functions of the parts of the cooling systems are as follows;
THE RADIATOR: The radiator serves as reservoir for water in the system.
THE HOSES: The hoses serve as channels for transmission of water from radiator to the engine.
WATER PUMP: It exerts pressure for circulation of the water in the systems.
THE THERMOSTAT: The thermostat is an automatic valve which helps to regulate the temperature of water in the system.
THE WATER JACKETS: These are cavities in the engine block that houses water which helps to reduce the temperature of the engine.
C. THE FUEL SYSTEM: The fuel system supplies fuel to the engine for its operation. It comprises of the following parts; the fuel tank, the carburetor or injector pump, the fuel pump, the fuel filter, etc. the function of the different parts are as follows:
THE FUEL TANK: It serves as reservoir for fuel.
THE CARBURETOR OR FUEL INJECTOR PUMP: It regulates or meters the quantity of fuel that is supplied into the engine.
THE FUEL PUMP: The fuel pump helps to lift fuel from the tank to the carburetor or injector pump. It is either electrically or mechanically operated.
THE FUEL FILTER: It prevents dirt particles from passing into the carburetor or injector pump or nozzles. It could be located at the entrance of the carburetor or injector pump.
D. THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM: The function of the electrical system is to generate current for operation of different components of the vehicle that requires electricity for its operation. Three principal components of the electrical system are; the battery, the coil and the distributor. The following are the functions of the three main parts;
THE BATTERY: The battery supplies current to the ignition coil for its operation.
THE IGNITION COIL: The ignition coil is a sort of step up transformer. It steps up the current supplied by the battery and sends it to the distributor for ignition of fuel in the case of spark ignition engine. This high current is also supplied to the starter motor to enable cranking of the engine.
THE DISTRIBUTOR: The distributor as the name implies distribute current to the different cylinders of the engine at specified interval.
Other components of electrical system include;
STARTER MOTOR: The starter motor rotates the engine to enable its starting when current is supplied for its operation. .
THE ALTERNATOR: The duty of the alternator is to charge the battery to prevent it from running down. It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and use it in charging the battery. It supplies current through the battery fro operation of electrical devices such as ignition system, lights, radio, etc. this automobile generator produces direct current (DC) which is required for charging the battery.
It is sometimes called a dynamo. It generates current by electromagnetic induction. Its parts comprises of armature, field windings/coils, frame, brushes and brush gear.
LIGHTING AND ACCESSORY: This system comprises of lighting, horn, and instrument panel warning systems.
The steering system allows the driver to guide the car along the road and turn left or right as desired. The layout of general arrangement is as shown below;

The main parts of the steering system are;
1) Steering wheel 2) Steering column 3) Steering shaft 4) Steering gearbox
5) Steering drop arm 6) Pull and push rod 7) Knuckle arm 8) Tie rod and tie rodent
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF STEERING MECHANISM: The steering wheel rotates the steering column. The steering gearbox is fitted to the end of this column. Therefore, when the wheel is rotated, the cross shaft in the gear box oscillates. The cross shafts is connected to the drop arm. This arm is linked by means of drag link to the steering arms. The steering arms on both wheels are connected by the tie rods to the drag link. When the steering wheel is operated, the knuckle moves to and fro, moving the wheels to the right or left. The ends of the tie rod and steering knuckle are connected to each other. One end of the drag link is connected to the tie rod. The other end is connected to the end of the drop arm. A ball and socket joint gives the required movement to the joints between the tie rod, drag link and drop arm. When the vehicle is moving, the drop arm develops vibration. Shock springs are used in ball and socket system to absorb vibration.
The function of the steering box is to convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel into to and fro movement of the drop arm so that the drag link tied up with drop arm can be pushed or pulled resulting into moving steer axle to right or left as desired by the driver.
F. THE BRAKING SYSTEM: Brakes are one of the most important control components of the vehicle. They contribute very much in the running and control of the vehicle. The efficiency of brakes depends the lives and comfort not only of driver and passengers but other persons moving on the road. Most braking system operates hydraulically, by pressure applied through a liquid. We also have the mechanical brake and air or pneumatic brake system. The brake efficiency of any system is the ration between the retarding force (or force of friction between the linings and the drum) and the weight of the vehicle. It is express as percentage.
A hydraulic brake system comprise of the following parts: see figure below,

The hydraulic brake system consists of four wheel cylinders, one at each of the four wheels of the vehicle as shown in the figure above. The system also consists of one master cylinder which is connected to the wheel cylinders by steel tubing.
Each wheel cylinder contains two pistons which will move out when the pressure will be applied through brake fluid. When the brake is not in operation, the system is filled with brake fluid. Each wheel brake consists of a cylindrical brake drum which is mounted on the inner side of the wheel and revolves with it. They are two brake shoes mounted inside each of the brake drum but do not rotate with it.
When the brakes are to be applied, the driver presses down the brake pedal, the piston is forced into the master cylinder, then increasing the pressure of the fluid, in the master cylinder and in the entire hydraulic system. This pressure is conducted instantaneously to the wheel cylinders on each of the four brakes, where it forces the wheel cylinder pistons outwards. Those pistons, in turn, force the brake shoes out against the brake drum. Thus the brakes are applied.
When the driver releases the brake pedal, the master cylinder piston returns to its original position due to the return spring pressure, and thus the fluid pressure in the entire system drops to its original low value, which allows retracing spring on the wheel brakes to pull the brake shoes out of contact with the brake drums into their original positions. This causes the wheel cylinder pistons also to come to their original inward position. Thus the brakes are released.
All the vehicle braking systems are operating in the same principle. The main function of the braking system is as follows;
1) To stop the moving vehicle at the shortest possible time.
2) To help in controlling the speed of the vehicle and to reduce the speed at turnings and other crowded places.
3) To hold the vehicle in its stationary position, without the presence of the operator, after it has been brought to a stop.
The frame and under body is the main part of the chasses on which the remaining part of the chasses are mounted. It is a rigid structure that forms a skeleton to hold all the major parts together.
Chasses frame are made of “steel section” so that they are strong enough to withstand the load and at the same time are also light in weight on the vehicle.
The main functions of the frame are;
1) To support the chasses component and the body.
2) To withstand static and dynamic loads with undue deflection or distortion.


13.2 INTRODUCTION TO SUSPENSION SYSTEM: The suspension system of our automobile is one which separates the wheel/ axle assembly from the body. The primary function of the suspension system is to isolate the vehicle structure from shocks and vibration due to irregularity of the road surface.
Broadly speaking, suspension system consists of a spring and a damper (including also spring shackles, axles, wheels and stabilizer). The energy of road causes the spring to oscillate. These oscillations are restricted to a reasonable level by the damper, which is more commonly called a shock absorber. A good suspension system must have springiness and damping. Springiness is elastic resistance to a load. On application of sudden load the spring will compress/expand as the case may be without transmitting the same to the body.
The function of isolation of shocks and vibrations between the road and carriage is achieved by different elements at different stages as mentioned below;
I. The first element stage which take the impact in the tyre.
II. The second is between the axle/wheel system and the body. The element incorporates springs/ dampers/ shock absorbers, various linkages and tie bars. This part is called “suspension system”.
III. The last stage comprises the seats of the automobile which the passengers occupy. These are made of springs and foam I rubber cushions. They also absorb short amplitude high frequency vibrations which pass from the system to the passenger.
The following are the functions I objectives of a suspension system;
1) To prevent the road shock from being transmitted to the vehicle frame.
2) To preserve the stability of the vehicle in pitching or rolling, while in
3) To safeguard the occupants from road shocks.
4) To maintain proper steering geometry.
5) To provide good road holding while driving, cornering and braking.
Here follows the description of four-stroke Otto and diesel cycle engines;

OTTO ENGINES: The Otto four stroke cycle refers to its use in petrol engines, gas engines, and light oil engines in which the mixture of air and fuel are drawn in the engine cylinder. Since ignition in these engines is due to spark, therefore they are also called spark ignition engines.
The various strokes of four stroke (Otto) cycle engine are detailed below;
INDUCTION OR SUCTION STROKE: Here the piston moves downward and the inlet valve opens drawing air/fuel mixture into the cylinder. The exhaust valve remains closed.
COMPRESSION STROKE: The piston moves upward, both inlet and exhaust valve remains closed. The admitted mixture of air and fuel is compressed to pressure of about 8 bar.
POWER OR WORKING STROKE: Towards the end of the compression stroke, the mixture is ignited by the spark plug and explosion takes place thus building up pressure as the mixture burns and the piston is pushed downward. The sudden downward movement of the piston with very high pressure will rotate the crankshaft with terrible force and the engine is started. Both valves remain closed.
EXHAUST STROKE: As the piston returns up from the bottom dead centre (t.d.c), it pushes the burnt gases up out of the exhaust port. The exhaust valve remains open. And so the operation continues again with induction stroke and the cycle continues.
In the case of diesel four-stroke engine, the position of the spark plug is replaced with fuel injector. The principles are basically the same.
TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINES: In 1878, Dugald-Clerk, a British Engineer introduced a cycle which could be completed in two strokes of piston rather than four-strokes as in the case of the four-stroke engines. The engines using this cycle were called two stroke cycle engines. In this engine, suction (induction) and exhaust strokes are eliminated.
Here instead of valves, parts are used. The exhaust gases are driven out from the engine cylinder by fresh charge of fuel entering the cylinder nearly at the end of the working stroke. This engine is limited to scooters, motor cycles and other small engine.

INTRODUCTION: It is the road users who make the highways and other roads very dangerous or safe. Every day, hundreds of people are injured, paralyzed, disfigured for life. And many got killed outright or die a slow, painful death. According to figure available from FRSC, between 1985 and 1988, 105,342 accidents with 89,006 injured and 33,096 dead were officially reported to the police. There were more that were not reported. This senseless accident has far -reaching effects on family life, on development and economic life of the country. Therefore, using the road is not a fun or game. It is a serious, often deadly business, because death comes so easy to you or to someone else through your own carelessness or fault. Think of the responsibility you bear and exercise care and patience on the roads, think fast ahead, also avoid aggression or arrogance on the road.
The following are the common causes of avoidable road accidents:
1. Not keeping off the road
2. Not looking out before crossing the road.
3. Not wearing conspicuous colors
at night.
4. Not crossing where he can be seen.
Over confidence, Speeding, Lack of concentration, Tiredness, Drinking, Drugs, Poor vehicle care, Indiscriminate parking, Dangerous overtaking.
Distraction, I don’t care attitude

For the purpose of clarity, this is divided into 9 main categories:-
Traffic Control by signs, Signals, Road Markings, Lanes, Overtaking Rules, Road Junction, Reversing, Vehicle Condition, Waiting and parking
• I will now explain them in details:-
• A thorough knowledge of traffic signs, signals, road and pavement markings is COMPULSORY for all drivers. These ensure a smooth and safe traffic flow.
• You must KNOW them and be able to recognize them immediately. In case of regulatory signs, you must obey them without hesitation.
In diagram, we have:-
1. Traffic light signals, 2) Regulatory Signs (Prohibitory),
3) Traffic Signs- Warnings,
4) Regulatory Signs (Mandatory),
5) Informative Signs.
The course instructor will explain them in detail

SIGNALS: Hand Signals by authorized persons e.g. Traffic Officers, Road Marshals, Police e. t. c. are meant to be obeyed. Drivers and operators of pedal and motorized cycles are also expected to give hand and direction indication signals to communicate their intentions.
Examples of these are in figures A and B
• Lines and symbols on the road are meant to show the alignment of the roads. Ideally these are reflective so that you may clearly and safely follow the roads even at night. Road markings usually indicate, among other things;-
i. The number of lanes on the road
ii. Where you may overtake other vehicles
iii. Which lanes to use for turning
iv. Where to stop for other traffic signals.
• Road markings are of 4 types namely:-
a) Centre lines (b) Edge lines (c) Cross walks (d) Pavement messages
• Examples of the above are in figure C and 0
• These are spaces on the road demarcated by lines to guide traffic flow moving in the same or opposite direction.
• For traffic in the same direction, the lines are normally WHITE. Lines separating traffic moving in opposite directions are frequently YELLOW.
The lines may be broken or solid, indicating whether or not they may be crossed. Usually broken lines may be crossed while solid lines are not to be expected to be crossed.
• The instructor will explain the basic rules.
• Don’t overtake unless you are sure it safe for yourself and other road users. Before you start to overtake make sure that the road is clear ahead and behind.
• LOOK out properly. Use your mirrors and glance behind if possible. You must SIGNAL before you start to move out.
• Be particularly careful at dusk and in misty or dusty environment when it is more difficult to judge speed and distance.
• Always remember the LOOK-SIGNAL-MOVE routine when overtaking.
• Do not overtake at or when coming to:-
i) A pedestrian crossing, ii) A road junction, iii) A corner or bend, iv) A narrow bridge) A level crossing (vi) A bus stop, vii) The crest of a hill.

• Always approach a junction with great care and be ready to stop. Before crossing or turning; look left, then right, then left again. Do not proceed until you are sure it is safe: and that you will not block the road. Restrict yourself to signaling your own intentions; do not relay signals onto other drivers. Leave that to authorized traffic officers.
• Before you reverse make sure there are no pedestrians particularly children or handicapped persons or physical obstructions on the road behind you.
Be especially careful about the “blind area” behind you, that is, the part of road, which you cannot see from the driving seat, either through the mirror or by looking backwards,
• If you cannot see clearly behind, get someone to guide you reverse.
Otherwise don’t. NEVER reverse from a side into a major road.
8. VEHICLE CONDITION: It is mandatory for all motorists to ensure that their vehicles are always kept and maintained in good conditions. Always respond to the warnings of your vehicles. Listen to odd sounds, pay attention to strange smells and look out for disconnections, cracks and signs of wear and tears. DO NOT forget to conduct your “Daily Routine Checks” on your vehicle before embarking on a journey.
9. WAITING AND PARKING: You must not park wherever you see the signs NO PARKING or CLEARWAY. Also, you must not park wherever your vehicle will obstruct the views of other road users or constitute danger to them, for instance at or near:
i. Road junction, ii. Bend or corners, iii. Crest of a Hill, iv. Level Crossing, v A bus stop, vi Pedestrian Crossing, vii An Entrance, viii A footpath, Pavement or cycle path, ix A footpath, Pavement or Cycle Path, x. The left hand side of the road (at night)
HIGHWAY DRIVING: Highways are designed for traffic movement with minimum interruption but are certainly not speed tracks. In Nigeria, outright maximum speed posted is 100 km per hour. Any violators stand the risk of being prosecuted according to Nigeria traffic Laws, especially Decree 45 of 1988. Highways or Expressways (as they are fondly called) are subject to every stern restriction as below:-
• a. No animals, b. No pedestrians or hawkers, c. No pedal cycles, d. No motorized cycles below 100 c.c, e. No learner drivers, f. No waiting, g. No stopping, h. No loading or Unloading, i. No U-turns
• Before putting your vehicle on the highway, make sure it is fit to cruise at a safe speed, has correct tyre pressures, enough petrol, oil and water to take you to the next service area.
• Traffic travels faster on expressways than on ordinary roads, and you will need to sum up traffic situations quickly. Using your mirror and concentrating all the time are doubly important on highways. Watch out for vehicles entering the highway.
See Figure- Do not get too close to the vehicle in front. Don’t move in jerks; also avoid hopping from one to another. Under no circumstance should you reverse on the highway. If you miss your exit, move to the next one.
When you are leaving expressway, you will leave by a slip road on your right. Watch for signs letting you know you are getting near your turn-off point, give a right turn signal, get into the extra lane (the declaration lane) in order to slow down before you join the slip road. And finally remember to alter or adjust your driving to suit the different conditions on the roads.
IN MISTY OR FOGY-WEATHER:- Driving becomes much more difficult and hazardous when visibility is blurred by weather conditions such as mist, of, harmattan dusts or other related factors. You should slow down, keep a safe distance to the vehicle before you and always be prepared to STOP
REMEMBER: Heavy trucks usually require longer distances to come to a stop.
SEE AND BE SEEN:- You must use your lights, parking lights or headlamps to aid your visibility and to be seen. Keep your windscreen clean.
NOTE: Do not hang on to someone’s rear light. It may lead you off course.
SPEEDS:-Get into the habit of allowing more time for trips and resist that
dangerous urge to speed through misty or dusty environment. Check your speed. You may be going faster than you can control. Go much more slowly if the road is wet or if there is mist.
WET ROADS:- Remember that your vehicle may also be gliding along when the road is wet. Also vehicles may raise a film of dirty water to further reduce visibility for you. Keep your wipers working.
DRIVING AT NIGHT OR IN DARK AREAS: HEADLAMPS: Make sure all your lamps work and that your headlamps are properly adjusted, badly adjusted headlamps can dazzle other road users and lead to accidents.
VIEWING DISTANCE- Make sure that you drive in such a way that you always stop well within the distances you can see to be clear ahead with your headlamp.
REMEMBER: Accidents which occur at nights times tend to be more fatal because help may not get to you in good time as other road users may not see you, or may not stop. Also there are fewer road users. Your life is in your hands-exercise extra care!
DIPPING HEADLAMPS:- Dip your headlamps when meeting other vehicles
or road users, and before they dazzle the driver or a vehicle traveling in the same direction in front of you.
DAZZLING LIGHTS:- If you are dazzled by approaching headlamps slow down or stop and keep an eye on the right kerb edge and stay close to it.
Do not stare into headlamps.
IN BUILT-UP AREAS:- Dip your headlamps at night in built-up areas.
FLASHING HEADLAMPS:- Flashing of headlamps has the same meaning as
sounding your horn- to another road user know you are there. You should
not sound your horn at night except in case of extreme emergencies.
• The term “expressway” means any specially assigned and restricted
highway divided with untraversable barriers traffic in opposite directions may be in two or more lanes.
SPECIAL DISTINCTION:- Expressways are designed for traffic movement with minimum interruption but are certainly not speed tracks. In Nigeria, outright maximum speed tracks. In Nigeria, the right maximum speed posted is l00 km per hour. Violators stand the risk of being prosecuted according to Nigeria Traffic Laws, especially Decree 45 of 1988.
RESTRICTIONS:- Expressways are subject to very stern restrictions as given below:
No animals, No pedestrian or hawkers, No pedal cycles,
No motorized cycles with capacity below certain specified capacity, except where trucks are provided, or special concession have been given especially for motorcycles.
No learner drivers, No waiting, No stopping, No loading or unloading.
Other restrictions on expressways relate to minimum and maximum speed limits and other regulations which are clearly posted on road signs. Always watch out for these.
Make sure you vehicle is fit to cruise at a safe speed has correct TYRE PRESSURES, and enough petrol, oil and water to take you to the next service area.
JOINING THE EXPRESSWAY: When you join the expressway other than at its start, you will approach from a road on the right a slip road) Give way to traffic already on the highway, and then accelerate in the extra lane the acceleration lane) so that when you join the inside lane you are traveling at the prescribed speed limit for that highway.
INTERCHANGES: Because of the nature and restrictions on the expressway, there are stipulated ways in which you may join or leave the expressway. Special intersections called interchanges are designed to enable you cross, enter or leave the expressway without interfering with other vehicles. The four common types of interchanges are the CLOVERLEAF, DIAMOND, TRUMPET and DIRECTIONAL.
• Study the directions of the arrows in diagrams provide to enable you know how to use these intersections.

CONCENTRATE;- traffic travels faster on expressways than on ordinary roads, and you will need to sum up traffic situations quickly. Using your mirror and concentrating all the time are doubly important on the expressways. Watch out for vehicles entering the expressway.
Do not get too close to the vehicle in front. Remember the “two second rule”
Don’t move in jerks. There are both minimum and maximum speed limits
AVOID LANE HOPPING: Stay in lane unless when overtaking. If you have to overtake, do so smoothly and do not hop.
Overtake only from the left. Remember the LOOK-SIGNAL-MOVE routine. Be sure to check blind spots.
• NEVER REVERSE ON THE EXPRESSWAY: Under no circumstance should you reverse on the expressway. If you miss your exit, go to the next one.
• NO STOPPING: Do not wait or stop on the expressway. If you have to stop, pull out to the hard shoulder and post a suitable and safe signal. Do not leave your parking lights on to prevent other vehicles from running into you. You may put on your HAZARD LIGHTS.
• STOP IF SLEEPY: Driving for long distances may make you feel sleepy. To help prevent this, make “sure there is plenty of fresh air in vehicle. Stop at a service area, or turn off the highway, take a nap if necessary. Avoid the monotony of the expressway, which may hypnotize you into a fatal error. Avoid fatigue or the effects of drugs. If you are in any doubt or feel unfit, STOP driving immediately.
• LANE DISCIPLINE: After joining the highway, stay on the inside long enough to get used to the speed or traffic before trying to overtake.
• TWO LANE: On a two-lane carriageway, drive in the right hand lane except when overtaking.
THREE LANE: On a three-lane carriageway you may stay in the middle lane when traffic is slower on the inside lane when you have passed them. The outside lane is for overtaking only. If you use it always move back into the middle lane as soon as you can, but without cutting in. SEE MAXIMUM SPEED LIMITS AT THE BACK OF THIS CODE.
• Failure to observe this rule may lead to multiple accidents.
• OVERTAKING: Overtake only on the left, unless traffic is moving in queues in all lanes and you have no choice but to keep moving forward where you are. Never move to a lane on your right to overtake. Never use the hard shoulder for overtaking. That is the parking area in an emergency.
• AVOIDING COLLISIONS: Rear-end collisions are quite common. So before you start to overtake, make sure that the lane you will be joining is clear far enough behind (use your mirror) and ahead. Remember that traffic may be coming up behind much more quickly than you think. And do not accelerate against the rear of the vehicle in front it may slow down or brake abruptly.
• WARNINGS SIGNALS: You may come into expressways, which have flashing amber light signals at their entrances and or at intervals. The lights warn of danger ahead: for example, an accident mist or risk of skidding. When you see the danger, slow down still further to a crawl if need be. Do not exceed 5O km/ph.

DO NOT STOP: Do not stop except:
a. When you break down-then get your vehicle on the hard shoulder or to a diagonally stripped lane.
b. When you are signaled to do so by Road Marshals, Police or by an emergency traffic signs.
DO NOT PARK: You must not park on:
a) The carriageway itself (b) The slip roads (c) The hard shoulders of diagonally stripped lane (except in an emergency) (d) The central reserve.
DO NOT WALK: Never walk on the carriageway. In an emergency, be particularly careful to keep children and animals off the carriageway and the hard shoulders or diagonally stripped lane.
LEAVING THE EXPRESSWAY: If you are not going on leave at the end of the expressway, you will leave by slip road on your right. WATCH for signs letting you know you are getting near your turn-off point, give a right turn signal, get to the extra lane (the declaration) in order to slow down before you join the slip road.
MISSING YOUR EXIT: If you miss your turn-off point, YOU MUST CARRY ON UNTIL YOU REACH THE NEXT ONE, do not reverse or turn back
AS YOU LEAVE THE EXPRESSWAY: When you leave an expressway, remember to alter your driving to suit the different conditions on the other roads. Your speed will be higher than you think- a speed of 80 km/ph MAY FEEL like 5O km/ph. So be sure to check your speedometer. Observe the posted speed limit signs.
BREAKDOWN: If you have a breakdown gets your vehicle COMPLETELY OFF the carriageway on to the hard shoulder out of the way of other traffic. Never forget the danger from passing traffic, so don’t step onto the carriageway or let your passengers do so. Use your warning triangle: switch on your hazard lights, if necessary, especially at night. You must act fast to prevent more serious consequences.
YOU MUST WARN OTHERS: If your vehicle is a fitted amber direction indicator, which can flash simultaneously (HAZARD LIGHTS)/you may use them in this way as a warning signal. You should warn other road users by placing the Reflective Triangle on the road away from your vehicle. You may also place other objects, which will not cause further accidents, on the road to fore-warn others. But, you should remove all such objects and/or the reflective triangle as soon as our vehicle moves away.
FALLING ITEMS: If anything falls from your vehicle, stop as soon as you can safely do so and remove it from the carriageway.
ACCIDENTS: If you are involved in an accident or are ‘the first on the scene of an accident, you should:
a. WARN other traffic by displaying a red triangle or switching on hazard warning lights or other lights or by any other means. Extinguish lighted cigarettes or other fire hazards and ask drivers to switch off their engines.
b. GET HELP from the Traffic officers, road marshals, police or ambulance authorities. Arrange for them to be summoned immediately-with full details of location and casualties where possible, drive on to the next emergency telephone:
c. REMOVE INJURED persons if in any further immediate danger but do not move them unnecessarily give first aid, get uninjured people out of the vehicles and into place safety away from the carriageway onto the hard shoulder or central reservation.
d. STAY AT A SAFE place at the scene until emergency service arrive.
NOTE: You must ensure that further accidents are not caused. A First Aid
Box does not take up much space-keep one in vehicle. It may actually save YOUR life!
BE PREPARED: There may have an accident if you see several vehicles in the distance which are going very slowly or have stopped, or if you see warning signs and the flashing lights of Traffic Officers, Road Marshals, Police or ambulance vehicles. SLOW DOWN AND BE PREPARED TO STOP.

This paper deals with the maintenance and trouble shooting of engine / automobile.
Since the automobile has to work under severe operational conditions, therefore, there is a great strain on its working parts. It is neither the age of an automobile nor the mileage which determines its usefulness. The following are the two factors on which the life of an automobile depends.
I. How the vehicle has been driven.
II. How the vehicle has been maintained (or looked after).
The first factor can be taken care of by acquiring good driving habits. The second factor which relates to maintenance of the automobile is very important one. In order to preserve full working life of an automobile, its maintenance should be carried out religiously at the prescribed intervals and in the prescribed manner.

Maintenance can be categorized into the following two parts;
1) Lubrication
2) Cleaning, inspection and adjustment
The different parts of an automobile, depending on their state of operation need different type of lubricants:
The parts, (e.g. engine, bearings, cam and gears and transmission bearings and gears) moving at normal to high speeds need lubricating oil.
• The slow intermittently moving parts (e.g., steering mechanism joints, pivot pins, spring shackles, etc) require a heavier lubricant or grease.
The lack of lubrication is most common cause of damage or failure. However, over lubrication is also harmful. It is as important to use the right amount of lubricant as the right lubricant at the right time in the right place.
• Excessive oil engine will lead to oiling up and dark white smoke.
•Excessive oil in the transmission will resist the movement of gears and shafts
• Too much grease on contact breaker arm heel shall run unto the breaker points and lead to fouling.
• Low engine oil shall lead to engine overheating in addition to damage to working parts.
• Poor lubrication also causes metallic noise in addition to increase in wear rate.
• Failure in oil supply leads the engine to seizure.
• Lack of lubrication at wheel heels bearings lead the brake drum to overheat and breakaway resulting in serious accident.
• Improper lubrication at speedometer cable twists it to breakaway. Accelerator, clutch, brake cables, etc, stick into their outer casings and hold or restrict the movement of important controls.
LUBRICATION CHARTS: The lubrication charts are supplied by the manufacturer in the operation as well as service manual as guidance for the maintenance of the vehicle. These charts convey the following information;
1) The points where the lubrication is required.
2) The type of lubricant needed for a particular point.
3) The period (or interval) after which to lubricate.
4) The quantity and grade of lubricant required for different points.
• The lubricants grade varies from condition to condition, region to region and season to season. The temperature affects the viscosity of oil.
a. During winter season when the temperature is low, thin oils are required and during summer season, thick ones are needed. Similarly, the oil is different in cold regions than hot ones.
Since the engine life much depends on the quantity of engine oils, only high quality engine oils having excellent lubricating properties should be used.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE: Preventive maintenance is the care to prevent troubles which often leads to a major haul. It involves inspecting and replacing parts before they become problem. There are good reasons for performing preventive maintenance. Safety is greatly increased by changing worn parts. Example, if the fan belts break, the water pump will not turn and the engine will overheat. Overheating damaged the cylinders, pistons, heads valves, head gaskets and possibly other parts as well. To avoid this serious damage of engine parts, the faulty or broken belt should be replaced.
Preventive maintenance is “cheaper”. It is regularly required for high performance of the engine/vehicle.
a. The parts changed in a regular tune-up keep horse power at the rated levels.
b. Fuel mileage is increased dramatically through preventive maintenance.
• Preventive maintenance is known by several names;
a. Many people simple call it a “tune-up”.
b. Many shops have a series of services done as specified kilometers.
Manufacturers specify the service operations to be carried out every several thousand kilometers to keep warranties in effect as shown in table below;

Table 11.1 Preventive Maintenance Schedule (courtesy. Maruti Udyog ltd)
Interval Free service
Maintenance km service operation (x 1,000) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
1. Water pump drive belt (tension wear)
2. Engine coolant (level, leakage)
3. Engine oil (level leakage) A




































API GRADE SC Replace at an interval of 5,000km.
API GRADE SF Replace at an interval of 5,000km
4. Cooling system hoses and connections (leakage, damage)
5. Engine oil filter (leakage)
6. Engine bolts (All cylinder head and manifold fixing)
7. Engine mounting (loose, damage)
8. Valve clearance
9. Camshaft belt (damage, wear)
10. Exhaust system, (noise, leakage or otherwise defective)
11. Positive crankcase ventilation system (hoses, connections and valve) I

– I

– I



– I

– I



– I

– I

– I



– I

– I


– I



– I

– I


– I


1. Ignition wiring (damage, deterioration)
2. Distributor cap and rotor (wear deteraration)
3. Spark plugs (clean and adjust the cap)
4. Distributor breaker point.
5. Ignition timing
6. Distributor advance –

– –

– –




– –

– I


I –

– –


I –

– I


I –

– –


– –

– I


I –

– –


– –

– I


1. Clutch pedal (play)
2. Clutch slipping (or excessive damage)
3. Transmission oil (level, leakage) I




































A – Adjust T- Tighten to the specified torque
R – Replace or change I – Inspect and correct or replace if necessary
L – Lubricate

1. Follow maintenance instructions given in the operation and maintenance manual supplied with the vehicle.
2. Always use lubricants of correct grade and quality at the correct interval as specified by the manufacturer.
3. Replace the engine oil as under;
• Drain out the engine oil while warm.
• Fill in flushing oil up to ((Min” (minimum) mark on dip stick and run the engine at about 1000 r.p.m. for 10 minutes.
• Drain out flushing oil.
• Refill with engine oil of specified grade.
4. Use purest available water in the radiator.
5. Be careful in using decaling compounds based on inorganic salts (e.g. borates, carbonates, phosphates, etc), lest aluminum cylinder heads are affected by them.
6. In order to avoid crack of cylinder block, do not top up radiator with cold water after switching off engine when water level is very low and the engine is rather hot.
7. The radiator cap should be removed in two steps to check up water Level in case engine is hot. Initially turn the cap to allow the discharge of pressure from the cooling system and then, only when the pressure is released.
8. For replacing water in the cooling system, drain water through the drain cocks located under the radiator and on cylinder block. Flush out radiator thoroughly if drained water is very dirty and full of sediments. Flush out the radiator as follows;
• Drain out water from the cooling system.
• Fill in water containing a 4 percent solution of sodium bicarbonate and run the engine at about 1000 r.p.m for ten minutes.
• Switch off engine and let the water stand in the radiator for half an hour.
• Start the engine again and drain out water-while the engine is running.
• After draining water, switch off engine and let the engine cool down.
• Keeping drain cocks open, push in water hose from external water supply into the radiator neck and circulate running water in the radiator and engine water jackets.
• Close the cocks and fill radiator with clean water.
• Run the engine for a while and drain the radiator again.
• Close the cocks and fill radiator to normal level.
9. Use good quality antifreeze mixture containing corrosion initiator when engine temperature reaches DOC.
10. Never use sand paper for replacing C.B. points but use oil stones.
11. While adjusting C.B. points and lubricating C.B. arm, be careful lest the points are upset resulting in arcing, rapid wear and ignition irregularities.
12. Keep the clutch pedal properly adjusted to avoid clutch slip which may result in overheating, unnecessary wear of facing and releasing bearing.
13. In case of excessive free play in brake pedal and braking unbalance, get the brake system checked and adjusted.
14. Use non-mineral brake fluid which should not corrode or affect rubber parts.
15. In order to avoid excessive tyre wear and steering irregularities, get the wheel alignment checked. In a properly adjusted steering system, the vehicle will continue to run straight ahead when hands are taken off the steering wheel and steering wheel shall return to straight ahead position after turning.
16. Keep tyres inflated to specific pressures.
17. Don’t spill water on battery top but keep it clean and dry.
18. Add distilled water in battery when cold.
19. During garaging the vehicle for long periods recharge the battery once a month.
20. Check the wear and contact condition of dynamo and self-starter brushes and replace them if required.
21. Don’t temper with cut out regulator adjustments.
22. Substitute burnt bulbs with bulbs of same type and capacity (wattage}.
23. Wash and clean the vehicle as under;
• Wash and clean the lower part of the vehicle first, including the wheels, with
Water jet, using a sponge. • Wash the body shell avoiding excessive pressure water spray. Use sponge in washing. Rub it gently to avoid stretching.
• Dry the vehicle with a chamois.
• Remove grease, oil and tar spots from the painted parts by wetting with petrol and wiping immediately with a dry cloth.
• For cleaning chrome plated parts, apply some natural Vaseline and then rub with a soft and clean rag as well as chamois.
• Clean windows and windshield with a linen cloth or a very soft chamois. Use
Wind shield washer solvent or water containing some alcohol for very dirty glass panes.
• Clean rubber mats with soap and water.
• Clean leather seats or other parts with a wet and soapy sponge or cloth. Rinse carefully with clean water and dry well with chamois.
24. Avoid parking of vehicle in sun especially in summer.
25. Avoid spilling of petrol, alcohol, sodium compounds, windshield solvent or brake fluid on body finish.
26. Periodically clean water drain-holes at the bottom of the doors to avoid rust formation.
27. Paint the under-chassis at least once a year to protect it from corrosion.
28. Never wash or polish the vehicle in sun especially in summer.
29. Park the vehicle under cover during nights, rainy days and winter months to avoid excessive condensation of water on vehicle body which would affect its finish.
30. Wipe out all drops of water penetrated inside the body as a result of moisture condensation otherwise drops shall lead to rusting.
31. Touch the chipped off or scratched point to avoid corrosion.
32. Don’t scuff painted surfaces with any rough object which may create scratches.
33. Dust off the body before washing or wiping with moist cloth.
34. Polish the vehicle with good quality wax polish after washing.


14.1 INTRODUCTION: In today’s highly competitive and global world, project management has become one of the most valued skills in all types of organizations. In order to be competitive and successful therefore, it is essential that organizations diver their projects in the most effective manners. No matter the methods that organizations use to implement and manage their projects, they rely heavily n the expertise of project managers.
Before we can properly understand the process of project management, we must fist understand the concept of projects as well as the meaning f project management. Therefore we start this paper by defining or describing the two concepts.
Generally, projects are all the work we do one time. A project can be the designing of an aircraft, building a processing plant, or in the non-commercial arena, organizing a wedding ceremony or even preparing a soup. Every project produces an outcome and every project has a beginning and an end. Also, each project produces something unique. Therefore, designing a new sports car is a project, but manufacturing thousand of cars is not a project. Manufacturing and other repetitive processes are defined as ongoing operations. In order to understand a project, consider it in the context of the organization that undertakes it. The organization can be a company, a voluntary organization or a branch of the civil service. These all aim to produce certain goods or provide services. Each organization is structurally tailor-made for the type of production or activity in which it engages. This means that each worker has set tasks, which must be performed repeatedly. This applies to everyone working in the organization, from those on the factory floor to those who manage the organization. The manager’s day is not as structured as that of the workers lower down in the hierarchy, but the manager also has set tasks, such as the development of plans and budgets, preparation for management meetings, and so forth. Everyone in the organization has what we call repetitive tasks. We call this type a product organization. This is the scenario of operations management. However, tasks usually arise that the organization is not naturally equipped to deal with. These are tasks of a non-recurring type. They have not been done previously and will not be done again in the foreseeable future. Examples might be construction of an office building, moving to a new location, holding an anniversary celebration or finding opportunities for entering into a new international market. Each of these tasks involves many people in the organization, yet it does not belong to anyone department in the organization.
In order to execute this type of assignment, a project team is usually set up.

Characteristic features of a project
A project:
• is a unique task
• is designed to attain a specific result
• requires a variety of resources
• is limited in time
We shall now discuss these features of a project one after the other.
A PROJECT IS A UNIQUE TASK: One reason for organizing a task as a project is because it is a unique, one-time tasks, if it is a task that will be performed repeatedly, it is left with the base organization to perform.
The problem with a unique task is that no one has performed it previously. Therefore, at the outset one does not know in detail what activities need to be performed and consequently one does not have a detailed blueprint for how to proceed in order to achieve the desired results. An analysis must be made of what work needs to be done and in what order. Project work must therefore be planned by a method other than that used for the tasks of the base organization.
It is important to emphasize that a project task is also new to specialists – even if they have performed the same type of work previously – as it is often performed in an unfamiliar area, in a new environment and/or with new people. A consultant may have done an excellent job as a project manager responsible for implementing/managing a road project in an environment. However, that same consultant may not succeed in managing the same type of project in another environment.
A PROJECT IS FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF A SPECIFIC RESULT: A project is established to perform a specific task in order to achieve a specific result. The task can vary greatly from project to project. One project may be to construct a bridge over a river, another the implementation of a computer system in the accounting function of an organization, a third an investigation of the consequences of moving part of an organization to another geographical location, etc.
A PROJECT REQUIRES A VARIETY OF RESOURCES: The temporary organization – the project – has at the outset no resources. It must receive all its resources from the permanent organization, the base organization. Particularly in organizations that are not accustomed to working with projects, it is difficult to achieve an understanding of the amount of resources required for a successful project. Problems are intensified if the project is highly process oriented. It is even more difficult to gain acceptance for the time and effort required for this type of work. One can understand to a certain extent that technical work requires resources because one can see the physical processes. With process-oriented projects, however, top management often have a limited understanding of what it takes to achieve good results. This makes it difficult to have a realistic discussion of resource requirements.
The second point is that even with a real understanding of the need for resources, there are often problems releasing the required people at the required time. Usually people in the base organization are committed on a full-time basis to other tasks and cannot participate in the project unless these other tasks are covered one way or another. This situation creates special management problems.
The third management problem is that a project includes people from different backgrounds having different expertise and experience. That a project brings together people with different skills is precisely the point of project management; project tasks are solved by precisely this method. These people have probably not worked together previously and this is a challenge for the project manager. The people may not necessarily be difficult to handle, but their varied backgrounds, expectations and ambitions can impede the success of a project if no effort is made to develop the team. Time must be devoted to providing opportunities for project members to get to know how to work with each other, enabling them to draw on each other’s strengths later on. Also, adequate time must be invested to align team members to the goals of the project.
A PROJECT HAS TIME CONSTRAINTS: A typical feature of a project is a fixed completion date. There is often a strong focus on this date and the success of the project will be judged on whether or not the project is completed by then. A task subject to time limits is not a feature special to project work, but the focus on the completion date is stronger here than in many other cases. In the base organization with repetitive tasks there are additional opportunities to make up time if the deadline is exceeded. There is no such possibility in project work. A black shadow always hangs over a project that does not meet its deadlines.
Problems are intensified for project management if the completion date for the project is set on a fairly arbitrary basis or if only the technical aspects of the project are considered.
Project Management: Having gained an understanding of what a project is, our next task is to understand the term ‘project management’. One definition of project management given by Parag Diwan is: “…the application of skills, knowledge, tools and techniques to meet or exceed stakeholder requirements from a project”.
Essentially therefore, project management entails the management of the processes involved in projects.
PROCESSES IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT: What are the processes that are involved in project management? Again there are various views as to the processes to be used for managing projects, although they all tend toward the same goals.
Two prominent methods in this regard are those of the Project Management institute (PMI) and Project in controlled Environments (PRINCE)
Project Management Processes according to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).

1. Directing the project – carried out by the senior management team (the project sponsors). These are the high-level decision-makers who define the need for the project, the resources to be allocated to it and whether it should continue (if ongoing).
2. Planning a project – an ongoing activity which, using specified methods provides a model of the activities, their sequence, duration and resource requirements and associated risks.
3. Starting up a project – once the project has received approval, the project resources need to be organized. This starts with the appointment of the management team and assigning their individual objectives. A plan of work needs to be drawn up leading to the terms of the contract between the project organization and its customer.
4. Initiating a project – this part of the process results in the overall project strategy and sets the criteria against which it will eventually be judged.
5. Controlling a stage – once the project activities have started in earnest, this activity includes those aspects of control and problem-solving required to ensure that the project meets the original objectives.
6. Managing Product delivery – where there are multiple teams working on different aspects of the project, this process is vital to ensure that each knows their responsibilities and their interfaces with other parts of the project, and that activities are not omitted because they were not properly allocated.
7. Managing the stage boundaries – at the end of each stage, to report on the progress and problems encountered in that stage and their implications, and following this plans for the following stage.
8. Closing a project – shut down the project systems, provide reports and feedback for future process improvement; establish the performance of the project relative to the original objectives.
PRINCE 2 provides bureaucratic controls on the planning and execution of projects. In this way, it forces the identification of some of the potential problems that may arise in the project and does stress early conflict resolution – a feature of much of the recent literature on project management. It is limited, however, by its approach. It focuses on the ‘product’, usually a computer program or system, and does not provide any guarantees of success. The standard for process – that is, it does not specify the quality of the outcome of a project, only the way in which it has to be carried out.
The Project Life Cycle Approach: Another way of illustrating the unique nature of project work is in terms of the project life cycle. Hence, some project managers find it useful to use the project life cycle as the cornerstone for managing project. The life cycle recognizes that projects have a limited life span and that management techniques can be tailored to the needs of the different phases of the project life cycle. There are a number of different life cycle models in project management literature. Many are unique to a specific industry or type of project. A generic project management life cycle model, adapted from Clifford Gray and Erik Larson, is shown below.
Definition Planning Execution Delivery

1. Goals 1. Schedules 1. Status Reports 1. Train Customer
2. Specifications 2. Budgets 2. Changes 2. Transfer Documents
3. Tasks 3. Resources 3. Quality 3. Release resources
4. Responsibilities 4. Risks 4. Forecasts 4. Reassign staff
5. Staffing 5. Lessons learned

The project life cycle typically passes sequentially through four stages: definition, planning, execution, and delivery. The starting point begins the moment the project is given a go-ahead. Project effort starts slowly, builds to a peak, and then declines to delivery of the project.
14.3. THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN PRACTICE: We can conveniently divide the project management process into three main phases of planning, organizing, and execution or implementation.
(a) Planning: This stage will include activities such as conception of the project, estimation of human and material resources and time of execution of the project. A useful tool at this state is the work Breakdown Structure and all assumptions must be realistic and reasonable.
The plan should be prepared in readily understood format such as the Gantt Chart and Critical Path Analysis Technique.
(b) Organizing: This state involves the preparation of the organization structure proposed for the project. This will require detailed analysis of the operations involved and the resources available. The use of the WBS is also vital here. Again, the proposed structure has to be efficient and effective and should be focused specifically on the peculiarities of the project.
(c) Execution stage: The execution or implementation phase consists of the following important activities:
• Communicating with management, client, users and others.
• supervising the works
• Reviewing progress
• Monitoring costs
• controlling quality
• Issuing change orders
• Managing changes.

A. Pitfalls in planning: Many factors can create pitfalls in planning, the most dangerous ones being:
• The planning level is uniform;
• The plan contains too much detail for some users, and too little for others
• The planning range is psychologically unsound
• The planning method discourages creativity, and encourages bureaucracy
• The planning estimates of time and cost are over optimistic
• The planning of resources overestimates their competence and capacity
• Some factors are easily ignored by planners
• Lack of knowledge and understanding of the uncertainties involved
i. Undefined Principles and Policies of Project Work:
Well-defined principles and policies for project work create the climate that ensures a project functions dwell. Sometimes these principles and policies are not agreed upon. Questions that should be answered in the general project guidelines include:
• What is the organization and line management’s responsibility for the project work?
• Who is responsible for committing resources?
• What are the policies for making resources available?
o What are the tools and methods to be used for the management of the project?
• How are coordination and cooperation to be achieved?
ii Imprecise goals: The floundering of many projects can be traced back to unclear or imprecise goals, with insufficient effort being put into defining the problems that the project should solve. It is an unfortunate human tendency to spend insufficient time on this and race on to design solutions before the problem is properly defined.
iii The Planning Level is uniform: The most serious pitfall in planning is to select one planning level that is uniform and consequently impractical. Making a plan is one level, we must either choose a plan that is too broad in scope, with insufficient detail for some of the people involved, or choose one that is too detailed, and hence does not present the overview of the project. We need to view a plan at two levels at a minimum. One would be broad in scope and function as an overview plan that can be used in discussing the deliverables of the project. It can be used in the dialogue between the project owner and the project manager. It is not practical to use a detailed plan for reporting to senior managers. They are interested in whether or not the project will achieve its goals and they cannot see this in a mass of detailed activities. They need an overview such as a milestone plan that shows them whether or not the project is on target. If a milestone is missed, they may want additional information to show what corrective action should be taken. If the project is on target, they need only to be shown that it is.
On the other hand, the project staff cannot use a plan that is too broad in scope to coordinate their activities. If the tasks are too large, progress cannot be measured at regular intervals. There is a great chance of misunderstandings and the project members may do the work incorrectly or at an insufficient pace. Therefore, a more detailed view of the plan must exist to help coordinate the activities of the project members. Project management requires at least two levels of planning, a milestone plan and an activity plan. The former level allows management to focus of ‘what’; and the latter level allows team members to focus on ‘how’.
iv. The Planning range is psychologically unsound: There is a tendency in many projects to focus on the overall final deadline. Too much attention is given to this date. By being concerned only about a point that lies far into the future the project members can feel that there is plenty f time to do the work. Consequently, the project may be viewed as a low priority and if Parkinson’s Law holds, project members will fill the time with ineffective or inefficient work, or no work at all.
v. The Planning method discourage creativity: At the opposite end of the spectrum from ‘brad’ plans are the unwieldy, verily detailed plans. Many of us have seen networks with thousands of activities. These plans hamper communication rather than enhance it. Appropriate tools communicate the plan and report progress on single sheets of paper. A milestone plan and an associated definition of role responsibilities are on one sheet of paper each. Managers should not be burdened with comprehending reams of data in the short time they have available. The activities associated with each milestone are on one sheet of paper. Project members must be able to see their work easily and must not be burdened by having to trace a trail through a tortuous chart or network with thousands of activities.

Planning should be a group activity, where the relevant parties work together to solve the task at hand. It is in the execution of the task that people should take individual responsibility. However, it is common for the situation to be reversed. Inexperienced project managers plan the work in privacy, and then delegate the implementation to the group.
vi. Over-optimism: Over-optimism might be due to genuine optimism or lack of realism, depending on your viewpoint. Senior managers commonly presume that it must be possible to do the work much quicker and cheaper than it is estimated by the line manager. The other situation that can lead to this type of self-deception is when the project must be ‘sold’ to the base organization, or to an outside customer. To make the project attractive, the project manager reduces the estimates of work content and cost and the conveniences himself that the new estimates can be achieved. Unfortunately, they usually cannot be over-optimism with projects is dangerous. To avoid this pitfall, those who will do the work must be involved in the planning; those who are responsible for the implementation must be realistic.
vii. Overestimating Competence and Capacity: This pitfall is related to the previous one and can contribute to it. Estimates of time and cost are often based on ideal resources, or ideal circumstances. However, the knowledge and experience of the staff available, and the time they can devote to the project, may be less than ideal. The important point is that plans must be formulated to take into account the actual constraints.
viii. Productivity reducing Factors ignored: There is a tendency to plan a project as if the outside world does not exist. However, people become ill, they go on holiday, and they attend courses and seminars. These factors reduce their capacity. Experience has shown that the reduction can be as much as 20-30 per cent.
Furthermore, the plan may omit some activities. Because projects are unique, previous experience cannot prepare us for all the activities that may be involved. If we attempt to make a list of all the activities at the start of a project, like many people do when they plan at the detail level alone, something is bound to be forgotten. Checklists of activities from previous, similar projects help, but since no two projects are identical they must be used carefully.
ix Uncertainties: Even if we plan as well as we can, uncertainties prevail. Plans are not reality. Events happen outside the control of the project and affect it. Even within the project we will not have full control; people are not machines, and performance varies. It is very important to get a picture of the uncertainties associated with the project and then decide how to deal with them.

B. Pitfalls in Organizing
We shall also discuss pitfalls in organizing. They are summed up as follows:
 Alternative organizations for the project are not considered
o The distribution of responsibility is not defined and the principles of cooperation are unclear.
 Key resources are not available when required
 Line managers are not committed and key resources are not motivated
 The project manager is a technocrat, rather than a manager, so he cannot delegate.
 Coordinate and control.

I. Lack of Motivation: A line manager’s personal objectives can conflict with a project’s goals. A project may be forced upon him from higher organizational levels, or he may not be familiar with development work. He may not have the energy or ability to attend to both project work and his daily routines. Faced with this situation, a line manager may sit on the fence, watching the project’s progress. The consequences are that he will distance himself from decisions for which he has responsibility until it is too late. Even if the project manager understands the line manager’s lack of commitment to the project, he must not accept the situation and try to live with it, because a reluctant line manager can kill a project. The project manager must gain agreement with line Managers regarding their responsibility to the project. If they cannot agree, negotiations must be escalated to higher levels in the base organization until the problem is resolved. But remember, if the line manager is to be committed, the problem must be resolved, not stamped on.
ii The Project Manager as Leader: The last organizational pitfall is the selection of the wrong person as project manager. It is not uncommon to select a good technician, but such people are often not suitable. Let’s recall the important functions of a project manager: to plan, to organize and to control. A good technocrat will know the technical aspects of the work better than anyone else, but he may have problems delegating. He may believe, quite rightly, that he can do the work better and faster than his staff, and attempt to do so, with catastrophic results. He consequently neglects his managerial responsibilities as ‘he works himself to death’ on the tasks he has assumed.

Who should be project manager – a technical or non-technical expert? This question is irrelevant because the person should be chose for his leadership qualities rather than his background. The project manager should be someone who:
 has the time and energy;
 can plan, organize and control the work methodically;
 can inspire others to work;
 can communicate in the best possible way with the base organization and the project participants.
C. Pitfalls in Controlling: Formulating a good plan is the first step in project management, and organizing the activities of project members is the second. However, project management is not about running ahead of the project members with the plan. It is about providing collaborative leadership from within the team. Control is an important part of that leadership. Control is:
 reporting progress of the project in relation to the plan;
 analyzing variance between progress and the plan;
 deciding which actins should be taken to eliminate variances;
 taking action.
Below are what can create pitfalls in controlling.
 The project manager and his team do not understand the purpose of control; they do not understand the difference between monitoring and controlling
 The project manager has responsibility, but no formal authority.
(1) Misunderstanding the purpose of control: Many people do not understand the purpose of project control. The purpose is not to wield a stick, to apportion blame, or to punish the guilty. The purpose is to monitor progress, and to take corrective action in time. We must stress the point that control is more than just monitoring and reporting progress. In many projects, control merely means writing a few familiar quotes to the project manager on the current status, or extending some lines on a bar chart to show how far the project has progressed. Perhaps the project manager read what he gets and then conscientiously files the report, but that is where it usually ends. Reporting becomes a ritual you do because you are told to, rather than an activity you take seriously. Serious control means evaluating the consequences of deviations from the plan and acting upon them.
(2) Responsibility without authority: The project manager will be unable to control if he does not have the same formal authority as the equivalent managers in the base organization from whom he is obtaining resources. If a project member has a conflict of priority between the project manager and his line manager, there is seldom any doubt where his loyalty lies. He will choose his line manager because the line manager is his boss, and he must work for him when the project is finished. The project manager is ultimately responsible for achieving the project’s goals, and therefore must be given commensurate authority. A project manager with charisma will derive some authority from his personality, called personal power. However, average people will manage most projects, and what they lack in personal power they must be given in terms of positional power. Their authority to control the project must be reflected in the project’s organization.
14.5. REPORTING: Reporting is an essential part of keeping the interfaces of your project working properly. When the reports are properly conceived they enable you to measure the success or failure of the work being carried out. They also ensure that there is good quality information available to aid the information flows within the project. Despite its benefits, reporting is often dreaded by project managers and their teams. They see it as a chore that gets in the way of the ‘real’ work. Despite how the teams may feel, reporting is an essential part of advanced project management. Reporting enables those outside of the project to determine what is happening and whether everything is going according to plan. Additionally when it is used effectively it provides a channel for the project manager to pass helpful information to the project team and the stakeholders.

Writing Reports: When writing report authors should ensure they understand who their target audience is. For example, many project managers produce weekly reports for the benefit of their project teams. They simply reuse these reports when providing information to stakeholders. They don’t account for the different audiences and often the result creates problems with stakeholder relationships.
Types of Report usually;
 daily reports
 weekly reports
 monthly reports
 risks reports
Management style varies widely across organizations and within projects. The project manager can and does significantly influence the management style used within the project. The style that project managers use with their direct team will be replicated throughout the project. Therefore being conscious of your management style is important since it will enable you to influence the culture of your project. For example, you may choose personally to walk round the team daily to encourage them. Alternatively instead of talking directly to the team you might demand written reports that are accurate and available continuously.
When considering management style we should consider management styles for:
 the project team;
 the external stakeholders;
 the external suppliers.
The Project Team:
There are three basic styles of management that a manager can adopt; the dictatorial style, the consensus style and the laissez-faire style. All have their merits and problems and all are appropriate in certain circumstances. A good project manager should be able to recognize when a particular style is appropriate.
The dictatorial style is perhaps the simplest style to understand. The style is exactly what its name suggests. The project manager applies a high degree of control to the activities of the staff in the team. He or she specifies on a day-to-day or hour-by-hour basis what the team member should be doing. An example of dictatorial control might be on a building site where a bricklayer is told to put a wall up in a certain place within a certain amount of time. This is very specific and does not require much input from the bricklayer. This style does not involve discussion. Generally speaking, this style is not popular and when applied to teams it can result in things going wrong. When deadlines are tight this style can be used very effectively to achieve successful results.
The most popular style is the consensus style but it is often not understood fully by project managers. They frequently believe that consensus is drawing together people from different areas in the project and asking their opinions. Once they have all the opinions they think that is their job to decide what to do. This method of working is not a consensus style of management. This style is closer to the dictatorial style were the project manager decides what to do. A consensus style needs to go further than simply seeking opinions. The style needs actively to promote discussion, ideally the discussion will result in a compromise solution that all involved will be happy to work with. Usually, reaching a compromise can be achieved; however, when it cannot be reached then the project manager may have to move to a dictatorial style. The consensus approach is normally well liked and motivational. The key to a successful consensus approach is to ensure that the discussion and the consensus seeking do not take too long. The purpose of consensus is to assure team members that their opinion is valued and that things can be changed based on their opinion.
Laissez-faire is the third style that project managers can apply. Laissez-faire assumes that every person is motivated to undertake the tasks concerned. It involves low levels of control from a project manager and relies on team members working out what they should be doing. This style assumes that there is a great degree of personal responsibility. People like to be trusted fully and to be given freedom to do work in the way that they believe it should be done. Unfortunately this style quickly becomes de-motivating. Staff quickly realizes that the lack of control contributes to their job being more difficult. This style is not recommended.
The External Stakeholders
Whilst one of the styles discussed is likely to be appropriate for the team involved in the project it is unlikely to be suitable for dealing with some of the core important project stakeholders. Very senior managers are generally only interested in the project for short bursts of time. Their interest is raised when a major milestone is about to happen or when something major has gone wrong. For the stakeholders who fall into this category an Exception Management style is likely to be most appropriate. Although candidates for this style are normally senior managers, there are many people external to the organization that should also be included. This would include journalists, pressure group chairpersons and politicians.
Exception management focuses only on the deliverables and the higher-risk tasks within the project. It centers on these since they are the areas that the target stakeholder group is interested in. The project manager is expected to review and report on anything major that happens in the project.
An exception management style can be very motivating. The style ensures that the key stakeholders and the organization’s senior team feel that they are valued. They perceive that they are being singled out for special treatment. This reinforces to them that the project manager has recognized their importance within the context of the project. In return they allow the project manager room to manage the team on what they see as the less important day-to-day matters. This freedom can be very useful for the project manager and it alone often makes using exception management worthwhile.
The External Suppliers
The Management style that you should adopt for suppliers should be based on a mixture of the dictatorial style and the consensus style. The mixed style should present the suppliers with a straightforward approach to negotiations, deliverables and other project related matters. The project manager should emphasize honesty in the relationship with the supplier and should always try to find win-win situations. Suppliers, like everyone else, enjoy dealing with project managers who they believe are being fair and honest in their negotiations.
Skilled project managers should be able to apply a systematic approach to identifying personalities and potential clashes within teams. They should be able to categorize the various team members according to personality type. Most project managers will undertake this assessment naturally when they meeting team members. This assessment will normally be made at an unconscious level. To enable project managers to apply a systematic approach they need to raise the assessment to a conscious level. This is achieved by adopting a framework sets out the personality characteristics that you should look for in an individual. The personality types to look for are: idealist, factual, tradition and chaos.
• Idealist: Idealists are people who look for perfection in the work that they do. In a project they are normally the people who are good at the initial requirements setting. They will punish others to think continually about what is being produced. These personalities value accuracy ad improvement and they make teams focus on producing a quality product. Idealist can however cause problems in project team through their constant desire for perfection. They cause others to despair whether the work they are producing will ever be good enough. Others feel they are being constantly judged and as a result they tend to prefer not to work with idealists.
• Factual: Factual character types base all of their work on facts and the rationale behind the facts. Generally they go into questioning mode very quickly, trying to find out as much information as possible. One of the main benefits of this character type is that it is an action-oriented character type. People with these traits tend to go to work on issues rather than working them through e.g abstract models. Factual people can however be viewed as being aggressive and argumentative. This makes them unpopular, especially if the character trait is strong. Team members often feel threatened by this character type because they are always being asked to justify themselves to this type.
• Traditional: Traditional character types are the peacemakers. They will strive to build consensus and agreement. Often this character type is excellent at chairing meetings or sorting out sensitive issues. One of the best uses for this character type is in dealing with project stakeholders. Traditional characters do however fail to push issues forward. Since they do not like confrontation they tend to hold back on pushing others into making a decision. This can make it difficult for the project if they are in charge of a high-risk item of work.
• Chaos: These character types like to be free to do whatever they want. Often these people are charismatic and as a result they enhance a team’s motivation. Their desire to be free drives them to be relative and spontaneous, making them very useful at problem solving. The obvious negative attribute for this character type is its dislike of any sort of plan. These people believe that it will just happen and that planning is not a worthwhile activity. This makes them extremely difficult to use when a plan must be delivered to a schedule.
CONCLUSION: This paper has presented the overview of project management. The paper starts with the definitions of key words and terms so as to lay the foundation for the paper understanding of the discussion. The paper then went on to discuss three schools of thought in project management process which are he PMBOK, PRINCE 2 and a project life cycle model. The section therefore provides exposure of the yardsticks being used to design project management systems. After this, the paper discussed the three main processes of planning, organizing and implementing which can be used to capture project management activities. Realizing he problems usually faced by project managers, the paper then went on to discuss some usual pitfalls in project management which project managers should avoid. Finally, the paper discussed management styles of project managers with suggestions on the types of styles that fit different circumstances.


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5. Alan D. Orr (2004), Advanced Project Management, Kogan Page Ltd., London
6. Erling S. Andersen Etal (2004), Goal directed Project Management, Kogan Page Ltd., London


15.1 INTRODUCTION: Engineering and construction contracts normally involve many issues which include technical, finance, insurance, plants and equipment, procurement, and so on. One of such principal issues is law. Legal issues arise right from the conceptual stage of the contract and follow up until the completion and close-out phase. Even many years after project close out, legal issues can still arise in engineering and construction contracts. Several engineering and construction projects have been bedeviled by legal issues in Nigeria, and with many of them ending in arbitration and the court instead of closing up with ‘hand-shake’ as they normally started. In all such cases, the engineers and project managers involved cannot have any sense of fulfillment, since the main objective, which is to deliver the projects as planned, has not been met.

In order to be able to create proactive performance environments, therefore, engineers need to have clear and practical understanding of legal issues that are relevant to the execution and management of engineering contracts. Legal issues that affect engineering and construction contracts are numerous. They will be found in several topics such as the law of contracts, tort, employment, private and public nuisance, company law, partnership, industrial law, property law, and criminal law. However, the two law topics that readily come to play while discussing this subject are the law of contract and the law of employment. This paper therefore focuses on these two topics.

Definition of a Contract: The Supreme Court of Nigeria, in Obmiami Brick and sons (Nigeria) Ltd V. A. C. B. Ltd. (1992) 3 NWLR 260, defined a contract as: “a voluntary agreement whereby a person undertakes for reward (consideration) to perform an act for another and its terms are contemplated and admitted by the parties” Keywords in this definition are voluntariness, agreement, consideration, and terms of the contract. These concepts are some of the cornerstones of the law of contract and we shall be referring to them later in this paper.

Types of Contract
Generally, we have the following types of contract:
1. Contracts of Records: These are contract arising from the records of the courts e.g. a record of judgment. This is however not a contract in the true sense of it.
2. Formal Contract
• This is a contract made by deed
• Also known as contracts made under seal
• Must be made in writing, signed sealed and delivered
• Does not need to be supported by consideration to be enforceable
3. Simple Contracts
• All other contracts other than formal contracts
• May be in writing or oral
• Oral contracts are known as parole contracts
• Validity depends on presence of consideration
4. ‘Expressed ad Implied’ Contracts
• Expressed when the terms of the contract are expressly stated.
• e.g. In engineering contracts, tenders are received from the contractors and one of them is picked and awarded the contract. All the material terms are spelt out in such agreement on the price, duration scope and specifications.
• Implied contractors arise from the conduct of the parties by inference
• Therefore, terms are not pre-agreed.
5. “Unilateral” and “Bilateral” Contracts
• It is unilateral when one party promises to do something in return for an act f the other party. e.g. reward cases see Carlill V. Carbolic Smoke Ball co. (1893) 1 Q.B. 56
• A bilateral contract consists of an exchange of promises
• Engineering contracts are normally bilateral. Employer promises to pay the contract sum for the works to be executed in the contract, goods to be supplied by the seller or services to be rendered by the consultant.
6. Contracts can also be classified as
• Construction contracts
• Sales contracts (including leases)
• Hire purchase contracts
• Partnership Agreements
• Trade Agreements
• Note that any contract may be made under seal but it is compulsory in Nigeria for the following contracts to be made under deed:
• Conveyance of land, and
• Grant of land (e.g. tenancies) exceeding 3 years. (See PCL Cap 100 WRNLR 1959)

1. Formation of Contract
The essential elements of requirements for the formation of a valid contract are:
a. Offer and acceptance
b. Consideration
c. Capacity to contract
d. Intention to create legal relations
e. Absence of vitiating elements

(a) Offer
An expression of willingness to contract made with the intention that it shall become binding on the person making it as it is accepted by the person to whom it is made or addressed.
Characteristics of Offer
• May be expressed or implied from conduct e.g. a bus stopping at a bus stop in this case, who is offering? Is it the passenger at the bus stop that offers to be conveyed by the bus or the bus that offers to carry the passenger at the bus stop? Discuss.
• Must be distinguished from an invitation to treat
• Must be communicated
• Can be made to the whole world or to an individual see Carlill V. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. (Supra).
(b) Invitation to Treat
• This is merely a preliminary move and not an offer. It is an invitation to make offers. Examples include advertisement for tenders and display of goods for sale. See Berliet Nig. Ltd V. Francis (1987) 2 NWLR 673.
• Other examples of invitation to treat are:
1. Auctions
2. Display of goods in shelves in a shop, supermarket, self-service shops, etc.
3. An advertisement of goods in a catalogue
4. Invitation to tender
5. Buses, Taxis, Trains, etc.
(c) Acceptance
• A final and unqualified expression of assent to the terms of the offer Is the reciprocal act of action of the offered to the offer in which he indicates his agreement to the terms of the offer as conveyed to him by the offer or.
• Is the reciprocal act of action of the offered to the offer in which he indicates his agreement to the terms of the offer as conveyed to him by the offeror.
• Acceptance could be manifested in any of the following ways:
• By the conduct of the parties
• By their words
• By documents passing between them.
• Acceptance must be notified to the offer or. Mental or ‘internal’ acceptance to the offer or does not constitute acceptance in law.
• Silence cannot constitute an acceptance Felt house V. Bindley (1892) 7 L.T. 835.
Invalid Types of Acceptance
Some acts appear to be a acceptance of offer, but they are not valid as acceptance in law. Such acts can therefore not conclude a contract. They include the following:
(1) Counter-offer
• This has the effect of introducing a new term which varies the offer. The effect of this in the eyes f the law is to destroy the original offer. Therefore, an acceptance must correspond with the terms of the offer. Where the offeree introduces any qualification or amendment to the original offer, it constitutes a counter-offer which destroys the original offer. See Hyde V. Wrench (1840) 3 Beav. 334.
• However, a counter-offer should be distinguished from a mere request for information.

(2) Acceptance “Subject to Contract” and “Provisional” Acceptance
• This is a conditional acceptance which is not a valid acceptance in law. Any acceptance made subject to a condition cannot create a building contract until that condition is fulfilled.
o Where ‘subject to contract’ is used, each party is free to withdraw until such time as a formal contract is prepared and agreed.
• The commonly used “Letter of Intent” ordinarily falls o this category.
(3) Acceptance in Ignorance of Offer
 If a person was not aware of a reward promised for an act, he cannot be entitled to the reward by performing the act.
In summary, there are two possible routes to a agreement, while the third route does not lead to agreement as follows:
I Offer + Acceptance = Agreement
ii Invitation + Offer + Acceptance = Agreement
iii Invitation + Offer + rejection = No Agreement
For example;
If A says to B I am offering my pen for? N800. A’s communication could be interpreted as either:
 A is offering his pen for sale to B and B need only accept the offer to create a binding agreement. This is case I above; or
 A is inviting B to offer to buy his pen, should he wish to do so. A may then accept B’s offer and create a binding agreement. This is case II above.
 Alternatively, A may reject B’s offer and choose to sell to someone else or not at all. This case III above.
(4) Consideration
 This is the second main requirements of a binding contract, issues discussed in (a) to (c) above belong to making an agreement. But not all agreements are contracts. Therefore in order for agreements to become contracts, the remaining elements listed in 1(ii) (v) must come to play. the first one is consideration which is discussed here.
Definition of Consideration
 Lush J’s definition in Currie V. Misa (1875) L. R. 10 Exch. 153 defines consideration as:
 “a valuable consideration in the sense of the law, my consist either in some right, interest, profit or benefit accruing to the one party or some forbearance, detriment, loss or responsibility, given, suffered or undertaken by the other”
 Also consideration has been defined as: “the price paid by the promisee for the promise of the promisor”.
The following should be noted about consideration
 It is required as an essential element of a simple contract but not needed for validity of contracts under seal.
 Consideration must be sufficient. That is, it must be something of value
 Consideration need not be adequate as a brand new Mercedes Benz ‘S’ class car, with normal price of about N8Million can be exchanged for? N100,000.00 provided there are no vitiating elements, the contract will be binding and enforceable. The principle therefore is that no consideration is too small or too much or unfair. Contra: contract renegotiation.
 Consideration must move from the promise. This means that only a person who has furnished consideration in a contract can bring an action to enforce the contract. In simple language, you cannot reap where you did not sow.
 Consideration can be ‘executory’ or ‘executed’. It is executory when both the offer acceptance are mere promises exchanged by the parties. Examples include construction contracts, sales contracts, etc. It is executed when the offered only needs to take some actions and not required to make his own promises. In this case, the performance of the act requested by the promise doubles as acceptance and performance. Examples include the reward cases for lost and found articles and police promises of reward for volunteers of information that leads to the arrest of wanted criminals.
 Past Consideration: Past consideration is no consideration in law. Past consideration refers to being past at a time before the making of a promise.
Example is if your car is faulty and some ‘boys’ decided to assist you in pushing it without any previous promise to pay them. If after they have done the pushing, they requested for payment, there is no consideration to support such payment, because the consideration of pushing the car has expired and therefore cannot support the payment. See Re: McArdle (1951) Ch 669 and Akenzua II, Oba of Benin V. Benin divisional Council (1959) WRNLR 1.
Capacity to contract
 In order for an agreement to be a binding contract, the parties to it must have
capacity to be so agreed.
 The five main categories of persons who may not have capacity to enter into contracts are:
a. Minors (Infants)
b. Corporations
c. Persons mentally disordered
d. Drunkards, and
e. Illiterate Persons
We shall now discuss the positions of each of the above categories of persons as regards capacity to be parties to contracts.
(a) Minors
 Contracts made by minors, i.e. persons under 21 years of age (i.e.) infants) are voidable at their option. This is in line with the provision of the Infant Relief Act in Nigeria. The following contracts can however bind the infant:
– Contracts of necessaries, and
– Contracts of service that are beneficial
 Necessaries have been defined by Alderson B. In Chapple V. Cooper as “Thing necessary are those without which an individual cannot reasonably exist. In the first place food, lodging, and the like…”
 Beneficial contracts of service are essentially contracts of apprenticeship.
Contracts that are absolutely void with Infants as enacted in the Infants Relief
Act are:
 Contract of loan or bank overdraft
 Contract for goods other than necessary goods

15.4 Corporations and Unincorporated Associations
(a) Unincorporated Associations
 An unincorporated association, such as a club, is not a competent contracting party. If a contract is made on its behalf, no individual member can be sued except the person who actually made it and other members who authorized him to do so. The club itself does not have the capacity to sue. It is the trustees that can act on behalf of the unincorporated associations of that nature in law.
(b) Corporations
 A corporation can only contract within its object clause in its memorandum of Association. Any other contracts outside this will be captured by the ‘Ultra Virus Doctrine’ and will not be enforceable.
 It is therefore important to check the Memo of Association of any company to ascertain its intra virus capacity according to its object clause before contracting with the company.
 Most importantly, we should verify the registration status of a company in Nigeria with the corporate Affairs Commission before contracting with the company. A contract entered into with an unregistered company will be difficult to enforce.
(c) Lunatics
 Contracts with lunatics are voidable at the instance of the lunatic.
 However, were the contract is made during the lucid interval; it is binding on the lunatic.
(d) Intoxicated Person (Drunkard)
 He is the same situation as a lunatic, since also he did not know what he was doing when under intoxication. The contract is also voidable at his instance. But the contract could be valid if entered into when he has been relieved of the intoxication.
(e) Illiterate Person
 An illiterate person is one that is ‘illiterate in the language used in the document under consideration”. For example, a contract in Igbo language. A Yoruba man who does not hear Igbo is an illiterate in that regard. The illiterate protection Act makes provision for protection of illiterates essentially, to translate the contract terms before he signs. Otherwise, he can plead Non est. factum.
Intention to create Legal Relations
 In addition to the phenomenon of agreement and the presence of consideration, a third contractual element is required for a binding contract the intention of the parties to create legal relations.
 There are two categories of reading intention into contracts. They are domestic/social agreements and commercial agreements.
Domestic and social Agreements
 These are basically agreements between husband and wife and agreements between parent and child.
 In the course of family life, many agreements are made which would never be supposed to be subject of litigation. If a husband promises to make a monthly allowance to his wife for her personal enjoyment, no court will entertain any suit for breach of such promises. On the other hand, a contract can still be formed between husband and wife. In this case, there must be an intention to create legal relations.

 In the case of divorce, the agreement will be construed as having the intention to create legal relations.
o An agreement between couples who eventually divorced was held binding in Bafour V. Balfour.
Commercial Agreements
 Here the court will imply an intention to create legal relations and therefore it is the defendant that will have the burden of proving no intention.
Absence of Vitiating Elements
 Vitiating elements in contract are those elements which will not make the contract enforceable despite that all other necessary ingredients are present. They are:
– Illegality
– Fraud
– Undue influence
– Mistake
– Misrepresentation
We shall discuss illegality as a vitiating element in this paper.

Contracts “Ex-facie” Illegal
These are Contracts which are illegal as formed. The contract is void ab initio. The maxim ‘ex turpi causa non oritio actio’ which means that the court will not enforce an illegal contract will apply. For example, a contract entered into by A and B where A is kill C be paid some money is ex-facie illegal and cannot be enforced.
Contract illegal by performance
Here, contracts not illegal as formed but by performance. Only the part guilty of the illegal mode of performance cannot enforce the control. The innocent party can enforce the contract. See AGF. sode (1990) INWLR 500 and savannah Bank V. Ajilo
Discharge of Contracts
Just as a contract is ‘born’ during formation, is also ‘dies’, and we discharge of contracts.
The various ways by which contract can come to an end are:
 Discharge by performance
 Discharge by agreement
 Discharge by breach, and
 Discharge by frustration
15.5 Remedies for Breach of contract
The alternative remedies for breach of contracts are:
 Damages
 Specific performance
 Injunction
 Quantum merit
 Quasi contract
Standard form of contract: In order not to be drafting all the terms of a contract at any occasion when contract is to be formed, it is the practice in some trades to develop standard conditions which will take care of the usual matters pertaining to the practices in that trade. This standard document is known as standard form of contracts. Examples of standard form that are used in engineering and construction contracts are:
 FIDIC Conditions
 ICE Conditions
 JCT Conditions
 FMT Conditions
Many large organizations also have their own standard conditions for engineering and construction contracts. Examples are SPDC conditions, Mobil standard forms, etc

CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT: Contract of employment shares the general characteristics of the law of contract as previously discussed. That is, in terms of the formation process and required ingredients for validity.
The following important issues which are peculiar to employment contracts will be discussed in this section. The relevant issues are:
 Duties of Employer and Employee, and
 Termination of Contract of Employment
a. Duties of Employer and Employee
There are two forms of duties which are owned by employer and employee to each other. The first form is express duty which arises from the express terms of the employment contract. They are those duties which the parties themselves formulated before or at the time of concluding the contract of employment. The term may contained conditions of employment or Work rules or Administrative Manual, etc.
It should be noted that In majority of cases, it is employer who prepared and imposes the terms and conditions of the employment upon the employee. Nevertheless, the law has always taken the position, arising from the fundamental assumption of the contract that the employee has agreed to those terms. This is why the law does not generally concern itself with issues of whether the contractual terms are reasonable or unreasonable.
However, the fact that the law will generally not be concerned with the reasonableness or otherwise of contractual terms is subject to the rule that the employer is not allowed to impose servile incidents on an employee. Any contract which tends to impose servile obligations upon any person is void and unenforceable in the court. see Per Warringon L J in Haewood V. Miller’s Timber and trading o. Ltd (1917) 1KB 305.
As Brown L J said in Davies V. Davie (1887) 36 ch. D. 359.
“The law… allows a man to contract for his labour, or allows him to place himself in the service of a master, but it does not allow him to attach to his contract of service any servile incidents”.
It is difficult however to categorically say what would amount to a servile obligation. For instance, a contract under which a person agrees to service for life has been held not to be necessarily against public policy. Thus, in the leading case of Wallis v. Day (1837) 2 M & W 273, a contract to serve for life at a weekly salary was held dot to be illegal.
b. Implied duties of employer and Employee
As stated earlier, the duties of the worker and the employer are usually spelled out in the terms of the contract and they form e express terms. Implied duties are duties which are implied either by law or by trade practice. The usual ones are the following:
i Duty to pay wages: The employer has the duty to pay wages to is employee. Therefore if there is no express provision in the contract, then the court will imply a term basing its decision on what it considers to be reasonable, depending on the circumstance of the case. Where, however, there is an express terms of the contract dealing specifically with payment of remuneration, no further term will be implied as express term generally overrides implied terms.
ii The duty to provide work: Generally, an employer is not under a duty to provide work for his employee to do, provided he pays him wages. A contract of employment does not necessarily oblige the master to provide the servant with work. As stated by Asquith J in Collier V. Sunday Referee Publishing Co. (1940) 2 KB 647. “Provided I pay my cook her wages regularly, she cannot complain if I choose to take any or all of my meals outside”.
Thus an employee cannot complain of breach of contract where an employer keeps him idle but pays him the agreed wages or salary. There are special cases where the employer has the duty to provide work for his employer and they include the following:
1. In the case of piece-workers, i.e. where remuneration depends wholly or partially on commission payments.
2. In the contract of employment of actors and actresses, the need to gain publicity and enhance reputation require that work be provided by the employer.
3. An apprentice must also be provided with work to do in order that he may be able to learn his trade and acquire the necessary skills. It therefore stands to reason that the employer of a trainee engineer or other related professional will have a duty to provide work for him or her. It also means that the employer of a fully experienced engineer will not have such a duty.
iii The duty to provide a safe system of work
The duty in this case is to ensure that the employer carries out his operations in a safe manner. In order to fully discharge this duty, the employer must give proper instruction and follow up with necessary supervision to ensure compliance. In Bussari Ajao V. Western Nigeria Trading Co. Ltd. (1965) NWKR 178, the court held that an employer is under an obligation not only to provide safely devices, but also to give strict instructions, followed by reasonable supervision. Therefore, if protective equipment is provided for workers and they failed to use it despite the employer’s instruction to that effect, the employer will still be liable in case of any injury sustained by the employee in consequence.
iv. Duty to provide a reasonably competent work force: The master is under a duty to provide a reasonably competent and responsible workforce, especially where the duties of one staff are closely linked with those of another or are such as to affect other staff.
vi. Duty not to abuse or insult employee: An employer is under a duty not to act towards employees in a way which is unpleasant or insulting. Thus, an employer may be in breach of such a duty if he deliberately insults or abuses an employee Palmanoricted V. Cedron (1978) ICR 1008.
The employer is also likely to be in breach if he wrongly accuses the employee of misconduct, incompetence or dishonesty. See Robinson V. Crompton Parkinson Ltd. (1978) ICR 401.
Implied duties of the Employee
i Duty of faithful service
The employee is under an obligation of faithful service to his employer.
ii Duty to obey lawful and reasonable orders
An employee is under a duty to obey lawful and reasonable orders. Whether the order is reasonable or not depends on the fact of each case. An employee, however, needs not obey the order which would expose him to the risk of danger to life (See ottoman Bank V. Chakarian (1930) 2AC 277). In Teliat Sule V. Nigerian Cotton Board (1985) 2 NWLR17, Obaseki JSC observed that:
“Both common law and statute law brook no disobedience of lawful orders from any servant, high or low, big or small” and that “disobedience ranks as one of the worst forms of misconduct in any establishment”.
The principle was establishment as far back as 1845 in the case of Tumer V. Mason (1845) 14 M & W 112, where a domestic servant who had visited her sick mother, contrary to her master’s orders was held to have been rightfully dismissed for disobedience in consequence. However, an employee has no duty to obey an order to commit a criminal or civil wrong of which he is aware. Thus in Nwankwo V. Ajaebo (1978) 1 IM SLR 202, a master has ordered his driver to beat up a teacher who the master feared might discipline his son who had run off from school and from the general cleaning which the teacher instructed all pupils to do. When the driver was sued for assault and battery, he pleaded obedience to his master’s orders. The court rejected the plea because the driver knew or ought reasonably to know that assault was a crime and he should have declined to obey such an order.
The important lesson from this case is that if you are requested or instructed by your employer to do such criminal acts like inflation of contract or violating any of the provisions of the Procurement Act or as a design engineer, you are instructed to carry out an unsafe design or to commit any offence whatsoever, and you complied with such instruction on the basis of obeying orders, then “you are on your own” to bear the consequences.
iii Duty of reasonable skills and care
An employee undertakes to perform his work competently using reasonable skill and care, breach of this requirement entitles the employer to claim damages in respect of the negligent performance of the contract. This duty applies as well to consultants engaged for design and supervision of engineering works.
iv Duty not to accept secret bribes, commissions or gifts
The employee has the duty not to accept secret bribes, commissions or gifts in respect of his work other than from his employer. It is also a breach of a employee’s duties for him to have an interest in a firm which is transacting business with his employer if that interest is not disclosed: Horcal Ltd V. Gatlad (1983) IRLR 450. An employee who makes secret profit from his employment is sometimes treated as an agent who should account to his principal. In Boston Deep Sea Fishing and Ice Co. V. Ansell (1888) 39 COLD 339, the defendant, was the Managing Director of the Plaintiff Company which supplied ice to the plaintiff. He received a bonus on his shares in respect of supplies made to the plaintiff whilst he was the one who initiate the orders in his capacity as the Managing Director of the Plaintiff Company. His subsequent dismissal was held to be justified.
v. Duty not to work for a competitor
An employee must not, during his employment, enter into any activity which is in competition with his employer. It was held to be a breach of this duty for an employee to work in his spare time for rival firm. An employee is also in breach of his duty if he prepared to set up a competing business and canvasses his employer’s customers or prepared a list of customers to take with him.
vi. Duty to disclose to employer new discoveries relevant to his job
Although a contract of employment is not a contract uberimae fidei, an employee is nevertheless under a duty to disclose to his employer information relevant to what he is employed to do. In British Reinforced Concrete c. Ltd V. Lin (1917) LT 243, the employee was employed in the Plaintiff’s drawing office to work out designs and calculations for tenders for supporting roofs of mines. While doing this, he worked out a more satisfactory method than that used by his employer. It was held by the court that the employer was entitled to secure the new method since the plaintiff was employed to work out solutions to this problem; he was bound to offer the best solution he could devise.
vii. Other duties of Employee
There are other duties of employee which include the following:
– Duty to take care of employer’s property
– Duty to work for the employer in the employee’s time
– Duty not to misuse the employer’s confidential information.
In the case of duty not to misuse confidential information, one area of problem is determining what is confidential information and what is not. At the same time, the need to project the employer’s property in the confidential information has to be balanced against the need to ensure a free flow of trade information in the public interest.
The case of Robb V. Green (1895) 2 QB 315 establishes that customer lists are confidential information which must be protected.
15.6 Termination of Contract of Employment
A contract of employment is just like any other contract and therefore will come to an end at a particular time. The modes of bringing a contract of employment to end are:
I by performance
ii by agreement
iii by frustration
iv by notice
v by summary dismissal
Before we discuss details of each of the following modes, we need to understand that the fact that an employment offered and accepted is described as permanent employment does not in itself normally create a promise of life employment or disentitle the employer from terminating employee’s contract of service on reasonable notice.
In summary, the details of that mode of discharge are the following:
i By performance
This is mainly by retirement
ii By agreement
This is by mutual consent of the employer and employee
iii By Frustration
When frustration occurs, it “kills he contract itself and discharges both parties automatically”. Notcutt V. Universal Equipment Ltd. (1986) 3 All ER 582. Events such as the death of either party to a contract, illness of an employee, outbreak of war, change of the law or even imprisonment of employee may bring about frustration. Also, the winding up a company renders the contract of employment of employees of such company frustrated. The same is as a result of the sale of the company. Note examples of government companies that were privatized in Nigeria Nigerian Airways, NITEL, etc. Frustration of employment by illness refers to long time or permanent illness and not illness of a temporary nature. In respect of imprisonment, there is general agreement that it will bring a contract of employment to an end.
iv By Notice: Either party to the contract of employment has a right to bring the contract to an end by giving notice of his intention to the other party.
Section II(I) of the Labour Act, 1974 provides for termination by notice. The section states:
1. Either party to a contract of employment may terminate the contract on the expiration of notice given by hi to other party of his intention to do so.
2. The notice to be given for the purpose of subsection (I) above shall be:
a. One day, where the contract as continued for a period of three months or less
b. One week. where the contract has continued for more than three months but less than two years.
c. Two weeks, where the contract has continued for a period of two years but less than five years.
d. One month, where the contract has continued for five years or more.
3. Any notice for a period of one week or more shall be in writing
v By Summary Dismissal: An employer may terminate the service of his employee by giving he required notices stated above or by paying him a sum equivalent to what the worker would have earned has he been given proper notice. However, the service of an employee may also be dismissed summarily without notice on grounds which the employer might perceive as ‘misconduct’. In this case, no payment will be made in lieu of notice. Although an employer is not bound to give any reason for lawfully terminating the contract of a worker, he must give reasons for summarily dismissing the worker. Thus, in John Nunnink V. Costain Blansevoort Dredging Ltd (1960) LLR 90, it was held that where a worker is dismissed summarily for incompetence, the onus is on the master to prove the incompetence.
Question: List the acts of employee that may properly warrant summary dismissal of his employment.
Wrongful Dismissal: Where an employment is wrongfully terminated, the worker will be entitled to receive damages for wrongful dismissal or termination. There are other remedies that may be available. But in general, the court will not grant the remedy of specific performance for normal master and servant contract, but the remedy is available for public officers as they enjoy statutory flavour.
CONCLUSION: The important legal issues which affect engineering and construction contracts have been discussed in this paper. As stated in the introduction, there are several legal issues in engineering and construction contracts and therefore, the subject is very wide. This paper has only discussed the aspects of contract and employment.

Engineers play key roles in developmental processes through design and construction of infrastructures and engineering system. Houses made railways, water systems, power systems, ships, car etc. Engineers have the responsibility to develop facilities that improve the quality of life of modern society. However, failures often occur in engineering system no matter how perfect the designs are. The public has become increasingly aware that the benefits of industrial progress and infrastructures development must be balanced against the growing need to protect the public from damages ad dangers caused by some failure by products of technology and other activities of engineers. Engineering ethics is attracting increasing interest in professional societies and Universities throughout the world. In some universities, new courses have been created and projects to develop materials for introducing ethical issues in undergraduate engineering course. The programmes are known to be attracting government funds. Engineers should be conscious of the implications of their action. Engineering should be conscious of the implications of their actions. Engineering ethics should take its place alongside other well established similar interest such as medical ethics business ethics and legal ethics.
An engineer must place his social responsibility over the objectives of his employer. Just as we know the rules of a game so as not to get a red card, we should know engineering ethics so as to be able to weigh safety against the wishes of our employees. A cost benefit analysis is not enough for decision making especially when lives are at stake. For an engineer safety is the paramount consideration. This paper considers the engineering career and the meaning of professionalism for engineer. It discusses various aspects of engineering ethics especially conflicting interests in engineering projects. The code of ethics developed by the World Federation of Engineering Organization is presented as initial concepts on engineering ethic. A model for developing material for engineering ethics is also discussed. Some local reports on engineering failures from the ethics committee of the Nigerian Society of Engineers are used to suggest the way forward for engineering ethics in Nigeria.

Today, engineers can level mountains to the ground and turn rivers from their courses. The skies and the oceans are avenues for the innumerable activities of engineers. Various categories of transportation and communication systems have turned the world into a global village. Electric energy has catalyzed civilization and modern living in all their ramifications. No matter the area of human challenge, the engineers are the agents of change through well thought out engineering projects.
Nigerian Engineers have career opportunities in public utilities or the organized private sectors. The public utilities would cover government establishments that operate engineering system for provision of social services to the populace. These include water supply system, electricity supply system, the Federal Ministries that supervise engineering systems construction and operation. The Ministries include the Federal Ministry of Works and housing, the Ministry of Power and Steel, the Ministry of water Resources, the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Transport and the Department of Petroleum Resources, Establishments and Parastatals like the NNPC, NEPA (PHCN), NITEL, Federal Housing, Port Authority are supervised by the appropriate ministries. Although the major assignment of the parastatals are engineering based, the decision makers in the organization are not engineer.
The organized private sector in which there is also considerable engineering activities may be divided into a number of groups:
i Multinational Companies: Involved mainly in manufacturing and production of goods of various brands. Guinness Nigeria Plc
Nigeria Brewery Plc Berger Paints Nigeria Plc Flour Mills Nigeria Plc,
Lever Brothers Nigeria Plc, UAC Nigeria Plc etc.
ii Construction Companies: Julius Berger Nigeria Plc, Strabag Nigeria Plc, Guffanti Nigeria Plc etc.
iii Banks: A number of banks have properties and computer
department which employ engineers.
iv Allied Financial Institutions including Insurance and Mortgage Companies: This employ engineers to determine risk levels on engineering equipment and project.
v Consulting Engineering Practices
vi Private telecommunication companies: MTN Nigeria, Vodaphone Nigeria etc.
vii Petroleum, Oil and Gas Companies: Shell Petroleum development
Co.Ltd. Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Elf Nigeria Ltd., NLNG Ltd., etc.
viii Engineering Product Marketing: Rank Xerox Nigeria, Olivetti Nigeria Ltd. etc.
ix Small and Medium Scale Companies
Engineers develop their careers in these industries and establishments. They often improvise for spare parts, employ adaptive technology and backward integration to maintain the machinery and equipment and save costs. These are local challenges and have to be achieved within the limits imposed by the ethics of the profession.
It is generally agreed that there are a number of characteristics which distinguished a profession from other less formally constituted trades and occupations (3):
I The professional discipline has a command of a specialized body of knowledge necessary for planning, design construction, an operation of physical structures or engines/machines.
ii The body of knowledge is transmitted through recognized training
and regularly updated on behalf of the professional body to ensure
certified standards of proficiency.
iii A code of ethics and standards govern the practice of the profession and ensure the satisfaction and safety of the client in particular and the society in general.
iv A monopoly is usually granted to a professional body or society through laws to ensure that only registered members can engage in the professional practice.
v The members are committed to constant educational renewal through a lifelong learning of latest technology and professional development.
vi The professional body is legally to regulate itself, discipline its member and control the practice of the profession.
It is said that the quality of a person’s life is direct proportion to their commitment to excellence regardless of their chosen field of endeavour (Vince Lombardi). Professionalism is therefore about commitment to standards of excellence in the performance of tasks which require specialized skills and expertise. A professional is thus someone whose basic satisfaction is in performing well, task for which he has been trained and always strives to achieve the best standard possible in any circumstance. To be a professional is thus to flaunt the highest levels of the skills one professes to command. The Nigerian Society of Engineers in organizing to provide some literature on engineering ethics for continuing professional development of members in thus encouraging professionalism of its membership.

Recent incidents in the US such as the challenges space-ship disaster, the Kansas City Hyatt-regency Hotel Walkway Collapse and the Exxon Oil Spill have drawn attention to the Engineers responsibility for Public Safety. Safety is a social and not primarily a legal obligation. Engineers and their managers must keep their obligations to public safety at the forefront when making design and management decisions. Quality designs and construction practice are imperative in every field of engineering. There is need for ethical and creative engineering designs and corporate practice. The American Society of Civil Engineering Code of Ethics states that “Engineers must hold the public safety, welfare, and health paramount and use our knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human, welfare”. When engineers take pride in and responsibility for their designs, the entire engineering profession benefits. Consideration of professional ethics in engineering practice positively affects engineering creativity; If ignored, bad public relations are a possibility for the engineer, the company he works for and the profession in general.
Engineers should strictly adhere to their professional codes and standards. They should encourage others to report those who do not. They should do so because:
(i) It will help protect people from being injured by what the engineers do.
(ii) It will assure each engineer of a better working environment and reduce pressures from other people to do otherwise.
(ii) They will be proud of their profession if they adhere to the codes of ethics, especially in Nigeria where the public image of engineers need improvement.
(iv) Adhering to the codes will lead to benefits for all engineers and public confidence in the profession will be increased.
Safety is an essential design consideration. Safety is deemed as the absence of unreasonable danger. Sometimes, a factor of 2-3 is built into engineering design equations. Despite this, litigations associated with engineering failures are on the increase, and in some countries practicing as a professional has become a risky venture. The Engineers and their professional societies must acquire requisite knowledge about liability issues. The question is often asked, “Where does a design engineer and his company’s responsibility and the contracts, manufacturers and consumer’s begin?

Engineers should be careful in getting involved in taking “decisions” which may be seen as biased or having conflicting interests or conflict of interest:
a. An engineer has responsibility to write specifications for a water project but owns: a company that manufactures and sells such systems. This Constitutes a conflict of interest
b. An Engineer works for a local government agency and at the same time works for a consulting firm that deals with agency.
c. Engineering decisions that are to the advantage of Engineers taking the decision constitute conflicting interest.
d. A company pays for engineers to attend a seminar on the use of its products. This is compared to perks and gifts given to physicians by drug companies.
e. An engineer interest may be at conflict with those of his clients
f. An engineer leaving public employment and then working in the same area in the private sector is a delicate issue. The engineer has had access to government activities that a private client may desire. Can this be ethical?
g. A city engineer selects an engineering firm for a city project based on its technical proposal. However other firms view the selection of the firm as biased.
h. A client believes an engineer’s design is too costly but the engineer fears that anything less may endanger public safely.
i. An engineer has conflict between honoring an agreement with a former employer and reporting a hazard to protect public interest.
j. An engineer owns both a contracting firm and a consulting firm and seeks to provide both services for a client.

The World Federation of engineering Organization’s (WFEO) Committee on engineering and environment to recommends the following principles to all professional engineers.
I Try, with the best of your ability, courage, enthusiasm and dedication to obtain a superior technical achievement, which will contribute to and promote a healthy surrounding for all, in outdoor and indoor spaces.
ii Strive to accomplish the beneficial objectives of your work with the lowest possible consumption of raw materials and energy and the lowest production of wastes and any kind of pollution.
iii Evaluate the consequence of your activities, direct or indirect, immediate or long term on social equity and upon the health of people.
iv Assess the impacts of your actions on the ecosystem, urbanized or natural and select the best alternative for sustainable development.
v Promote any steps to be taken to restore and improve the environment that may be disturbed by your proposal and activities
vi Reject any proposals that may involve unfair damage to human surrounding and work for the best solution.
vii Note that ecosystem interdependence, resource recovery and savings and ecosystem harmony are the bases of human existence and sustainability.
Human induced pollution and destruction of resources are the main causes of environmental degradation. Engineers actively involved in the promotion of development must use their talent, knowledge and creative abilities to help society remove those evils of degradation and improve the quality of life of all people. The WFEO provides a code of ethics for conduct of professional engineers in an honourable manner, so as to uphold the value of truth, honesty, trustworthiness and to safeguard human life as well as the environment. To achieve these tenets, professional engineers shall:
I Hold as paramount, the safety and health of the public and the protection of the environment and promote health and safety within the workplace.
ii Should offer services, advise and undertake engineering assignments only in areas of their competence and practice in a careful and diligent manner.
iii Act as faithful and trustworthy agents of their employees or ethics, maintain confidentiality and disclose conflicts of interest.
iv Be engaged in continuous professional development to maintain their competence, advance the body of knowledge within which they practice and provide their subordinates and other Engineers opportunities for professional development (He who adds not to his learning diminishes it. (The Talmond Tabloid).
v Should always give credit where it is due and accept as well as give honest and fair professional criticism.
vi Ensure that clients and employers are informed of any societal and environmental consequences of actions or projects embarked upon and endeavour to objectively interpret engineering issue to the public.
vii Ensure that possible consequences of engineering decisions or judgments that are overruled or disregarded are clearly presented to the employers or client.
viii Report to their professional societies such as the Nigerian Society of Engineers or appropriate regulatory bodies, any illegal or unethical engineering decision or practices by engineers.

Some professional bodies such as IEEE software engineering society present a format that appears to encapsulate the principles of Engineering practice and details of the engineering obligations in professional practice. To ensure that the efforts of engineers are always used for good, they must commit themselves to making their profession beneficial and respected and should adhere to a code of ethics and professionals practice. The principles for behavior and decision making identity the ethnically responsible relationships in which individual and organizations participate in professional activities. The list of the principles is not exhaustive but serves as a guide for professional conduct in practical situation. A code of practice should help to define those actions they are ethically improper for engineers to be involved in. The code is not simply for adjusting the nature of questionable acts, it is a means to educate the public and young professionals about the ethical obligation of engineers.

16.5 PRINCIPLES OF ENGINEERING PRACTICE: Engineers shall commit themselves to making the analysis, design, specification, development, testing and maintenance of engineering systems beneficial so as to earn respect for the professions. They should be committed to the health, safety and welfare of the public by adhering to the following eight principles:
i. Public: Engineering shall act consistently with the public interest.
ii. Client and Employer: Engineers should always act in a manner that is in the best interest of their client and employer and consistent with the public Interest.
iii. Product: Engineers should ensure that their product (output, design, building construction etc.) meets the highest professional standards possible.
iv. Judgment: Engineers should maintain the integrity of their professional judgment.
v. Management: Engineers in leadership or management positions shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to design and development.
vi. Profession: Engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest.
vii. Colleagues: Engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues.
viii. Self: Engineer shall be committed to lifelong learning and professional development and shall promote an ethical approach to professional practice.

Each of the above principles and areas of interest for a professional engineer are broken down to ensure clarity of the engineers’ ethical obligations. The above eight principles are broken down further into explanatory notes.

Engineers shall act consistently with the public interest by:
1 Accepting full responsibility for their own work
2 Act as moderators of the interest of the employer, the client and the users in the best interest of the public good.
3 Accept designs and proposals only if they are safe, meet specification and do not diminish quality of life or harm the environment.
4 Disclose to appropriate bodies, any potential danger to the user, public or the environment that may be associated with a proposal or design.
5 Cooperate in any efforts to address such matters of grave public concern that may arise from his engineering proposal or design.
6 An engineer should avoid deception in all public statement concerning his proposal, methods and tools.
7 Should always volunteer professional skills and contribution to public education in the discipline.

Engineers should always act in a manner that is in the best interest of their employers and clients, consistence with public interest. As appropriate they should.
1 Provide service only in their area of competence and should be honest in any limitation of their experience and education.
2 Should not knowingly use designs that are obtained illegally or unethically
3 Should use the property of his client or employer only in authorized manner or with their consent.
4 Maintain confidentiality of any information gained in the professional work where such is in the public interest ad consistent with the law.
5 Report to client or employer promptly, if a project is likely to fail, prove too expensive, violate intellectual property law or otherwise be problematic.
6 Accept no outside work detrimental to the work being performed for the primary employer.
7 Inform client or employer or appropriate authority when a higher ethical concern is being compromised.

Engineers shall ensure that their final output meet the highest professional standard possible.
1 Aim to achieve high quality ad acceptable cost, irrespective of tradeoffs: such tradeoffs should be clear to and accept by the client and employer.
2 Identify and address ethical, economic, legal and environmental issues related to the projects.
3 Engineers should ensure that they have the requisite qualification, by appropriate combination of education, training and experience, for the project they accept to execute.
4 Ensure that their output meet the highest professional standards and should not depart from such standards unless when ethically or technically justified.
5 Understand clearly the specifications for project they undertake
6 Ensure realistic estimates of costs, scheduling quality and outcomes on
any project and provides uncertainly assessment of these estimates.
7 Engineers should ensure adequate documentation, including problems encountered and solutions adopted for any project executed.
Engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. They should as appropriate:
A. Only endorse documents prepared under their supervisor or within their areas of competence and with which they are in agreement.
B. Maintain professional objectivity with engineering documents they are asked to evaluate.
16.6 Characteristic Features of a Project; Obligation to Professional Colleagues and Self.
A project:
 is a unique task
 is designed to attain a specific result
 requires a variety of resources
 is limited in time
We shall now discuss these features of a project one after the other.
One reason for organizing a task as a project is because it is a unique, one-time task, if it is a task that will be performed repeatedly; it is left with the base organization to perform. The problem with a unique task is that no one has performed it previously. Therefore, at the outset one does not know in detail what activities need to be performed and consequently one does not have a detailed blueprint for how to proceed in order to achieve the desired results. An analysis must be made of what work needs to be done and in what order. Project work must therefore be planned by a method other than that used for the tasks of the base organization.

It is important to emphasize that a project task is also new to specialists – even if they have performed the same type of work previously – as it is often performed in an unfamiliar area, in a new environment and/or with new people. A consultant may have done an excellent job as a project manager responsible for implementation/managing a road project in an environment. However, that same consultant may not succeed in managing the same type of project in another environment.
A project is established to perform a specific task in order to achieve a specific result. The task can vary greatly from project to project. One project may be to construct a bridge over a river, another the implementation of computer system in the accounting function of an organization, a third an investigation of the consequences of moving part of an organization to another geographical location, etc.
The temporary organization – the project – has at the outset o resources. It must receive all its resources from the permanent organization, the base organization. Particularly in organizations that are not accustomed to working with project, it is difficult to achieve an understanding of the amount of resources required for a successful project. Problems are intensified if the project is highly process oriented. It is even re difficult to gain acceptance for the tie and effort required for this type of work. One can understand to a certain extent that technical work requires resources because one can see the physical processes. With process-oriented projects, however, top management often have a limited understanding of what it takes to achieve goo results. This makes it difficult to have a realistic discussion of resource requirements.

The second point is that even with a real understanding of the need for resources, there are often problems releasing the required people at the required time. Usually people in the base organization are committed on a full-time basis to other tasks and cannot.
Engineers shall be fair and supportive of their professional colleagues. They should as appropriate:
1 Encourage colleagues to strictly adhere to the code.
2 Should be committed to assisting colleagues in their professional development.
3 Always credit fully the work of others and refrain from taking undue credit
4 Should always give a fair hearing to the opinions, concerns or complaints of other colleagues
5 Engineers should in situation outside their area of competence, call on the opinions of other professionals who have competence in that area.
OBLIGATION TO SELF: Engineers should be committed to lifelong learning process and professional development and shall promote and ethical approach to the practice of their profession. They shall also endeavour to:
1 Continually improve their knowledge in the analysis, design, specifications, maintenance, development and testing of the system of interest together with the management of the development process.
2 Improve the quality of the output of the engineering projects .
3 Improve their ability to produce accurate and informative documentation of the projects.
4 Improve their knowledge of relevant professional standards ad laws
governing the contracts.
5 Recognize that violation of the code of practice are inconsistent with
being a professional engineer.
Although the engineer’s efforts at creating and building system to meet some need are expected to be “fail proof” and since to engineer is human, failure do occur. Engineering systems also fail over time as a result of aging, material fatigue or wear and tear. The engineer must design to avoid failure which could result in loss of life and property or damage of the environment. A combination of factors leads to system or equipment failures. These include Human factors, design flaws, material fatigues, extreme conditions of Operation and environmental factor. Often, neglect of engineering ethics is the root cause of an engineering failure. An ethical engineer is one who:
 Avoid conflict of interest.
 Does not attempt to misrepresent his knowledge and experience so as
to accept jobs outsides his area of expertise.
 Act in the best interest of society and environment.
 Fulfills in the terms of their contract in a professional manner.
 Promotes the education of young engineers within the field.
A search for our world’s worst engineering failure/disasters would cover collapse of building and other structures, natural disasters such as earthquakes and oil spills. Some of the well documented failure includes:
i. Columbia space shuttle.
ii. Failure of supersonic aircraft concord.
iii. Bhopal chemical leak which damage.
iv. Collapse of Bridges from wind damage
v. Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska 1989, 10 million gallons spilled.
When failures occur, engineers should provide an analysis report by considering the ethical issues that might have been partly responsible for the failure. This should include information on what failed why it failed, possible ways of preventing such failures and who was at fault.

The prevention investigation, failures and analysis committee (PIFAC) of the Nigerian Society of Engineers have the responsibility to visit every site of engineering failure, accident or complaint so as to ascertain the cause of such development. This is necessary to ensure that such occurrence is prevented in future and to reduce the danger to the public arising from the activities of engineers. One may recall recently reported collapsed buildings; structures, bomb and fire disaster in the country in recent times. One may recall recently reported collapsed building that are not in this list.

There were about ten cases of collapsed buildings in Lagos in the first half of 2003. This prompted the then president of NSE, Engr. Somolu to write to the Executive Governor of the state to take measures to reduce such incidents. He suggest that appropriate authorities concerned with construction and supervision of public buildings should ensure that:
I Approval of all drawing structural, electrical and mechanical should be done by only registered engineers.
ii Supervision of building projects should be done at various stages of construction by qualified professional and approval obtained for each stage before the projects is continued to completion.
After the bomb blast at Ikeja cantonment armoury, of January 2003, the President of NSE proposed a NSE team of experts to professionally evaluate the immediate and future effects of the serious explosions on the buildings, bridges and other infrastructural facilities in Lagos. This was seen as a contribution to the state and the entire nation. Records did not show that the projects was execute. The NSE should be able to sponsor such studies which can be useful for the development of the engineering profession. The explosions would have provided the mining division of NSE, who sometimes deals with explosives, to investigate the standards for storages of such lethal weapons and why the disaster occurred. The fact that thousand of Nigerians lost their lives would have led to more serious investigation of the disaster by the NSE.
Samples of the explosives that caused the explosion at Idumagbo were not obtained by NSE for analysis. It is possible that Lagos State authorities may not have received the necessary standards for safe storage of such materials. It is clear that more effort is necessary to ensure that PIFAC s providing data that will assist the NSE to protect public interest through its activities. It is recommended that PIFAC should be assisted to be more effective in its investigation of structural failures and other disasters in the country.
 PIFAC should provide more detailed reports on structural failures in the country. The causes of the failures should be documented.
 Information on actions taken by relevant authorities to prevent a repetition of such failure should be compiled.
 PIFAC and all the committee of NSE should be adequately funded by the society to ensure that they can carry out any investigations provide reports and hold seminars on activities of engineers that affect public safety.
It is noted that NSE records have not shown any case of an engineer being investigated or sanctioned for inadequate design or unprofessional activity that led to a structural failure or building collapse. It was noted in some cases of building collapse that the owners did not use professional for the design and construction of the buildings and even approved drawings were not available. The current effort by the institute of town planners in conjunction with five other professional bodies to develop a “National Building Code” should lead to some improvement in the procedure of commencing and supervising a building project and approving that it is adequately completed and ready for the purpose it is designed. Engineers, by the code of ethics, are committed to ensuring that the incidence of failed engineering project are reduced to a minimum.

16.8 PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND MISCONDUCT: Engineering ethics is beginning to take its place alongside other well – established professional groups such as Medical, Nursing, Business and Legal ethics. These professions have websites on the conduct/misconduct of their members. Most establishments have unwritten codes of conduct for their staff whilst others spell out what should be regarded as misconduct. Since “To engineer is human” the Nigerian Society of Engineers is beginning to receive complaints on engineers” misconduct. The University of Lagos senior staff conditions of service defines misconduct as “General misconduct to the prejudice of the good name of the establishment and/or of discipline and the proper administration of business of the University. This includes corruption, dishonesty, drunkenness in the course of duty and false claims against the University, insubordination, divided loyalty (conflict of interest) negligence, falsification and suppression of records (facts, professional information) and conviction for a criminal offence other than traffic offence, absence from duty without leave for two consecutive or more nights without satisfactory reason, disobedience of any instruction issued by a constituted authority, failure to appear or to answer question satisfactorily in any investigative panels set up by the establishment on matters arising out of above regulations.

A search on the internet shows that cases of misconduct are not as rampant in engineering discipline as in other professions. Engineers are taught to be familiar with codes and standards for their disciplines and to introduce a reasonable factor of safety in their design. They are also expected to collaborate with the local standards enforcement agency such as the standard Organization of Nigeria. However, neglect of professional ethics and inadequate enforcement of codes and standards are the causes of the few engineering failures in Nigeria. In academics, plagiarism is a serious offence. It is interesting that some complaints on plagiarism have been received by the Nigerian Society of Engineers. All engineers have responsibility to build a good image for the society and should always be conscious of the impact of their actions on the public image of their professions.

1. Engr. Johnson B. Engineering Career in Organized Private Sector/Private
Practice, NSE Lagos Branch Technical Paper, 17th November, 1998
2. Okoro C.C. “Nigerian Society of engineers and the challenge for Change”.
15th Kasim Memorial Lecture, Sheraton Hotel Ikeja 14th August, 2001.
3. Shonubi F.A. Sustainability, Professionalism and Engineering…15th October
Lecture, NSE 4th October, 1996.
4. Engineering Design, Professional Ethics
Professional Ethics in Engineering Practice
Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice
Literature available at the website

5. IEEE Inc. and the Association of computing Machinery Inc, Joint task force on software engineering Ethics and Professionals Practices (adaptation of original documentation)
6. Nigerian Society of engineers investigation and failure analysis committee (PIFAC) minutes and records.
7. http// -Engineering Disaster ad learning from failure
8. http// – List of some Engineering success and failures.
9. University of Lagos revised conditions of service governing senior staff.


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