CLASSROOM GOAL STRUCTURE, STUDENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Academic achievement has become a trending issue of priority to make students academic achievement better and higher (Azmoundeh, 2003).

Academic achievement cannot be executed outside the classroom because from this area where transfer thought begins and students presence in classroom impacts improvement of their ability in doing their best to achieve academic excellence (Appleton,2007).

          The Nigerian classroom has changed significantly over the past 25 years. Computers and interactive software are common in most classrooms today, and rows of student desks have been replaced with moveable tables and chairs that promote collaborative learning among two or more students. Many states and private schools have reduced class size to increase learning opportunities, especially for young or high-risk students (Elias,2002).

          In America, reform at the middle school level has introduced block scheduling, advisory teams, schools-within-schools, and other structural changes to meet the developmental needs of young adolescents (Eccles 2004). Additionally, major professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics have called for paradigm shifts in how teachers think about learning and teaching. Rather than focusing on rote learning and memorization, curriculum standards that began to emerge in the early 1990s emphasized the importance of individual inquiry, problem solving, collaborative learning, and mastery of key concepts. As these reforms were beginning to take hold, new federal legislation, the Leave No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, was enacted to increase accountability and performance standards for public schools. It is anticipated that this new legislation will close achievement gaps and ensure that all students, regardless of any existing disadvantage, will make significant achievement gains in school (Maehr,1994)
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CLASSROOM GOAL STRUCTURE, STUDENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS