Background of the Study
The mission of nay school is to provide adequate teaching and learning for the students. School administration performs many professional and administrative functions in order to achieve the goals of the institutions. One of the critical administrative functions of administrator is instructional supervision. Instructional supervision is the overseeing and guiding the teacher and learning process in an academic institution. Koclar (2005), views instructional supervision as those activity which are primarily and directly (2005), views instructional supervision as those activity which are primarily and directly concerned with studying and improving the condition which surround the learning and growth of pupils and whatever is done to improve on the teachers’ ability to deliver lessons to improve on pupils learning. Eya and Chukwu (2012) perceives instructional supervision in schools merely as a process for teachers’ improvement purposes which include among other things ensuring that teachers perform their assigned functions. The school administrator supervises the teachers in order to ensure that there is effective teaching and learning. The school inspectors from the ministry of education are supposed to see that this function of instructional supervision is properly carried out in various schools administrations.
For schools’ administrators, there is need for proper time utilization and goal setting. According of Ifedili (2002), principals or school administrators who utilize their time well and set goals achieve more and are more focus. She also found that both male and female public and private secondary school administrators were rated low in time utilization and goal setting. An educational administrator needs his or her intelligence, skills aptitude, ideas, energy, creativity and times in setting his or her goals.
The quality of education given to the citizenry to a large extent depends on the implementation of policy provision and one of these is employment of qualified teachers. The quality of teachers is one of the determinants of quality in educational system. Who is a teacher? According to Odebumi (2009) a teacher is one who is resourceful, has a good sense of humors, possesses sound knowledge of human psychology, communicates effectively and shows interest in the welfare of the students; he guides and motivates and his patient, tolerable, flexible in ways, fair in his judgment and firm in his discipline. Teachers are vital human resources in the training of young minds. A teacher is a nation builder. He or she is accountable to the students of pupils, parents, community, employers and to the teaching profession.
Instructional processes and supervision help a lot in improving academic performance of students. This is because supervision of instruction aims at enhancing teaching and learning through proper guidance and planning, and devising ways of improving teachers professionally and thereby helping them release their creative abilities so the through them the instructional process is improved (Afianmagbon, 2004). Supervision helps teachers become acquainted with sources of assistance in solving their instructional problems (Afianmagbon, 2004). Supervision helps teachers become acquainted with sources of assistance in solving their instructional problems (Afianmagbon, 2004). Supervision enhances teachers understanding of instructional process and assists them in the use of professional literatures, journals, free and inexpensive teaching materials, audio-visual aid and instructional equipment.
Ukeje (2007) is of the opinion that supervision of instruction helps to improve learning. According to him, instruction refers to the interaction between persons, materials, ideas, performances and objects of the contrived curriculum environment. It is the interaction of activities between the teacher and the learner as part of the school environment. Through interaction, the supervisor gets to know the instructional problems faced by the teachers. Once a problem has been identified by the teacher and then discussed with the supervisor, a solution will be recommended by the supervisor.
Educational supervision helps to alert the teacher more in classroom management. According to (Amaewhule 2005), the way a teacher manages his class is often seen as an index of his teaching effectiveness. Learning is an activity which takes place in an atmosphere free from disturbances and distractions. A teacher cannot therefore be said to be facilitating learning when conducting his class in a disorderly environment like when students are sleeping in the class, when students are inattentive or engaging in disruptive activity while lesson is on. A good teacher should watch these behaviors and put them to control and supervision helps to intimate teachers in this way.
Nakpodia (2006) asserts that, instructional supervision in the modern era centers on the improvement of the teaching-learning situation to the benefits of both the teachers and learners, helps in the identification of areas of strength and weaknesses of teachers, follow-up activities that should be directed at the improvement of identified areas of teachers’ weaknesses and give recognition to the teachers and create a cordial working atmosphere based on good human relations.
Instructional process and supervision help a lot in improving academic performance of students. This is because supervision of instruction aims at enhancing teaching and learning through proper guidance and planning, and devising ways of improving teachers professionally and thereby helping them release their creative abilities so that trough them the instructional process is improved and well-articulated. (Okendu, 2012).
One of the major causes of poor academic performance among students can be ineffective instructional supervisory practices. Charles, Chris and Kosgei (2012)suggest that head teachers need to effectively supervise teachers by ensuring that: they are observed regularly; lessons are planned early; lessons are structured with an interesting beginning; revision of previous knowledge and teachers’ use of voice variation and summary of major points at the end; teachers use backups/teaching aids properly; teachers have a good relationship with their students and teachers follow up the curriculum strictly. Effective instructional supervision aids head teachers in coordinating, improving and maintaining high teaching and learning standards in schools.
Instructional supervision occupies a unique place in the entire education system and it becomes absolutely expedient to give it prominent attention. In a contemporary Nigeria, instructional supervision is regarded as the process of enhancing the professional growth of the teachers, the curriculum and improving the techniques of teaching in the classroom through democratic interactions between the teacher and the supervisor (Okendu, 2012).
The National Policy on Education (2004) emphasizes the need to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous supervision of instruction and other educational services. In this respect, supervision was observed as a program for enhancing classroom work through direct visitation and observation.