This research was conducted to investigate the “Comparative Effect of using Optical Filter and Full Light Spectrum in Demonstrating Phototropism and Biology Students’ Academic Performances in Uyo Local Government Area”. The population of study made up of Senior Secondary Two (SS2) Biology students in public secondary schools under Uyo Local Government Area for 2013/2014 academic session. A sample size of 160 students were used i.e 80 students each from two secondary schools, which were the experimental and control group respectively. The research design employed for this study is the posttest only control group design. The instrument for data collection was the researcher made Biology Achievement Test (BAT). Two teaching packages were prepared on the concept of phototropism for both experimental and control group, Full light spectrum model and Optical filter model were constructed to demonstrate the concept of phototropism for the control and experimental group respectively. Three research questions and research hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Data collected were analysed using t-test analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of this study revealed that there is a significance difference in the academic performance of Biology students taught the concept of phototropism using optical filter model and those taught using full light spectrum model. Finding also indicated that comparing gender across the study groups influenced the academic performance of students.
This chapter is designed to cover background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study, and definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Science is a great enterprise which nations depend on in order to advance technologically. Science therefore, is receiving much emphasis in education because of its significance and relevance to life and society.
Biology as a branch of science and the prerequisite subject for many fields of learning contributes immensely to the technological growth of the nation. This includes medicine, forestry, agriculture, biotechnology and nursing etc. The study of Biology in senior secondary school can equip students with useful concepts, principles and theories that will enable them face the challenges before and after graduation. Practical activities in Biology provide opportunities for students to actually do science as opposed to learning science.
Nzewi (2008) asserted that practical activities can be regarded as a strategy that could be adopted to make the task of a teacher (teaching) more real to the students as opposed to abstract or theoretical presentation of facts, principles and concepts of subject matter. Nzewi maintained that practical activities should engage the students in hands-on, mind on activities, using varieties of instructional materials/equipment to drive the lesson home.
Nwagbo (2008) stated that: The use of practical activities (approach) to the teaching of biological concepts should therefore be a rule rather than an option to biology teachers, if we hope to produce students that would be able to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and competence needed to meet the scientific and technological demands of the nation. The search for a more effective approach for the teaching and learning of biology that will enhance the development of intellectual skills and attitudes that are needed to learn concepts has persisted over the years.
Okoli (2006) indicated that many science teachers prefer the traditional expository/lecture method of teaching that is, a teaching technique in which one person, the teacher, presents a spoken discourse on a particular subject and shy away from activity-oriented teaching methods which are student centered (such as inquiry method, discovery method, investigative laboratory approach), etc.
Nwagbo (2006) observed that such teacher-centred approach which places the teacher as sole possessor of knowledge and the students as passive recipients of knowledge may not enhance achievement or promote positive attitude to biology.
Science learning is expected to produce individuals that are capable of solving their problem as well as those of the society. Such individuals are expected to be autonomous, confident and self reliant. Science and technology constitute the basis of advancement in nearly all fields of human endeavours. Obiekwe (2008) reported that all is not well with science instruction in Nigerian secondary schools, and noted that science teaching lays extreme emphasis on content and the use of “Chalk and talk” method neglecting the practical activity method which enhances teaching and learning. This negligence and ‘shy-away’ attitude form activity oriented-method of teaching has led to abstraction which makes the students less active and more prone to rote memorization. A lot has been done to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria. Inspite of that, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects, of which biology is one. This situation has created the need for more effective teaching method. It then becomes necessary to explore the efficacy of alternative method of redressing this situation.