• Introduction

Setting out points can be represented on the ground by stakes, nails or depending on the project specification and ground conditions.

It is commonly used setting procedure for rural road works is based on the use of a series of profile boards and a setting line level, thereby providing control of levels during construction.

Before any form of design work begins for any road project, a preliminary survey is required. This can be untaken by engineer or a team of surveyor. The data collected during surveying is normally plotted using suitable scales showing all existing features such as buildings, tress electric poles, etc, including the contours of the area in the plan or map.

The survey operation is usually carried out from a point of known control.

The first plan is known as survey plan. From the above we can say that survey, to a layman is a means of taking a general view of an area (land, road) etc or collection of data of an area which can be used for future planning and development.

Therefore, setting out is the process of transferring, the coordinates of a buildings or structure from design drawing to the ground/sit.

When using profile boards is to place a series of level boards that show the exact level 1 above the completed construction levels. With practice this method provides a simple, but sound method, providing.


  • Background of the Study

Road setting layout the site has received inspiration and approval from the local agency, the construction can move right into various stages of construction of the underground utilities retaining walls, buildings, site lighting and parking lot or stress paving

This site layout staking phase typically begins with those features that are underground such as sanitary sewer lines, storm drain lines, water lines, electrical lines etc.

One all underground utilities are installed the above ground features are staked for construction.

These markers are usually staked out according to a suitable coordinate system selected for the project Dietz, (1984). Caterpillar, (1984) road construction lay is performed to ensure a project is built according to engineering design plans.



Some of the earlier studies returned positive relationship between transport and property values while others have negative relationship.

In spite of the poor road setting of internal road network in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic little is done to assess the effect of road setting.

Disappointingly, there has been total lack of proper road setting by the contractors. Various reasons have been advanced for this seemingly low reflection of road setting in internal and external road. While experts and contractors are of the opinion that road setting is influenced by availability of materials, technical know – how on setting on road in the school

This contraction therefore gives rise for this study which seeks to investigate the effect of setting out of  road 7 including details within 40m from the centre line in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic.

Accessibility within the road network is affected by the compact of various routes that sometimes impede volume of traffic.



The aim of this project is to redesign of Road 7 in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua, to give a detailed information about the road and generate data which can be used for the planning and redesigning of road 7.

This can be achieved through the following objectives:

  1. To carryout engineering survey of road 7
  2. To conduct reconnaissance survey of road 7
  3. To analyze the arterial road network pattern in the study area
  4. To carryout road leveling and road traversing of road 7
  5. To evaluate and analyze the survey data and present them in an understandable formation
  6. To determine the longitudinal and cross- section of road 7
  7. To evaluate the natural and artificial features within road 7 in an understandable format
  8. To plot the profile of the road and its cross-section of road 7



The significance of this study would include all those would benefit from and use the information from the study to the researchers or students of civil engineering, surveying and geometric, urban and town planning to mention but a few

This study is significance in the sense that its findings would serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study.

The Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic would benefit from this research study since it contain information about road setting  effect, longevity and life span of road in this institution. The result of this research is hoped to be of immense use to the government and council of Register Engineers of Nigeria Society (CORENS) since it contains information on effect of road setting.

The non-governmental organizations (NGO’S) are not left out as beneficiaries of this research. They would benefit from the research findings given that this study permits top management to identify causes of poor road constructions in Nigeria.



The study was limited strictly to road 7 including 40m from the centre line in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. It is inevitable that a survey of this nature must have some constrains which impact on this study.

Insufficiency in research funding reared its head to perhaps limit the researcher’s efforts and interest during typing, photocopying and binding processes.  The earth of materials for poor and effective research work constituted a major limitation against how to get the true and required information from the student through questionnaire also constitute a constraint in the study.





Setting Out: Is the process of transferring the coordinate of a buildings, road or structure from design drawing to the ground/site.

Survey: It is defined as the “art” and “science” of making  measurement of natural and artificial features such as electric poles, buildings etc and plotting of the data obtained from the measurement using suitable scales for the production of plans, maps, sections etc.

Scale: Is the rate of the length in the drawing to the length of the real feature which may be a building, roads, land etc.

Reduced Level: Is a point of its height above or below the adopted datum level reduction of level can be done either by method of height of instrument level or by method of rise and fall.