COMPARISM ANALYSIS BETWEEN MICROSCOPY AND FILARIASIS STRIP TEST (FTS)

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Title Pages

Certification……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i

Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v-vi

Lists of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii

List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. viii

Lists of Plates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………….. 1
    1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-3
      1. Epidemiology of Lymphatic Filariasis………………………………………………………………… 3
      1. Prevalence……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4-5
      1. Symptoms………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6-7

1.4 Diagnosis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

  1. Thick Blood Smear……………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
    1. Filariasis Test Kit……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10-11
  1. Treatment……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
  1. Control………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

CHAPTER TWO

  • MATERIALS AND METHODS……………………………………………………………………………. 13
  • Materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
  • Methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
  • Study Area…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

2.22. Dilution of Giemsa Stain…………………………………………………………………………………. 14

  • Slide Preparation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
  • Microscopy Microfilaria Examination Count……………………………………………………… 14

2.2.5 Clinical Survey………………………………………………………,,,,,,,,,,,,…………. 15

2.2.6 Method for Filariasis Test Strip……………………………………………………………………….. 15

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESULTS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

CHAPTER FOUR

  • DISCUSSION, CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………………………….. 24
  • Discussion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
  • Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
    • Recommendation………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

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REFERENCE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26-33

LISTS OF FIGURES

LIFE CYCLE OF Wuchereria banchrofti………………………………………………………………….. 8

Agbado Health Centre………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

LISTS OF TABLES

Table 1 Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis In Relation To Age And Sex In The Study Population In Ifo LGA, Ogun

State…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Table 2 Comparative Analysis between Microscopy and Filariasis Test Strip Detected

Individuals………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

Table 3Microfilaria Mean Intensity in Relation to Age and Sex of Infected Study Population…19

LISTS OF PLATES

Plate 1: Wuchereria bancroffti as seen in Blood Smears of Participant in Agbado Health Centre……20 Plate 2: Wuchereria bancroffti Blood Smears of Participant in Agbado Health Centre……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

Plate 3: Elephantiasis the Leg of a Male Participant in Agbado L.G.A……………………………………… 22

Plate 4: Gross Elephantiasis a Female Participant in Agbado Health Centre……………………………… 23

CHAPTER ONE

1.0               INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1               Introduction

There had never been any written record of lymphatic filariasis before the 16th century, ancient historical evidence of lymphatic filariasis cannot be confirmed (Ghedin et al., 2012) Lymphatic filariasis has been known to occur in the Nile region, and ancient artifacts suggest that the disease may have been present as early as 2000BC (. A statue of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II depicts swollen limbs, a characteristic of elephantiasis, which is a symptom of heavy lymphatic filariasis infection. Artifacts from the Nook civilization in West Africa may show scrotal swelling, another characteristic of elephantiasis. The Nok artifacts date much later than the Egyptian artefacts, from about 500AD (Madani et al., 2011)

The first written account of lymphatic filariasis comes from the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. In these civilizations, writers were even able to differentiate between the similar symptoms of leprosy and lymphatic filariasis, describing leprosy as “elephantiasis graecorum” and lymphatic filariasis as “elephantiasis arabum (Henok, 2008)

In 1863, French surgeon Jean-Nicolas Demarquay became the first to record the observation of microfilariae in fluid extracted from a hydrocoele (another common symptom of lymphatic filariasis). Three years later, Otto Henry Wucherer discovered microfilariae in urine in Brazil. However, the connection between these two discoveries was not made until Timothy Lewis noted the occurrence of microfilariae in both blood and urine. Lewis was also the first to make the association between these microfilariae and elephantiasis (Weil et al., 2010)

In 1900, George Carmichael Low discovered microfilariae in the proboscis of mosquitoes, and finally pinpointed the true mechanism of transmission. Due to this discovery, we now know that transmission is now known to be due to an infective bite from a mosquito vector (Deribe et al., 2013).

Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, a parasitic worm which is transmitted by mosquito. The symptoms of the disease include enlargement of the arms, legs, swelling of the scrotum. The long, threadlike worms block the body’s lymphatic system—a network of channels, lymph nodes, and organs that helps maintain proper fluid levels in the body by draining lymph from tissues into the bloodstream (Hewitt et al., 2011).

This blockage causes fluids to collect in the tissues, which can lead to great swelling, called “lymphedema.” Limbs can swell so enormously that they resemble an elephant’s foreleg in size, texture, and colour. This is the severely disfiguring and disabling condition of elephantiasis. (Bockarie et al., 2010.)

Lymphatic filariasis is a disease of underdeveloped regions found in South America, Central Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Caribbean. It is a disease that has been present for centuries, as ancient Persian and Indian writings clearly described elephant-like swellings of the arms, legs, and genitals. It is estimated that 120 million people in the world have lymphatic filariasis (Carter Centre 2008).

The disease appears to be spreading, in spite of decades of research in this area. W. bancrofti makes up about 90% of the cases. Man is the only known host of W. bancrofti. While Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles mosquitoes are mainly the carriers (Shawa et al., 2013). Infected female mosquitoes take a blood meal from a human, and in doing so, introduce larval forms of the particular parasite they carry to the person. These larvae migrate toward a lymphatic channel, then travel to various places within the lymphatic system, (Martial et al., 2016) usually positioning themselves in or near lymph nodes throughout the body. During this time, they mature into more developed larvae and eventually into adult worms. Depending upon the species, this development time ranges from a few months to more than a year. The adult worms grow to about 1 in (2.5 cm) to 4 in (10 cm) long. The adult worms can live from about three to eight years. Some have been known to live up to 20 years, and in one case 40 years. The adult worms begin reproducing numerous live embryos, called microfilariae. The microfilariae travel to the bloodstream, where they can be ingested by a mosquito when it takes a blood meal from the infected person. If they are not ingested by a mosquito, the microfilariae die within about 12 months. If they are ingested by a mosquito, they continue to mature. They are totally dependent on mosquito to develop further. The cycle continues when the mosquito takes another blood  meal (Lau, 2014).

COMPARISM ANALYSIS BETWEEN MICROSCOPY AND FILARIASIS STRIP TEST (FTS)