COMPOSITIONAL EVALUATION AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF WINGED TERMITE (MACROTERMES BELLICOSUS)

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ABSTRACT

As part of the effort in combating hunger, this study was undertaken to determine the nutrient composition of an insect, winged termite (Macrotermes Bellicosus). This insect was high in protein (64.30g/100g), also it could be a good source of oil (19.93g/100g) and minerals, particularly calcium and potassium, at 975 and 203mg/100g respectively.  The proximate composition was determined according to  method of association of analytical chemists (AOAC, 2000).The insect protein was high in sulphur- amino acid, but marginally limiting in lysine and threonine with amino acid score (AAS) of 64.66 and 64.12 respectively based on the preschool age (2-5yrs) reference protein requirement. The termite oil contains appreciable level of unsaturated fatty acids with oleic and linoleic acids making up 54.80% of total fatty acids. All the test diets showed positive PER values. The PER of termite 1.78 was higher than that of fish1.67 but not significantly different, but they were significantly (p<0.05) lower than casein diet 2.18. Apparent digestibility (AD) of fish diet (81%) and that of termite (78%) showed no significant (p>0.05) difference, while that of casein (86%) was significantly (p>0.05) higher than both termite and fish. The total cholesterol (3.00mmol/l) and LDL (1.00mmol/l) values for the rats fed fish diet were higher than those found in termite (2.68 and 0.60mmol/l)   and casein (2.42 and 0.48mmol/l) but statistically (p>0.05) nonsignificant. The triglyceride values of rats fed with termite (2.04mmol/l) was higher than that fed casein (1.86mmol/l) and fish (1.72mmol/l) diets. The HDL of the rats fed fish diet (1.10mmol/l) was marginally higher than those fed with termite (1.06mmol/l) and casein (0.98mmol/l) diets. However, VLDL of those fed with fish (0.90mmol/l) was significantly (p>0.05) lower than others. Based on these data, termite could be a good source of protein and serve as supplement to our tuber/ starchy foods.

                                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification    –  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgement      – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Abstract        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of contents                 –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of Tables           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

List of Figures            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  

1.1       Food Situation in Nigeria              –           –           –           –           –           2

1.2       Aims and Objectives      –           –           –           –           –           –           4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW     

2.1   Primary Causes of Undernutriton and Possible Solutions         –           5

2.2   Insects as Part of Diet            –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.3   Termites in Human Diet  –   –           –           –           –           –           –           8

2.4   Nutritional Value of Edible Insects            –           –           –           –           9

2.5   Other Traditional uses and Economic Potentials of Insects   –           12

2.6   Edible Insects and the Environment       –           –           –           –           13

2.7   Potential Hazards            –                –           –           –           –           –           14

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS 

3.1    Chemicals               –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

3.2     Sample Collection            –           –           –           –           –           –           15

3.3     Methods         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

3.3.1  Ash Determination            –           –           –           –           –           –           15

3.3.2  Crude Fat Determination             –           –           –           –           –           15

3.3.3  Fibre Determination      –      –           –           –           –           –           –           16

3.3.4  Nitrogen Free Extracts                  –           –           –           –           –           17

3.3.5  Determination of Mineral Elements      –          –           –           –           17

3.3.6  Determination of Phosphorus by Molybdate Method   –           –           17

3.3.7  Fatty Acid Analysis             –           –           –           –           –           18

3.3.8   Crude Protein Determination       –           –           –           –           –           18

3.3.9   Amino Acid Determination            –           –           –           –           18

3.3.10 Lipid Profile            –           –           –           –           –           19

3.3.11 Iodine Value       –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.3.12 Peroxide Value     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.3.13 Saponification Value   –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.4      Formulation of Diets    –      –           –           –           –           –           –           21

3.5     Experimental Animals   –     –           –           –           –           –           –           21

3.6     Feeding Regime        –           –           –           –           –           –           22

3.7     Collection of Feacal Matter        –           –           –           –           –           22

3.8     Nutritional Evaluation of Diets              –           –           –           –           22

3.9     Calculation and Statistics                  –           –           –           –           23

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION                                                           

5.1     Discussion            –           –           –           –           –           32

5.2     Conclusion                   –           –           –           –           –           –           36

5.3     Recommendation              –           –           –           –           –           36

 References        –    –           –           –           –           –           –           37

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:           Composition of Reference and Test Diets –       –           –           21

Table 2:           Proximate Composition and Mineral Components of WT Compared to Fish       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

Table 3:           Essential Amino acid Profile of WT compared to Fish          –           –           25

Table 4:           Fatty acid Composition of oil of WT and FISH    –           26

Table 5:           Physicochemical Characteristics of WT oil Compared with Fish oil –            27

Table 6:           Lipid Profile of Rats fed different Diets            –           28

Table 7:           Protein Quality Indices of the Diets        –           –           –           29

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1:   Food Intake and Weight Gain of Rats fed fish, Termite and Casein diets for 21days 30

Fig 2:   Weekly Weight Gain of Rat on Test Diets          –           –           –             32

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Food insecurity remains a significant international problem, with developing regions including Nigeria enduring most of the burden. This becomes worrisome given the fact that inadequate, safe and nutritious food availability does not ensure food accessibility. The search for alternative source of food nutrient remains a perpetual event as human population growth is dynamic and ever increasing under – exploitation and under-utilisation of abundant alternative natural resources has now been recognised as one of the militating factors against nutrient glut as intended by the ‘creator’. Persistent undernutrition and malnutrition has a consequence of leaving children weak, stunted, wasted, vulnerable to disease attacks like diarrhoea, measles, malaria and acute respiratory infections. Malnutrition in adolescents and adults can lead to decreased energy levels, growth failure, and decreased ability to resist infections, short life expectancy, powerlessness and even death (Akinsanmi, 2005). The consumption of selected insects in diverse forms could be a positive response to this imperative. Yoloye (1988) has reported that insects are the most successful prolific group in animal kingdom, constituting about 76% of known species of surviving animals.

Malnutrition often begins at conception and child malnutrition is linked to poverty, low levels of education, and poor access to health services, including reproductive health and family planning. Over one-third of child deaths are due to undernutrition, mostly from increased severity of disease (UNICEF, 2009).  Children who are undernourished between conception and age two are at high risk for impaired cognitive development, which adversely affects the country’s productivity and growth. The economic costs of undernutrition include direct costs such as the increased burden on the health care system, and indirect costs of lost productivity. Childhood anemia alone is associated with a 2.5% drop in adult wages (Horton and Ross, 2003).

Globally, about 11 million children under five years (U-5) die annually and 99% are in the developing countries (Ashworth et al., 2004). Malnutrition accounts for about 66% of these deaths and poor hospital care of severely malnourished children accounts for case fatality rate as high as 50% (Ashworth et al., 2004). Early recognition of malnutrition is very essential for effective treatment and control of the problem if the vulnerable groups are to be protected.

1.1       FOOD SITUATION IN NIGERIA

COMPOSITIONAL EVALUATION AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF WINGED TERMITE (MACROTERMES BELLICOSUS)