CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS A CASE STUDY OF THE BAKASSI PENINSULA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
Understanding Conflict and Conflict Resolution
The Genesis of the Nigerian – Cameroon Boundary Dispute
The ICJ Judgment
UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION
The focus of this work is on conflict and conflict resolution in international relations. It examines the Bakassi Peninsular disputes as a case study of supranational conflicts and conflict resolution in international system. This chapter examines the concept of conflict, its various causes and what makes it a permanent feature of the human society and the international system. It defines supranational conflicts, its types and the various machineries that are in place in the international system for the resolution of international dispute. Lastly, the chapter identifies and explains the various methods of dispute resolution.
Conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests. It exist whenever incompatible activities occurs.1 An activity that is incompatible with another is one that prevents, blocks, or interferes with the occurrence or effectiveness of the second activity. Conflict has also be defined as “when two or more parties, with perceived incompatible goals seeks to undermine each other’s goal seeking capacity”.2Conflict is different from competition and co-operation because in competitive situations, the two or more individuals or parties have mutually inconsistent goals, as either party tries to reach it goals it undermine the attempt of the others to reach others. Therefore, competitive situations will, by their nature, caused conflict.3 Conflict can also occur in cooperative situations, in which two or more individuals or parties have consistent goals because the manner in which one party tries to reach its goal may undermine the other individual or party.
A clash of interest, values, actions or directions often spark a conflict and conflict is also seen as the existence of the clash.4 Psychologically, a conflict exists when the reduction of one motivating stimulus involves an increase in another. The word ‘conflict’ is applicable from the instant the clash occurs. Even when it is described as a potential conflict, it is implying that there is already a conflict of direction even though a clash has not occurred.5 As a result conflict can occur whenever there is interaction. Leo Otoide describes this situation in the international system thus: