CONFLICTS AND CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA
Conflict can be defined as a clash or disagreement often violent between opposing groups or individuals. It can also be said to be an incompatibility, as of two things that cannot be simultaneously fulfilled.
The word conflict is as old as mankind. This is because the word has been in existence in all area of man life since the inception of the world. The word conflict is derived from the Latin word configure, meaning to strike together. Conflict also means contradiction arising from differences in interest, ideas, ideologies, orientations, beliefs perceptions and tendencies.
Conflicts usually occurs primarily as a result of a clash of interests in the relationship between parties groups and states, either because they are pursuing opposing or incompatible goals.
CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN AFRICA
Conflict arising from the militarization of the society: abundance of weaponry and trained soldiers and untrained volunteers available to any would be warlord with resources and determination.
1. Poor economic performance: a more basic and long term cause of conflict has been the catastrophic economic performance of many African countries. Coupled with the debt problem. Poor flows of private capital into some African countries and foreign and programs often inefficient as Neil. Economic discomfort can bail out into conflict. The deepest causes of the conflict; economic despair, social injustice, and political oppression. In the midst of poverty, African ruling classes or the elite group who happen to hold power at a particular time, have enriched themselves and become the targets of envy or of rivalry by other elite groups.
2. Political/Domestic: Power struggles hostile groups overpopulation economic or religious disparities oppression and demand for democracy communal or ethnic violence related to economic social religious cultural or ethnic issues.
3. Political/International:These takes the form of ideological or political campaigns territorial claims and religious expansionism against other states regional rivalries terrorism, coercion or discrimination respecting the trade or economy of other states
4. Ethnicity: a major cause of Africa conflicts been ethnicity and it has continued to be so, the creation of independence was accompanied urgent calls for nation building by the new African leaders who were well aware of the difficulty in transcending Africa ethnic and regional loyalties .There have been a number of separatist movement causing attempts of secession such as Katangain Zaire, Biafra in Nigeria and others in Sudan Ethiopia and Somalia
5. Military: Interstate aggression annexation intervention or hostility for example support for the rebels of other states or for separatist movement
6. Inter-state borders: Common to many conflicts is the unsatisfactory nature of interstate borders. Nearly all the borders were inherited from colonial times and were the product of negotiations and treaties between the colonial power decided in Europe with the aid of poor maps and with scant attention to Africa peoples, the African government shield away from making adjustments and in any case these was difficult as they did not all reach independence at the same time.
7. Persecution: It connotes violation of human rights mass movements of refugees poverty or instability caused by the mismanagement or ineptitude of the government including evident and perceived levels of corruption by the government beyond and acceptable limit of traditional toleration.