1.1   Background of the Study

According to Ayelimere (2016), Object detection is the action of sensing physical movement in a given area. Motion can be detection by measuring change in speed or vector of an object in the field of view. This can be achieved either by mechanical devices that physically interact with the field or by electronic devices that quantifies and measures changes in the given environment. It can be defeated easily by interrupting the devices working mechanism like “disconnecting the wire”.

Object detection devices, such as motion detectors, have sensors that detect movement and send a signal to a sound device that produces an alarm.

The applications for such detection are detection of unauthorized entry, detection of cessation of occupancy of an area to extinguish lighting, and detection of a moving object which trigger an alarm. The object detector is thus a basic idea of electronic security systems.

As the world is fast becoming a global village, the need for electronics in human affairs is now taking a wider turn. With the inventions and development of certain electronic gadgets in our society today. Certain activities become easily handed for example; in communication when the telephone plays a part.

The aims and objectives of designing the object detector are to limit the effect of the illegal movement in restricted areas. all these will bring alarm the way by which criminal break into private properties by scaring them away once the alarm is trigger on. This type of object detector uses a passive infrared detector.


1.2   Statement of the problem

        In places where safety is need, an object detector with an alarm system will be of much importance. The application of electronic in this modern age is simply inexhaustible and this group takes more interest in the case of burglary in homes, offices, cars and industry. The choice of a proper object detector is not a simple matter, because the need of each individual home owner or businessman is different like a set of finger prints.

The principle object detection has been for a very long time in the history of man, this made things easy for the design and construction. In the 21st century, many of the ancient detectors were abolished. Today, passive infrared sensor is the prominent among the new inventions. This design will help to solve the problem of illegal movement in restricted areas and it will also help in curbing down the rate of criminology in the society. Some of the concepts are:

  1. Ease of control
  2. Simplicity in design
  • Higher efficiency.

The draw back in this design is that, it can be defeated easily by interrupting the devices mechanics like cutting the power supply wire or any wire that is relevant in the detection process.

Secondly, it can only capture a specific range like 5m, that is, it can only detect within range. In the same vein the whole device can be damage. So it should be carefully installed to avoid easy access by intruders.


1.3 Purpose of Study

The overall purpose is to design and construct an object detector with an alarm system and the purpose of designing this object detector is to limit the effect of the criminology in the society by informing us that our properties are in danger and the objective is to ascertain the usefulness of a detector, to identify threat that may accidentally or intentionally exploit vulnerability in it usage and to see if it will be a good tool for security agents. This type of object detector uses a PIR sensor and this device with an alarm system detects any physical movement in a given area and transforms motion into an electrical signal. It consist of sensor that electrically connected to other devices such as security system, lighting, audio alarms, and other applications that makes up this construction. The sensor is electrically connected to a buzzer. PIR sensors allow you to sense motion, almost always used to detect whether an object has moved in or out of the sensor range. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use and don’t wear out. For that reason they are commonly found in appliances and gadgets used in homes or business.



1.4   Significance of the study

This construction of an object detector with an alarm system is relevant in all ramification of life, that is, it may also be applied in the control areas of application such as providing input to virtual to in reality engines or augmented reality engine. It can be used to monitor an intruder in our domestic places. Because of these prevailing conditions and bad condition of our economy, there is need to safe-guard the already acquired property especially from thieves.


1.5   Scope of the study