PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF MALTED SORGHUM, SPROUTED BLACK BEANS AND COOKED COCOYAM FLOUR.

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PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF MALTED SORGHUM, SPROUTED BLACK BEANS AND COOKED COCOYAM FLOUR.

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Over the years the production of cookies of various types has improved with the advancement of new technology in most of the manufacturing industries in Nigeria; the cookies industries tend to be the most popular among most of the manufacturing industries in Nigeria.
Cookies vary with types, method of production and the materials used in the manufacturing process; the ingredient used in the production of biscuits is different from those used in the production of other snacks as so on.
Before we go deep into the study we will like to know what cookies is all about; well a cookie is small, flat, sweet, baked good, usually containing flour, eggs, sugar, and either butter, cooking oil or another oil or fat. It may include other ingredients such as raisins, oats, chocolate chips or nuts.
Considering biscuits as one of the cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour are one of the popular cereal foods, consumed in Nigeria. They are ready made food for consumption, convenient and inexpensive food products, containing digestive and dietary principles of vital importance according to (Kulkarni, 1997). They are nutritive snacks produced from unpalatable dough that is transformed into appetizing products through the application of heat in the oven according to (Olaoye et al., 2007).
However most of these foods are poor sources of protein and such contribute to poor nutritional quality as stated by (Akpapunam and Darbe, 1994; Aloba 2001).
Being a ready to eat convenient food product, it is important to be fortified with vitamins and minerals (Elizabeth et al., 1999) and enriched with other protein sources such as oil seeds and legumes. Although legumes are an important part of traditional diets around the world, they are often neglected in typical Western diets. Legumes are inexpensive, nutrient dense sources of protein that can substitute dietary animal protein (Anderson et al., 1999). Not only are legumes excellent sources of essential minerals, but they are also rich in dietary fibre and other phytochemicals that may affect health.

1.2 MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF COOKIES
The material composition of cookies as regards the topic above will include:
Blends of malted sorghum 250g
Sprouted black beans 120g
Cooked cocoyam flour 220g
Salt 5g
Water 80g
Thickening 5g
Glucose 15g
Skimmed milk powder 120g
Sodium bicarbonate 3g
Ammonium bicarbonate 3g
Lecithin 2g
Glycerol-mono-sterate 2g
Minerals and flavour etc. 3g

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
What really instigated the study on the physiochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans cooked cocoyam flour, proximate analysis, minerals was due to improper calculation of the material composition of most cookies manufactured from most of the manufacturing industries in Nigeria as a result leading to food poisoning and early expiration of products (cookies).
Secondly most of these manufactured cookies as not head friendly, some are not moisture friendly; when there is a failed sensory evaluation of the manufactured cookies, and precaution will not be given in terms of method of storage of such products.

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to carry out a physiochemical study and a sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour. Other specific objectives of the study are:
To produce cookies from blends of malted sorghum, spouted black beans and cooked cocoyam
To carry out a proximate analysis on the material composition of the raw materials used in the production of the cookies
To make a composite analysis of the raw materials used in the production of cookies
To monitor anti-nutritional factors in the manufacturing processes
To proffer solution to the above stated problems

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
In order to ascertain the above stated objectives, the study came up with the following research questions. The research questions are stated below as follows:
How to cookies from blends of malted sorghum, spouted black beans and cooked cocoyam?
How to carry out a proximate analysis on the material composition of the raw materials used in the production of the cookies?
How to carry out a composite analysis of the raw materials used in the production of cookies?
What are the anti-nutritional factors in the manufacturing processes of cookies?

1.6 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HYPOTHESIS 1
H0: the manufactured cookies do not have good quality attributes
H1:the manufactured cookies have good quality attributes
HYPOTHESIS 2
H0: the composition of raw materials in the cookies is bad
H1: the composition of raw materials in the cookies is good

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study physiochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour will be of immense benefit to most of the manufacturing industries, the consumers, the whole seller on the quality attributes of the manufactured cookies from the above stated ingredients as it will discuss the importance of the presence of each ingredients to human health, the study will also benefit other researchers that wishes to carry out similar research on the above stated topic.

1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study physiochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour will cover the areas of sensory evaluation such as colour, taste, texture, mouth feels etc and also a proximate analysis will be carried out in areas of presence of moist, fat, carbohydrate, protein etc.

1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: financial constraints tends to impede the researchers ability to get all the materials needed for the purpose of the study in large quantity but the research students was able to carry out the experiment with the materials available
TIME CONSTRAINTS: the researcher, being a student will be involved in other departmental activities like attendance to lectures, submission of assignment and presentation of seminar but the research was able to meet up with the time allocated for the completion of the research work
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
COOKIE: a sweet baked food that is usually small, flat, and round and is made from flour and sugar.

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