CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY

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ABSTRACT

This project work is centered on creativity and innovation in the soft drink industry (The Study of Seven-Up Bottling Company Plc Enugu). The project work is aimed at accessing and addressing the Impact of Creativity and Innovation, Problems, and Challenges Encountered by Management in Making the Company to thrive in a Global Competitive Environment. The work employed the use of historical method, to review related literature in chapter two. In chapter three the survey research plan was used in questionnaire form concerning creativity and innovation in a soft drink industry. However, the stratified random sampling approach was adopted in selecting the sample size for the study. Furthermore, five hypotheses were formulated in line with the problems and objectives of the study. Data collected were analyzed and presented with tables and percentages, chi-square statistical test was used in testing the hypotheses, the following results emerged: that motivational incentives for creativity and innovation have encouraged the exploration of hidden talents in the work place, there is significant relationship between creativity and improvement in profit and market share, there are no relationships between creativity and loss of job in soft drink industry.. In view of the findings the following were recommended in the research work: to create enabling environment to improve employees creative ability, insulation of effective channel of communication, create a proper motivational incentive, employee to welcome change through technical training and management should give adequate support to their employees when embarking on creative process. Overall it is believed that the strict application of the recommendation would lead to further progress of achievements of organizational objectives of the soft drink industry.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                                Page

Certification.…………………………………………………………………………………….ii

Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………iv

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….v

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of Study……………………………………………………………………1
  2. Statement of Problem…………………………………………………..4
  3. Objectives of Study……………………………………………………………………..6
  4. Research Questions………………………………………………………………… ..7
  5. Research Hypothesis………………………………………………………………….7
  6. Significance of The Study……………………………………………………………..8
  7. Scope Of The Study…………………………………………………………………….9
  8. Limitations of The Study……………………………………………………………….10
  9. Profile of Seven-up…………………………………………………………………….11
  10. Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………………… .14

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..17

2.1       Theoretical Framework………………………………………………..18

2.2       Organizational Development………………………………………………21

2.3       An Overview of Creative Change Process and Organizational Innovation…….26

2.4       Individual and Organizational Creativity and Innovation………………………….28

2.5       Stages of Creativity Process in an Industry/Organization…………………………30

2.6       Factors That Causes Creativity and Innovational Change in Organization……..32

2.7       Factors Influencing Managing Creativity and Innovation Change in Organization……..39

2.8       Method of Promoting Creativity and Innovation in Organization.41

2.9       Factors Responsible For Promoting Creativity and Innovation in Industry…….43

2.10    Four Domain for Promoting Creativity and Innovation in Work Place………….46

2.11    Rule for Shifting Creativity and Innovation in an Organization…………………52

2.12    Summary of Review of the  Related Literature……………………………………53

References…………………………………………………………………………….53

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… .58

3.2       Research Design………………………………………………………………………58

3.3       Sources of Data………………………………………………………………………..59

3.4       Area of the Study………………………………………………………………………60

3.5       Population of the Study…………………………………………………………… …60

3.6       Sample Size Determination…………………………………………………… .60

3.7       Instrument of Data Collection………………………………………………….. 61

3.8       Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………………62

3.9       Validation  and Reliability of the Instrument……………………………..64

 References……………………………………………………………………………..65

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1       Presentation of Data…………………………………………………………………..66

4.2       Hypotheses Testing …………………………………………………………………83

4.3       Analysis of Data…………………………. ……………………………………………91

 CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.

5.1       Summary of Findings ……………………………………………. .……….95

5.2       Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….96

5.3       Recommendations…………………………………………….…………….98

5.4      Suggestion for Further Study

            Appendix A

            Appendix B

            Bibliography.

LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                                                   pages

4.1     What are your educational qualifications?                                      67

4.2     How long have you served with Seven-Up Bottling Company Plc Enugu?                     67

4.3       How long has Seven-Up Bottling Company Plc Enugu been in Business of Marketing their Soft Drink Product68

4.4          Do creativity and innovation have impact in Seven-Up Bottling Company?                               69

4.5       Do creativity and innovation affect idea generation of employees in

Seven-Up Bottling Company?                                                   70

4.6       Does creativity and innovation promote competition among members in work place at Seven–Up Bottling Company?                                                              71

4.7       Do you think there are traits in promoting creativity and innovation in Seven-Up Bottling Company?                                                               72

4.8       What are the fundamental steps to tackle creativity and innovation process in your company?                                                                               73

4.9       Do management provide a system of incentive/reward for talented employees during creative process in Seven-Up Bottling Company?                                                 74

4.10     Does creativity and innovation promote the profitability of Seven-Up Bottling Company?                                                                                         75

4.11     Has creativity and innovation improved the market strategies and global competitiveness in Seven-Up Bottling Company Plc?                                                      76

4.12     Do you think that creativity and innovation has aided management of Seven-Up Company to improve on the profit and market share of the Company globally?                                                                77

4.13 Does motivational incentive encourage exploration of hidden talent for creativity and innovation in Seven-Up Bottling Company?                                                             78

4.14     Do you think most of the employee’s loss their job in Seven-Up Bottling Company due to creativity and innovation?                                                                                      79

4.15     Does the involvement of employees in decision making process encourage spirit of team work in promoting creativity and innovation?                                                     80

4.16     Do creativity and innovation impose a challenge on team member’s and individual?   81

4.17     Which of the under listed incentive reward did they provide to boost the workers moral and encourage them?                                                         82

4.18     Test for the validity of hypotheses one                                       84

4.19     Test for the validity of hypotheses two                                86

4.20     Test for the validity of hypotheses three                                  87

4.21     Test for the validity of hypotheses four                                               88

4.21     Test for the validity of hypotheses five                                                  90

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is obvious that by “creation” we generally mean the words and pictures, the sound and music, the models that are projected and may be, even associations with such sports, films and other personalities who typify such role model. This is understandable. After all, these are the most visible element of improving growth and development in organization. Creativity is an asset impossible to financially quantify a prior in an organization (Amabile, 2002:52). Before a product or service is available to the market, the number of sales of that product/service will determine whether or not money will spent or completely wanted (Sulton, 2004:4).

Generally, creativity can be understood as the only one or the only important component of generating and designing of the service development especially now that global competitiveness is trying to thrive for companies survivals. Cannon (2005:98) points out that young creative talent that aspire for jobs for manufacturing and service industries are not sufficient into the highly demanding work.

Indeed, the new products and services provided new employment opportunities and positive balance of trade by a way of protecting the nation’s standard of living. Innovation in products, services, technologies and administrative practices is also relevant to other institutional sectors besides the economy. The study of organizational innovation articulates with the significant breakthrough in science, the development of superior military weapons, and the creation of interdisciplinary programme in higher education (Bell, 1973:213).

Theoretically, research on organizational innovation opens new perspectives on number of interesting issues that have surfaced recently which include: issues of social evolution and institutional change, the dynamic of knowledge and integration of macro levels of analysis (Hage, 1992:406). He further notes that organizational innovations can make relevant contributions to various arenas of new research in economics. The most obvious one is research on national system of innovation (Lundvall, 1992:320) and Nelson (1993:220) but is equally relevant to endogenous theories of Economic growth (Rommer 1990:60).

According to Oxford Advanced Dictionary “to create” means to “bring into existence, give rise to originate” otherwise the word creation means. “All created things products of human intelligence especially of imaginative thought” creative means “creating, able to create, inventive, imaginative, showing imagination as well as routine skill of course. Huge sum of capital are put into creativity (OECD, 2008). The reason for it is the outwork of many markets today are not only highly competitive but

Innovation they are also very transmorphicixemend of new products/services continually appear in our taste and fashion, replacing old ones. New technologies generate new problems as well as opportunities to fix them. The ability to anticipate change arising from creativity and innovation means to do something about which has more than ever became a critical factor for survival (Olujumoke, 2008:37).

Innovation has been found to be linchpin of economic growth and lies behind improvements in every aspect of modern life (Tushman and Anderson, 1996:613).

Chang (2001:64) notes that size, scale and cost positions are very important aspects of defining competitiveness which boils down to innovation. An organization’s ability to compete in a fast changing environment/world is defined by its programme for continuous quick and inexpensive innovation. He further observed that many organizations due to short term pressure or lack of understanding about how to innovate rely instead on increase mental improvement to existing product (Chang J. 2001:40).

The dictum innovative is yet to make an impression on many organizations all over the global. As a matter of facts, poor performance on innovation has been given as one of the key reason for British industrial decline (Frain, 1992:191). The case of Nigeria for instance, appears more pathetic. In 2000, for example, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) reported that manufacturing sector of Nigerian economy recorded a miserly 0-4 rise in aggregate index of manufacturing production and the level of capacity utilization was given as only 36.1 percent.

Reason adduced for this abysmal performance include weave demand for local manufacture goods and influx of imports considered relatively cheaper and perhaps better quality than locally manufactured counterparts. The ability of organizations to produce influential ideas and has been long a central issue for organizational studies. Among all organizational outputs, innovation is fundamental not only in view of its direct impact on the viability of firms but because of the profound effects on the paths of social and economic change (Sovenson, 2000:94).

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY