DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN PUBLIC SERVICES USING YOUR ORGANISATION AS A CASE STUDY

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Decision making is a major responsibility of all administrators. It is the process of choosing from among alternative course of action.
It is also the process by which decisions are not arrived at but implemented (Ukeji et al, 1992). In line with submission above Miskel (1992) assent that until decision making is converted into action. It is only a good intervention.
A decision is the result of deliberation, calculation and thoughtful response to internal and external condition of the environment. Decisions reflect the organisation plans and the totality of decision gives direction to the organisation.

Decision making is one of the basic functions of the manager. It is the major function of administration or manager when at every state of management process, he makes choice among alternative course of action. The relevance of decision making to any organisation is captured by the above emphasis. As mush as we know, Nigeria is blessed with a lot of human and material resources that is expected to make the running conditions of the Nigeria to be above the poverty level.
The influence of the decision made by the administrators which are the manager of these resources goes a long way to see how these resources can achieve their importance. The problem of wrong decision making on the good policies of the government makes the rural dealer to suffer untold hardship. The basic amenities that they suppose to get. They are deprived of it because of wrong decision influenced by corruption party, mismanagement, misappropriation resulting from political influence.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Decision making is one thing that individual and organisation are involved in what happed at any point in time is as a result of once decision or the other. We have observe that despite the good policies and funds that are coming to the public service, we do not feel the impact on the local people. This study, therefore will look at the decision making process. The public services have see what the problem is, we will examine the factors infecting the decision of the public services. If they are that of wrong decision or the influence of the state and the federal government on the public services.

1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The study has bee designed to identify how decision making is carried out in public services, the importance of decision can not be over emphasized because all the resource of the organisation will not be well managed without good decision on the part of the decision makers. Specifically, the objectives of the study will be;
To enable the public service, administrator to appreciate their roles as development agent and to make good decision that will improve their services.
To help various interest group or manager to know the relevant of decision making.
To determine the factors that is affecting the decision of the public services.
It helps to determine the rules guiding the organisation or public service.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable the public and the employee to know why development rate in the organisation is what it is. It will also help the leaders of the organisation to know how they can improve on their decision making. It enables the managers to know that a good decision is not good when it has not been expressed in development project for benefit of the organisation.
The study will also encourage prospective leaders (managers), future researchers and it will be a service of knowledge to students.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following involved research questions are formulated to guide the study.
To what extend are the subordinates involved in decision making?
In what ways does decision making process affect the public service of the organisation?
Does decision making process influence public service?
To what factor does decision making improved in public service in an organisation?

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is limited to public service in the in the public service of Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro. This will enable us to concentrate on the decision making of the public services and its effects on the local people.

1.7 LIMITATION
The studies have some limitation in areas of attitude of some of the respondent to the questionnaire, some did not respond to all the questions.
There was also a limitation in the area of understanding because some of they ways the questionnaire where ticked shows that they don’t understand the question asked. Lastly, some of the questions where not returned.

1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE TERMS

Decision making: This means choosing from among alternative course of action.
Implementation: This is the carryout what have been chosen or putting a decision into action.
Administration: This is the organisation and direction of human and material resources to achieve desired ends.
Administrators: This is the people that have the responsibility of management, directing or controlling the activities of others to achieve the organisation goals.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 DECISION MAKING PROCESS

The decision making process is influence by the unique environment of the decision maker, his personal experience in the decision making.
Nwachukwu (1988), said that decision is a choice aimed at achieving optimum result in a given situation. He said a decision could be seen as mental processes that force us to analyse the situation in order to master it or increase our knowledge on the area in which decision is to be taken. An intelligent decision is one that yield best intelligent response to the situation.
Decision aim at making thing to happen in order to achieve an objectives in an organisation.

2.2 ELEMENTS IN DECISION MAKING

Formulation of goals for one to make a decision, there must be a goal that is expected to be achieved. The goal gives the organisation a sense of direction so that they are not distracted by other things.
Acquisition of knowledge
In a rational decision making, the decision makers needs to acquire a thorough understanding of the problem in order to make an intelligent choice. At this state, he seeks information from employees who have expert knowledge about the situation under the study.

According to Okorie and Ukeji (1992), once goal and objective have set, the decision maker formulates feasible alternative situation.
Feasible said in the sense that these alternatives must be consisted with the value system of the organisation as well as with its goals and means.
Analysis to determined alternatives
The sense of analysis at this stage is to determine possible course of action. The search for alternative, the number of alternative ways of solving the problem depending on the effect expanded by the decision makers in the search for alternative. To involves the utilization of the vital information gathered through the process of deferring the problem.
Decision
Decision is the selection of the course of action believed by the decision maker to yield the best result under the circumstances. The final selection is influenced by the decision makers past experience, his value, judgement, the logical process that has been established and followed previous step above. It has to be pointed out that the selected solution may not necessarily be the most satisfactory solution but the must intelligent decision under the circumstance.
For instance, Nwachukwu (1998) put this question; does the selected alternative contribute to the realization of the intended objective? Will the decision lead to the attainment of the preferred solution is this alternative capable of implementation?
Implementation
This is the major area of decision making because it can make your decision good or bad. As well all know decision making process is not complete until it is implemented effectively. The essence of any decision is to secure action. For some important decision seek and obtain the willing co-operation of all involved.
You make them to think the way you thought and to see the way you saw, by effective programming, communicating, monitoring and evaluation of decision effectiveness.

2.3 TYPES OF DECISION MAKING

Chester Bernard (1988), classified organisational decision into three main groups namely; creative decision, intermediary decision and appellate decision.
Druka (1966), decision could be either generic or unique. A close look at these categories of decision suggested and drukers unique decision is only in normal.
Creative (unique) decision:
Creative decision are initiated by the organisation leader concerned and such decision often are after required for exceptional problem that are not adequately addressed by general principles and rules. Careful planning is important to ensure that acceptance of such decision. This leader requires insight (situational sensitivity) courage and tact so that he can steer the organisational members through the changes brought about by the implementation of such decision with minimum friction.
Generic decision:
Generic decisions are those problems emanating from organisational policies, principles, procedures, rules and regulation.
Intermediary decision:
Intermediary decision are in effect decision delegated to the managerial leader by the superiors, therefore intermediary decision are made by the manger in response to authoritative communication, wither in form of request or command from a superior officers.
Appellate decision:
Appellate decisions are made in response to cases referred to the manager in the subordinates.
The manager for decision can refers such cases to the director or it can also come from the employee to the manager.

2.4 ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO DECISION
According to Ngozi (2000), the traditional view of managerial decision process sees the manager as the sole decision maker information or advice maybe obtained from subordinates. But the responsibility for outcomes rests with the manager, so he makes the decision according to her autocratic or arbitrary decision making does not produce subordinate outcome such as motivation and high morals. A lack of motivation may result to positive or active resistance by subordinates.
In addition, it seems unlikely that an individual decision maker will have all the information necessary to make high quality decision. Hence, modern manager advocate for alternative approaches to organisational decision making. They are satisfying and group decision making.
Satisfying:
This approach is premised on view that it is no possible to be sure that optimal rational decision could be made because there are limits on human capacity to generate and analyse all alternative as a result of this cognitive limit on man’s rationality, decision regarding which alternative to choose must be based on some criteria other than optimization or mercerization.
March and Simon (1991), seem to provide a way out of this dilemma by stating that the administrative man satisfies, generates and analyses solution fill he finds on that is satisfactory in solving the problem rather than the one that is best.
Satisfying therefore require that the decision maker must contributes to generate and evaluate alternatives until he arrives at the alternative that is good enough to be accepted and not one that is the optimal alternatives.

According to Ngozi (2000), the strength of satisfying rather than maximizing includes;
It saves time and effort required.
It keeps decision making within manageable unit.
It seems to provide a feasible description of how people actually make decision.
Group decision making:
Group decision making is seen to be participative decision making because the member are encouraged to become mentally and emotionally involved in making organisational decision and sharing responsibility for such decision.
According to Bridges (1967), participation in decision making increase the moral and the enthusiasm of the individual for the organisation.
Advantages of group decision
Group arrives at better decision
It increase understanding and generate the groups involvement and commitment.
Participation encourages members to accepts greater responsibility for the effectiveness of the organisation.

2.5 HOW TO DECIDE

Groups are established to pursue some goals. It is therefore, obvious that group make decision about its goals directed takes. What is not so obvious is that the group frequently decides on how to get about making these decision. However, it is an important to recognize how and why a decision was made as well as the decision itself.
Shein (1969), describes six different ways in which group go about making decision. Decision by lack of response, decision by authority rule, decision by majority, decision by consensus and decision by unanimous consent.

DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN PUBLIC SERVICES USING YOUR ORGANISATION AS A CASE STUDY