DELINQUENT READERSHIP PROBLEMS IN LIBRARIES OF COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN ENUGU AND EBONYI STATES

0
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE –  INTRODUCTION

Background of the study……………………………..………………………………………..1

Statement of the Problem………………………………………….…….……………….…….8

Purpose of the Study ………………………………………………………..…………………..9

Research Questions     ……………………………………………………….……………………9

Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………………10

Scope of the Study     …………………………………………………….…………………….10

CHAPTER TWO     –           REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Conceptual Framework       ………………………………………………………………….11

Concept of college libraries…………………………………………….……………..11

Concept of Delinquent Readership …………………..………………………………13

Factors that Cause Delinquent Readership     ………………………….21

Effects of Delinquent Readership      ……………………….………………………….27

Strategies for forestalling Delinquent Readership………………………………….30

Reviewed Empirical Studies …………………………………………………33

Summary of Literature Review………………………………………………………..39

CHAPTER THREE –    RESEARCH METHOD

Design of the study………………………………………………………………….41

Area of the Study……………………………………………………..…….…….…41

Population of the Study …………………………………………..…………….…….42

Sample and Sampling Technique ……………………………………………………42

Instrument for Data Collection……………………………………….……………….43

Validation of the Instrument …………………………………………………………44

Reliability of the Instrument ……………………………………………………………44

Method of Data Collection…………………………………………………………….45
Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………..…………….45

CHAPTER FOUR: – RESULTS ……………………………………………………………46

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

Discussion of findings…………………………….…………………………………………… 55

Implications of the study…………………………………………………………………62

Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………….63

Suggestions for Further Study ……………………………………………………65

Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………..……..66

Conclusion ………………………………………………………………..………………..67

References      …………………………………………………………………………..………..69

Appendix A: Questionnaire for library staff, interview questions for college librarians, librarians and students.……………………………………………..…………75

Questionnaire: Delinquent readership problems in libraries of Colleges of Education in Enugu and Ebonyi States (DRPCLQ)…………………………..76

Interview Questions…………………………………………………………80

Appendix B- Population of study by the institution library (staff, college librarians, librarians and students)………………………………………………………..83

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Types of delinquents readership behaviour being experienced by different  college libraries……………………………………………46

Table 2: The extent of prevalence of delinquent readership acts in the libraries………………………………………………………………………………..………48

Table 3: The extent to which different factors lead to stealing of library materials…………………………………………………………………………………………49

Table 4: The extent to which the problem has affected the service of these college libraries.  …………………………………………………………..51

Table 5: The extent of measures that should be taken in order to reduce delinquent acts in the library………………………………………………………52

ABSTRACT

This research work sought to determine the delinquent readership problems in libraries of colleges of education in Enugu and Ebonyi Sates. The main objective was to determine delinquent readership problems in three Colleges of Education Libraries in the two States. Five research questions were adopted for the study. Descriptive survey research method was adopted for the study. The instruments used were questionnaire (delinquent readership problems in Libraries of Colleges of Education in Enugu and Ebonyi States DRPCLQ) and interviews. The population of the study were the staff, students and the college librarians. The questionnaire was administered to 53 library staff of these three institutions to which 50 responded. Two interview schedules were constructed for students and college librarians and librarians of key areas (circulation, reference and serials) of these institutions, one for 45 students and the other one for the college librarians and librarians of key areas. The data collected was presented in tables and analyzed using means. It was discovered from the study that the three institution libraries experience delinquent readership behaviour in the form of hiding of library materials, mutilation, rip-off, theft, vandalism, answering of phone calls and noise-making. The factors responsible for these delinquent acts are poor security in the library, lack of photocopying facilities, lack of conscience among library users, and high cost of library materials These delinquent acts lead to inadequacy of library materials, frustration among the users and lack of interest in making use of the library materials among the users. Strategies for reducing the menace included: securing windows with burglar proofing and screens. orientation for new students, provision of photocopying facilities at reduced rates together with a standby generator and provision of adequate library materials.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education has been identified as the instrument par excellence for national development in Nigeria. Consequently, teacher education has to occupy a position of pre-eminence in the planning and organization of our modern society. This in turn demands that the Nigerian people and government make both teaching and teacher education a very attractive professional pursuit. It is based on this that the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) programme is generally aimed at producing teachers with high personal and professional discipline and integrity, teachers who are dedicated, with appropriate skills and intellectual depth that would facilitate easy achievement of the national goals on education as stated in the National Policy on Education.

The following objectives have been enunciated to represent the mission of colleges of education by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) (1996):

*          Discuss intelligently the main ideas that have affected and still affecting the development and practice of education generally and Nigeria in particular.           

*          Examine the main psychological and socio-economic factors that may help or hinder a child’s educational performance.

*          Discuss intelligently major issues affecting the teaching profession in Nigeria.

*          Identify major problems of education in Nigeria.

*          Completely carryout at least, a survey research on any educational problem in Nigeria.

*          Study learners appropriately as to determine the most effective ways of relating to them to ensure their maximum learner-achievement.

*          Select an effective use of appropriate teaching strategies and methods for maximum learner-achievement.

*          Select and make effective use of appropriate instructional resources for maximum leaner-achievement.

*          Broaden studies programme and demonstrate desirable levels of moral and character development.

The library is the intellectual power house of an institution of learning. It is the pivot on which all academic activities revolve. Batley, Carbo and Koenig (2007), define library as an organized collection of books and other materials. Such materials may include magazines, newspapers, maps, films, compact discs, computer systems, and other print, electronic and multimedia resources. Libraries play a vital role in the world’s systems of communication and education. The numerous resources and services that libraries provide help people carry out their work, studies and leisure-time activities. Libraries rank among society’s most important and useful cultural institutions. The libraries render these services to the society by creating knowledge, conserving it, retrieving it and disseminating it. By so doing, they play an active and invaluable role in research, training and education of the citizens and in the production of high level manpower in academic environments.

The libraries of the institutions of higher learning, such as colleges of education, polytechnics and universities, are committed to supporting and promoting the academic and research programmes of the parent institutions. For every college to achieve the above stated goals set by the National Commission for Colleges of Education, it must have a college library that will provide resources and services to the institution. College libraries, like other academic libraries, have the basic function of aiding the parent institutions in carrying out their objectives.

The objectives of the libraries include provision of information materials in support of the learning process, provision of materials to meet the requirements of faculty specialists and postgraduate students who are doing research, and provision of materials to assist the library user in his own personal self-development, (Ozioko, 1996).

            The library contributes to the realization of these objectives and supports the total programme by acquiring and making available the books, materials and services, which are needed. The NCCE (1994) objectives of libraries in Colleges of Education as stated by Adamu (2001) include, to:

*          Ensure that its collection and services are designed to meet the objectives and information requirement of colleges of education.

*          Ensure that the resources and facilities provided are maximally used through proper organization and dissemination.

*          Give qualitative reference and information services for study, teaching and research needs in the college community.

*          Evaluate from time to time the success of the library in meeting the library and information needs of users.

            In the light of the importance of books and other information materials to our academic environment, book abuse in the form of theft, mutilation, hiding of books and vandalism have been a matter of concern to all libraries. The menace of these delinquent acts in the libraries hindered the growth of the library collections and imposed substantial financial drain on limited budgets of the library.

The term “delinquent reader” according to Souter (1976) refers to a “user of the library who over-borrows to a high degree, retains books after they have been recalled or illegally borrows, steals or mutilates books.” User delinquencies according to Ebunuwele et al (2011) are actions that are illegal or immoral that users carry out during the process of consulting library books and other materials. Such actions include unruly behavious, receiving phone calls in the library while others are reading, mutilation of library materials, impersonation, theft, and misuse of OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) computer system. Alafiatayo (1983) is of the opinion that delinquent readers were not peculiar to academic libraries but are a problem to all types of libraries.

Delinquent readership can be in the forms of book theft, mutilation and other forms of criminal acts. Book theft is the act of stealing library books. Souter (1976) defines theft as an act of dishonestly appropriating property belonging to another with intent of permanently depriving the other of it. Mutilation is another form of delinquent readership. It is defined by Hornby (1995) as “damage to something very severely by breaking or tearing off a necessary part”. This damage may be done to a book or other library materials. Delinquent practices in the library can also occur in the form of over-borrowing, non-response to recall and illegal borrowing of books (Alafiatayo, 1993). Illegal borrowing according to him means any borrowing procedure outside the circulation desk. Eze (2005) also observed that delinquent readership behaviours in the library involve eating and drinking in the library, use of phone/telephone conversation, discussion, theft, mutilation and smoking inside the library. According to Jato as cited by Oyesiku Buraimo and Olusanya (2012) delinquent readership practices include scandalous behaviours such as theft and mutilation, hiding library materials, refusal to return overdue borrowed materials, drinking and eating in the library. He also stated that vandalism occurs when users knowingly tear, mark or otherwise damage or destroy materials. They cited Lorenzen (1996) who stated that this problem may not even be in form of theft or mutilation but some of these disruptive users may cause problem to the library staff which can hinder them from carrying out their duties effectively. According to Maidabino (2010), delinquent readership behaviours in the library can be in the form of theft and mutilation, vandalism, damages and disaster, over borrowing and purposefully displacing arrangement of materials.

            Different factors have been cited as contributing to delinquent readership problems. Batagarawa and Bakori (2003) suggest the causes of delinquent readership problems as lack of sufficient library resources, lack of photocopying facilities, the high cost of photocopying materials, lack of fund, the problem of power failure and frequent breakdown of these copiers. Akinfolarin (1992) also suggests lack of orientation as another factor. This involves new intakes who are not properly guided on the rules and regulations governing the use of the library. Another factor is that some of the students are selfish or greedy. Yet another cause is defective security. Some security staff do not even know what they are expected to search for from the library users. Oyesiku Buraimo and Olusanya (2012) commenting on the reasons why library users engage in this criminal act stated that lack of security measures give users the opportunity to carry out the act, lack of library materials, lack of photocopying facilities and incessant power failure.

Ebunuwele et al (2011) observed that delinquent readership behaviours in the library was due to lack of photocopying facilities, inadequate security, lack of vigilance on the part of library staff, lack of proper shelving and shelf reading of library materials, lack of adequate library orientation to new library users and inadequate copies of popular library materials.

The implication of delinquent readership according to Batagarawa and Bakori (2003) is that it leads to ineffectiveness of library services, user dissatisfaction and even poor quality teaching and research. Oyesiku Buraimo and Olusanya (2012) citing Jato who identifies the effect of delinquent behavior on the users and the library. According to him, immoral behaviour among the users resulted in the following: it reduces the library stock, reduces the life span of the mutilated library materials, leads to replacement of the stolen and mutilated library materials, prevents students from locating needed materials, damages the image of the library, lead to low performance of students in examination and leads to frustration among users.

Maidabino (2010) was of the opinion that delinquent readership behavior make users to feel dissatisfaction with the services of the library and that it is a sign of lack of concern for the needs of others.

There are four colleges of education in Enugu and Ebonyi States. Enugu State has Enugu State College of Education Technical (ESCET) which is owned by the state government and Federal College of Education Eha-Amufu. Ebonyi State has two Colleges of Education which include Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu which was established by the federal government and Ebonyi State College of Education Ikwo (EBSCE) owned by the state government.

The Federal College of Education Eha-Amufu was formally known as College of Education Eha-Amufu. The announcement for the establishment of this college was made on 20th December 1980 by the ex-governor of Anambra State Jim Ifeanyichukwu Nwobodo during the first convocation ceremony for the award of the Nigerian Certificate in Education of Anambra State College of Education Awka. On the 21st February 1981, the college was established but the college library could not take off until December the same year. The college later became Federal in the year 1993. The college runs three years programme. The student is expected to graduate within a minimum period of three years and maximum of five years. The college awards its students Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE). The estimated population of the students is 4000. The library which started with seventy-three (73) books and a staff of four, has increased to 27,080 materials with the staff strength of sixteen.

            The Enugu State College of Education (Technical) was established by the Enugu State government on 11th April 2006 under the leadership of Governor Chimaroke Nnamani. But before this, the State government had already directed the vacation of the campus II, Abakaliki Road premises of the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) to house the new college and also directed the closure of the School of Science and Vocational Teacher Education (SSVTE) of the IMT and the transfer of all its staff and students to form the nucleus of the new college. The college inherited all the physical facilities in the former IMT campus II and one of them was the college library. The number of library staff then was ten including four professional librarians. The college library took off with 816 volumes of materials including the materials under vocational education which were handed over to the college library and they now have about 8,256 volumes.

The Enugu State College of Education technical runs Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) programme and degree programme. The NCE programme last for a minimum of three years and degree programme is four years. The Enugu State college of Education is technical which is different from the other two colleges of education because it runs courses in the field of applied and industrial science like industrial mathematics, chemistry and physics. Enugu State College of Education Technical awards Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) and Degree certificate. It has a population of 3,850. The Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo evolved from a College of Agriculture on 6th March 2001 under the leadership of Governor Sam Egwu, the then governor of Ebonyi State. The institution was meant for the training of teachers, as well as for research and studies in Education. The programme lasts for a period of three years. The college offers courses in the area of education, languages, sciences, vocational education and social sciences. The college awards the students Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE). It has student population of 2,500 and library staff of 13. Some materials were handed over to the college library by the college of Agriculture, especially materials from the area of agriculture. The college library took off with the volume of 835 and increased to 6,013 by the year 2013. The college library was made up of three sections with different units.

DELINQUENT READERSHIP PROBLEMS IN LIBRARIES OF COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN ENUGU AND EBONYI STATES