DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LIQUID SIPHON APPARATUS

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The siphon is a simple and effective device for transferring liquid from a higher level to a lower level and it is widely used.
It can be described as using a pipe or tube to transfer liquid from a reservoir at a higher elevation to another reservoir at a lower level when the two reservoirs are separated by a distance ( height).
A Siphon can also be referred to a tube in an inverted ‘U’ shape which causes a liquid to flow upward above the surface of a reservoir, with no pump but powered by the fall of the liquid as it flows down the tube under the pull of gravity, and discharging at a level lower than the surface of the reservoir whence it came.
The traditional explanation of a siphon states that the flow in the down leg, due to gravity, creates a partial vacuum in the upper leg portion of the conduit. That partial vacuum allows atmospheric pressure to initiate flow through the upper leg.
Siphon is commonly used in flushing of toilet, metering irrigation water, transferring of liquid from one reservoir to another.
The most common use of a siphon is “The Silent Valueless Water Waste Preventer,” patented in England in 1819 and better known today as the flush toilet.

Siphoning is used in the following ways:
To carry water from one reservoir to another separated by a hill or ridge.
To take out the liquid from a tank that has no base outlet (drain plug)
To empty a channel that has no outlet sluice.

1.1 Problem Statement
This project is trying to address the difficulty in transferring viscose liquid from one reservoir to another and Liquid of lower density at the same level. It is quite sure that the conventional method of either scooping to required container or sucking through a hose would consume much time and energy thereby making the process difficult and inefficient. In order to avoid the effect of using the manual siphon process to transfer liquid that is on the same height. This project will thereby help to save time and energy in the transfer process of the liquid from one reservoir to another.

1.2 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this project is to design and construct a liquid siphon apparatus that will be efficient in the mechanized siphoning of liquid.
The objective of this design are as follows:
To transfer liquid from reservoir at the same height.
To obtain a transfer of dense liquid in a large quantity from one reservoir to another.
Design and construct a liquid siphoning apparatus with the use of locally sorted materials.

1.3 Scope and Limitation
This project deal with design and construct of a workable liquid siphon apparatus that will demonstrate the principle involved in liquid transfer with respect to variation in height pressure differential.
The design functionality is limited to laboratory demonstration of a liquid transfer.

1.4 Significance of Project
The design and construction of an efficient, dependable and commercially viable means of transferring liquid is very important in fluid transfer as it will not only reduce the obvious legs involved in its conventional method. It is quite inevitable to go by our everyday activities without coming across the need to transfer liquid from one reservoir to another, this could be in domestic form, industrial form and otherwise. This liquid transfer process usually pose a problem through the use of conventional method of scooping, pouring-out or inducing pressure through one end of a hose especially when the fluid (liquid) to be siphoned is in large proportion or toxic to handlers.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LIQUID SIPHON APPARATUS