DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (ABUJA ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BOARD (AEPB))

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ABSTRACT

The Collection of waste is a very much needed municipal service that requires huge expenditures and execution of this operation is high-priced. The high pricing is due to the various factors such as man power,navigation of vehicles, fuel, maintenance and environmental costs. The above factor necessitates the design and implementation of a system for proper management of waste. This paper focused on the implementation of an IoT based embedded system which integrates Radio Frequency Identification(RFID), Sensors, Arduino controller and GSM for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system with their performance measured in real time environment. This system was developed to interface with a web server to intimate the municipality regarding the cleaning process performed by the workers.It provides a database of the information of bin status, amount of waste in the bin, time of the collection of waste are transmitted to monitor and efficiently manage the waste collection strategies. This data was processed by graph theory optimization algorithms to find the shortest path for the purpose of reaching the bin to reduce the cost.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

The trend of making the manually controlled things automatic has become a common practice these days. The process of making the things automatic is being exploited in almost all the major fields of life. Making things automatic reduces burden on the humans. The cost and effort used in manually controlled products is much higher than the automated systems. Considering the fact, that the problem of efficient waste management is one of the major problems of the modern times, there is an utmost need to address this problem. The proper waste management system is must for the hygienic society in general and for world as a whole. Solid waste which is one of the sources and causes of environmental pollution has been defined under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as any solid, semi-solid liquid or contained gaseous materials discarded from industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations and from debris, commercial refuse, and sludge from water or waste treatment plants or air pollution, control facilities and other discarded materials [3]. In order to protect human health and the environment from the potential hazards of delayed waste disposal and environmental pollution a systematically supervised and controlled handling of these wastes is must. The type of wastes which constitute environmental pollution and which this work emphasizes on is domestic refuse consisting of degradable food wastes, leaves, dead animals and non-degradable ones such as plastics, bottles, nylon, medical and hospital wastes, generated in households, hospitals, industries and commercial centers [4]. The complexity of issues involved in municipal solid waste management necessitates development and application of new tools capable of processing data inputs of varying formats, numerical models and expert opinions in multi objective decision making scenario. Decision Support Systems (DSS) are among the most promising approaches to confront such situations. The DSS models should ideally be integrated with geographical information system (GIS) to optimize transportation, processing and disposal processes.

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is one of the vital indispensable services provided by municipal authorities in the country to keep city clean. Nevertheless, the services rendered are very poor as the executions of this system are unscientific, old-fashioned and disorganized. The quantity of waste is littered all over leading to unhygienic living environment. The identification, monitoring and disposal of wastes are one of the major concerns of the present era.