1.0 Introduction

This chapter presents the introduction to design and implementation of a medical diagnosis system for typhoid fever. It presents the introduction, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.


1.1 Theoretical Background

Medical science field is an enormous field that includes a large number of expertise, knowledge and information [1]. To get the good medical treatment is a right of every country citizens. Due to the insufficient availability of experts in a medical domain it is a big challenge for the country to provide good medical services to their country people. The major advantage of Adoptive Medical Diagnosis System using Expert System is that it gives the prescription as the doctor ordered to the patient. Also this system can be used anytime and anywhere. Also the proposed system can work as a human expert. When hospitals are facing the problem of general expert this system can work as a human expert. Expert systems technology has been widely adopted by many software development companies and industry . Expert System is a kind of software that runs in computer memory and works the same kind of interaction as a specialist work and gives prescription to the patient as a specialist. Also you can say it is a kind of program that asks you about your symptoms disease and provide possible prescription matching of the symptoms like human expert. Expert system is a part of Artificial Intelligence. The main purpose of expert systems is to provide expert advice if the person seeks advice from system. Also it is a computer program that can reproduce thinker activities [2].

Expert or knowledge-based systems are the commonest type of AI systems in routine clinical use. They contain medical knowledge, usually about a very specifically defined task, and are able to reason with data from individual patients to come up with reasoned conclusions. Although there are many variations, the knowledge within an expert system is typically represented in the form of a set of rules. Machine learning systems can create new medical knowledge Learning is seen to be the quintessential characteristic of an intelligent being. Consequently, one of the driving ambitions of AI has been to develop computers that can learn from experience. The resulting developments in the AI sub-field of machine learning have resulted in a set of techniques which have the potential to alter the way in which knowledge is created. Applying expert systems to the diagnosis of typhoid fever aids the assistance of patients in getting needed medical attention and prescription even in the absence of a medical expert [3].

1.2 Statement of the problem

The following problems necessitated this research study:

  1. It is time consuming process to wait for doctors in hospitals before getting medical attention.
  2. In the absence of a doctor, patients cannot get medical treatment.
  3. Absence of expert systems to aid in the diagnosis of typhoid fever.
  4. Absence of proper record of typhoid fever patients


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to develop a medical diagnosis system for typhoid with the following objectives:

  1. To design a system that will aid capturing of symptoms and medical test result to confirm the presence of typhoid.
  2. To create a system that can be utilized as an expert system.
  3. To design a system that will provide medical prescriptions after positive diagnosis of the presence of typhoid.
  4. To create a database that contains information with respect to typhoid patients.


1.4 Significance of the Study

The study is significant in the following ways:

  1. It will serve as an expert system in the absence of a medical doctor.
  2. It will aid the quick diagnosis of typhoid.
  3. It will save time in the medical examination process
  4. It will serve as a useful reference material to other scholars seeking related information.


1.5 Scope of the Study

This study covers Design and implementation of medical diagnosis system of typhoid using General Hospital Ikot Ekpene as a case study.


1.6 Organization of the Research

This research work is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the preliminaries, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.

Chapter two focuses on the literature review, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter are discussed.

Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It presents the research methodology used in the development of the system, it analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.

Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation, the choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language and system requirements for implementation.

Chapter five focuses on the summary, constraints of the study, conclusion and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.



1.7 Definition of Terms

Artificial Intelligence: The branch of computer science dealing with the mimicking of human-level intelligence in computer programs they are also known as expert systems.


Diagnosis: The identification of the nature and cause of illness


Typhoid fever: An illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi


Prescription: A written order, as by physician, for the administration of a medicine or other intervention


Patient:  A person who receives treatment from a doctor or medically educated person.


Therapy: Treatment of disease or disability.