DETERMINATION OF TRACE AND HEAVY METAL IN THE LIVER AND KIDNEY OF HAUSA AND LOCAL GOAT MEAT
Meat is essential for growth and maintenance of good, health. It is mainly composed of proteins, fats and oil and some important essential elements.
The need for mineral components depends on age, physiological state and feed intake as well as on living condition (Baykov et al, 1996). Direct exposure of animals to polluted water and crop grown on irrigated sewerage water and industrial effluents are the sources of metal contamination to animals and humans (Ward, N. I and J. M. Savage, 1994). Among various environmental pollutants, health metals are directly related to human health. Health metals have density more than 5g/cm3 atomic weigh 623.546 to 200.590 (Kennish, M. J. 1992) and a specific gravity greater than 4.0 (Connell, D. W and G. J Miller, 1984). Living organisms usually need some heavy metals up to certain amount, while excess accumulation leads to severe harmful effects (Kennish, M. J, 1992) Chitmanat, C and S. Traichhariyaporn, 2010).
Increasing industrialization facilities entering of metal into the environment. These metals persist permanently as they cannot be degraded in the environment. Heavy metals enter into the food chain make their passage into the tissues to have direct toxic effects (Baykov et al, 1996).
Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are among the main toxic metals which accumulate in food chain. (Dermirezen, D. and K, urble, 2006). Contamination of mat is a matter of concern for humans. Heavy metal are toxic in nature and even at relatively lower concentration can cause adverse effects (Mahaffey, K. R, 1977, Santhi, D, et al, 2008) processing of meat (Santhi, D et al, 2008, Brito, G et al, 2005) and rearing of livestock in proximity to polluted surroundings are key factors for their pollution in heart (Sedki, A et al, 2003) Aslam, B., 2010)
Heavy metals contamination in meat is due to eating of spoiled feed by animals and also due to rearing of animals near health metal contaminated area (Korenekove, B., et al 2002, Sabir S. M., et al 2003, Miranda, M, et al, 2003) Instances of heavy metals contamination in meat products during processing have been reported (Sanithi, D, et al ,2008, Brito, G., et al 2005). Similarly, the distribution and localization of some heavy metals in the tissues pf some calf organs indicated higher levels of trace metals in livers, kidney and small intestines (Horky, D, et al 1998).
- Background Of The Study
Some debate exists as to know exactly what constitutes a “heavy metal” and which element should properly be classified as such. Some authors have based the definition of atomic weight, others point to those metals with a specific gravity of greater than 4.0 The activities may or may not be included. Most recently, the term ”heavy metal” has been used as a general term for metal semi – metals with potential human or environmental toxicity.
Many of the elements that can be considered as heavy metals have no known benefit for human physiology. Lead, mercury and cadmium are prime examples of such “toxic metals”. But other metals are essential to human biochemical processes. For example zinc, is an important co – factor for several enzymatic reactions in the human body, vitamin B12 has a cobalt atom at its core and hemoglobin contains iron. Copper, manganese, selenium, chromium and molybdenum are all trace elements, which are important in the human diet. Another subset of metals include; those used therapeutically in medicine, they include; aluminum, goldbismuth, gallium, lithium and sliver. Any of these elements may have pernicious effects if taken in quality or if the usual mechanisms of elimination are impaired.
Some elements may have different toxic profile depending on their chemicals form. For example, barium sulphate is basically non toxic where as barium salts are rapidly absorbed and cause profound potentially fatal hypokalemia. The toxicity of radioactive metals like polonium, which was discovered by merie curie, but only recently brought to public attention after the 2006 Murder of Russian dissident Alexander Litvineko.
- Aims and Objective of the Study
The aims and objective of the study is to determine the trace and heavy metals in the liver and kidney of Hausa and local goat meat.
1.3 Scope and limitation of the Study
The scope of this research is restricted to the investigation of metabolic concentration in goat samples for trace and heavy metal composition and to determine the concentration of trace and heavy metals in liver, muscle and kidney of a goat meat.
Limitations encountered: In this research the limitations encountered are:
- Lack of finance in purchasing and feeding the goat.
- Inadequate time in looking after the goat before the experiment was been carried out
- Environmental factors which includes temperature, rainfall, sunshine which are likely to be affected by other animal
1.4 Definition of Related Terms
Meat: Meat is an animal flesh that is eaten as food (Lawrie, R. A;