DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN CHINA AND JAPAN
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Disaster has always been very rampant in the world from ancient ages to modern age. Disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the earth; like floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. In recent years, frequent natural disasters have caused enormous loss of life and property, and such disasters have become a common challenge to all countries. China and Japan are among the world’s most affected countries by disasters.
Disaster Risk Management is the systematic process that integrates risk identification, mitigation and transfer, as well as disaster preparedness, emergency response and rehabilitation or reconstruction to lessen the impacts of hazards. (Study on Disaster Risk Management and Environment for the Karamojasubregion, Magunda, M.K. (PhD). August 2010.)
In this long essay, the various disasters in these two countries and its effects on the citizens of the countries are examined; also examined are the strategies these countries have taken to reduce the rate of the disasters. The study investigated the various disaster risk management Techniques these countries have employed over the years.
It focused on the country’s main practices in natural disaster risk management from the perspectives of preparing the plans, constructing legal systems, risk investigation, monitoring and early warning, disaster reduction projects, risk assessment, disaster insurance, community-based disaster reduction, and international cooperation.
The work outlined the priority areas of their natural disaster risk management in the future and stressed the importance of stronger inter-linkages among disaster risk management, recovery and long-term development planning and call for more coordinated and comprehensive strategies that integrate disaster risk management. This essay discussed how disaster risk management is a concern for everyone; from citizens who must be empowered to make decisions which reduce risk; to political leaders, government institutions, the private sector, civil society organisations, professional bodies and scientific and technical institutions.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The rate at which natural disasters sweep up communities is alarming. Though the magnitude varies with location, but the worst hit are China and Japan. Over the decades, the number of casualties has been massive. It is therefore of extreme importance to cushion the adverse effect of such natural disasters and to manage subsequent occurrences and to improve our knowledge on the strategies and challenges of the disaster risk managers are facing. It is of utmost importance that we know the areas frequently affected by these disasters and what efforts government of these two great nations are making to reduce future occurrence and also to assist those living and investing there. This study would enable us know the extent of the wreck disaster has caused on the country’s economy, social, and political relation with the international community.