DOMESTIC WASTE DISPOSAL EFFECT AND THE SOLUTIONS
1.1 Background of the Study
The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing society. Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in the society over the past decade. Every time a householder shops at the store, and open market he contributes to the mountain of waste. It is possible to quote figures which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons. The percent of Nigeria’s population living in cities and urban area has more than doubled in the last 15 years.
According to Hornby (2005) domestic waste is something that is not or no longer used and is to be thrown away or disposed off. It is also any material lacking direct value to the producer and so must be disposed.
The management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. The cities, urban areas experience continuous growth which contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste.
According to Mowee (1990) there is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives. The corollary is that improper disposal or storage of this waste can constitute hazards to the society through the population of air, land and especially water, Mowee (1988).
According to UK Environmental Protection Act, (1990) hereinafter, EPA, defined waste as “any substance which constitutes a scrap material or an effluent or other unwanted surplus substance from application of any process”. Any substance or article which requires to be disposed of as being broken, worn out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled (75 EPA 1990).
Ilegbune (1994) states that domestic waste includes that from domestic premises, caravan sites residential homes, educational establishments (schools) and nursing homes and (probably hospitals). It can be organic or non-organic.
Waste management simply means the collection of keeping, treatment and disposal of waste in such a way as render them harmless to human and animal life, the ecology and environment generally. Domestic waste management has become an area of major concern in Nigeria today. It appears to be a loosing battle against the harmful consequences of unguided waste and the attainment of clean healthy environment for all Nigerians. It is common sight in Nigeria today to see heaps/accumulation of festering waste dumps in our states, urban and commercial cities.
Since the inception of the administration, there have been concerted efforts to achieve sustainable waste management in the state. The efforts culminated in the establishment of the Enugu State Waste Management Agency (ESWAMA) in 2004. The Agency was set up to replace defunct Enugu State Environmental Protection Agency (ENSEPA), which failed to meet the challenges of modern day waste management. This repositioning occurred to enable it give more focused service delivery and to restore the past glory of Enugu State as a very clear city through sound waste management.
ESWAMA was established to develop and implement policies on the management of solid and liquid wastes that would promote the health and well being of the people. The residents are also required to pay approved sanitation rates through designated banks in various zones, when presented with demand notice.
Nnamani (2000) states that sanitation is an act of working out ways to improve the health consideration of a given environment is necessary to overcome the impact of man’s negative activities on the environment.
World Health Organisation refers sanitation as the control of all those factors in man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on his physical development, health and survival.
According to Nnamani (2000) Government intention on designating the last Saturday of every month as a sanitation day is to tackle in serious manner the insurmunting problem of ever-increasing waste generated from domestic, commercial recreational and those from working offices.