DOMESTIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

Domestic treatment of wastewater from Wupa Wastewater Treatment Plant, Abuja was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and effluent point (before and after the ultra violet radiation unit) of the treatment plant. The physicochemical parameters; temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured. The Domestic Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were obtained from samples collected from the influent and effluent points using Standard methods specified by the American Public Health Association (APHA). The water samples were also analyzed for the presence of bacterial organisms via Total Coliform Count (TCC), Total Bacteriological Count (TBC) and Faecal Count (FC). At the end of the analysis, the percentage removal efficiency of the ultra violet radiation for TCC, TBC and FC were calculated. Results showed that the mean removal efficiency for TCC, TBC and FC were 99.6% , 89.9% and 98.9% respectively; all within the permissible limit of World Health Organization and Federal Ministry of Environment. There was a reduction of 81.5% in COD, 98.9% in BOD which met the required effluent standards. There was significant differences between the pH, TSS, DO, COD and BOD of the influent and effluent (P<0.05). These results showed that there is an urgent need for appropriate steps to be taken for proper management and sanitation of the wastewater before discharging it to the stream, to ensure total conformity with the approved standards.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Water is a universal liquid that sustains being and all other lives. In fact that body is known to contain a lot of water and covers about 60% of the total land surface. The first form of life was believed to have started from water millions of year ago and up till now no living things can exist without it. Water is one of the most common solvents and exists in gaseous, liquid and solid state (Ababio 1990).

Hence, there are so many ways in which water is useful to human being. It can be used for drinking purpose, which is the most important use of water, it may be used for domestic purpose such as bathing, washing, cleaning etc. in manufacturing industries and in Agriculture etc. Therefore, the important of water cannot be overemphasized in the community (Encyclopedia Britain 1970).

Different type of natural water exist on earth&rsquo;s surface which include; rain water, spring water, river, lake water and sea water etc. rain water is considered as the purest from all natural water because it is formal as a result of the condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere.

Spring water on the other hand emerges at the base of sloppy ground where the surface elevation is below the water table, in an aquifer from where the water can escape (Fawole 1980).