DRUG ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables
- Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- Purpose Of The Study
- Significance Of The Study
1.5 Research Questions
- Scope Of The Study
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Review Of Related Literature
3.1 Area Of Study
- Research Design
3.4 Sample And Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument Development
- Validation Of Instrument
3.7 Data Collection Technique
- Data Analysis Technique
Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion Of Findings
- Data Analysis And Interpretation
4.3 Discussion Of Findings
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
Drugs have been used throughout the entire human history for a variety of reasons, such reasons as treatment, prevention and diagnosis of illnesses. The benefits derived from drugs prescribed by a physician and taken in accordance to prescriptions for outweigh the possible risks involved in their abuse. Drug is considered dangerous and unacceptable to the society when it is used for a purpose order that what is medically legitimate and create problems affecting the society by making their abuses behave abnormally, doing what they would not do if they were in their normal and natural state. This certainly affects the social and economic well being of the society. The purpose of this study, which was to verify drug use among adolescents in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom has been realized and certain facts established. Such facts as influence of peer group and the need for self esteem enhancement. Most youths turn to drugs in seeking for escape from pain, fatique, anxiety, poverty, failure and frustrations, that there are well defined risks related to the abuse of drugs. Some drugs notably cocaine and amphetamines stimulate the central Nervous System (CNS), others such as Narcotics depress the action of the brain, that associated with drug abuse is the cause of high incidence of armed robbery and their forms of violent crimes for so long a time now in Nigeria, that excessive drug usage is the cause of many road accidents and the reason why there are so many mentally retarded youths in our society today. Most our young ones sincerely ignore these potential dangers associated with drug abuse and contentedly consume a substantial amount of drugs as often as they wish. This research thus points out that all drugs are dangerous when taken overdose or illicitly, therefore, youths, and indeed people should not use drugs without medical prescription by a physician.
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Young people develop contain habits for the save of acceptance in a group. They resort to dangerous habits such as smoking, alcoholism and drug taking for so many seasons such as; helping them to cope with the problems, fear and pressure of everyday life (brook et.al 2001). Some use drugs as s means of escape from realities in life, to reduce anxieties, out of curiosity, while some turn to it in a bid to challenge authority.
Teenagers may be involved with legal or illegal drugs in various ways. Experimentation with drugs during adolescence is common. Unfortunately, teenagers often do not see the link between their actions today and the consequences tomorrow.
They also have a tendency to feel indestructible and immune to the problems that others experience. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increases the task of using other drugs late. Some teens will experiment and stop. Or continue to use occasionally, without significant problems. Others will develop a dependency or addition, often moving on to move dangerous drugs and causing significant harm to themselves and possibly others (Ibanga 2000).
As Jones, 2006 observes, excessive use of drugs and alcohol work to the determent of important social institutions, such as schools and threaten the4 smooth functioning of our social system. It is a well established fact that smoking is injurious to health and extensive studies have shown that smokers have an increase risk of disability, illnesses and death from a number of diseases on conditions.
Drug abuse has increased drastically in recent years and the problem is becoming more serious, especially among young teens who are predominantly found in the secondary schools (Anthony et.al 1995).the average age of first marijuana use is 14, and alcohol use can start before age 12. the use of alcohol and marijuana in secondary schools has become common. Drug use is associated with a variety of negative consequences, including increased risk of serious drug use later in life, school failure and poor judgement, which may put teens at risk of accidents, violence, unplanned and unsafe sex, and suicide.
In the words of kipue, 1999, teenagers at risk for developing serious alcohol and drug problems include those: with a family history of substance abuse, who are depressed, who feel like they do not fit in or are out of the mainstream. Teenagers abuse a variety of drugs– legal and illegal, such drugs include; tobacco, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana stimulants, cocaine, depressants, heroin, steroids, MDMA(ecstasy), GHB,rohypnol (rophies), vitamin, met amphetamine LSD, club drugs, etc. these drugs etc. these drugs are either ingested, smoked, injected or snorted .
Adolescents who abuse drugs present these minds of behaviours, physical- fatigue, repeated health complaints, frequent flu-like episodes, chest pains, “allergy ” symptoms, chronic cough, red and glazed eyes, impaired ability to fight off common infections and fatigue, impaired short term memory, change in health or grooming; emotional personality change, sudden mood changes, unit ability, anger, hostility, irresponsible behaviour, low self-esteem, poor judgement, feelings of loneliness, depression, apathy or general lack of interest, change in personal priorities; family relationships-decreased interest in the family and family activities, starting arguments, negative attitude, verbal (or physical) mistreatment of younger siblings, breaking rules, withdrawing from family, secretiveness, failure to provide specific answer or questions about activities, personal time that is unaccounted for, lying and dishonesty, unexplained disappearance of possessions in the home, in creased money or poor justification of how money was spent; school activities –decreased interest, negative attitude, unexplained drop in grades, irregular school attendance, truancy, discipline problems, not returning home after school; peer relationships- dropping old friends and picking new group of friends (new friends who make poor decisions and are not interest in school or family activities ), changes to a different style in dressing and music, attending parties with no parental supervision (Jones 2006).
Teenagers might tell themselves they will only try a drug once, but many teens find themselves under continual peer pressure to continue to experiment with drugs and join the party”, most teens do not short using drugs expecting to develop a substance abuse problem, and while most teens probably see their drug use as a casual way to have fun, there are negative effects that are as a result of these use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The biggest consequence to casual drug use can be that it develops unto a true addiction. most teens do not think that they will become addicted, and simply use drugs or alcohol to have a good time and be more like friends. (Gullets et.al 1994).
If the mentioned signs and problems are noticed in adolescent’s help should be sought with immediate effect by taking to the teen about it and selling to establish it they are actually into drug use, how they started and why , and encourage them to get help. Treatment programme should be found for them by consulting a physician to rule out physical causes of drug use, followed or accompanied by a comprehensive evaluation by a mental health professional (Johnson et.al 2001).
As the days come by, incidents of youths dropping out of secondary schools for no just cause, becoming mentally deranged and behaving abnormally abound all over the streets in our society. This has given so much concern and a need for an urgent step to be fallen to see how this ugly incidence could be addressed since the adverse effects of these drugs usage such as stealing, biviglasy, aimed robbery and other violent and heinous crimes are felt here and there3. this as a societal ill raises to many questions and answer, thus raising curiosity as a necessity to carrying out this research.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The indiscriminate or excessive use of drug of drug of various kinds for various proposes by our youth is a vital problem facing our entire society today. It has impacted on all spheres of human endeavour, the schools, the medical world, the private sector and actually the entire nooks and crannies of our society, affecting our day-to-day activities in one way or the other. The relationship between drug abuse and the society is a complex one, each influencing the other, but there are certainly realities that are apparent cost to our society.
Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate, evaluate and determine the problems leading to drug abuse by adolescents, specifically taking Uyo local government area as a case study.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this study is to:
- Find out why young people take dangerous drugs.
- Identity the factors contributing to the use of these drugs.
- To assess the effects of drug abuse in the body.
- To identity social and psychological problems relating to drug abuse.
- To see how possible solutions and remedies could be provided to these nagging problems.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Our society is experiencing dramatic changes in drug abuse patterns. Historically, adolescents have misused drugs just for ”wick” rebellion, escape and for relief of pains (emotional and psychological). Most of these adolescents develop these habits through sheer imitation from percents, friends, teachers and other elders in the society whom they come in contact or associate with in one way or the other.
The most concerned is their ignorance about the actions and the harmful effects of these dangerous drugs on the normal body function by using them indiscriminately without any advice from a physician.
Under this study, information on the factors contributing to the abuse of drugs, effects, social and psychological problems related to the abuse of drugs and drug addiction are provided.
It is hoped that this study will be of immense benefit especially to adolescents who are already in the habit of using dangerous drugs and to those who at one point or the other feel that they should start abusing drugs.
The4 study shall also be very useful to students and other academic in and outside Akwa Ibom state who are intending to carry ort research on a similar or related topic.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions are as follows:
- can excessive drug advertisement in then mars media e.g. to Radio, lead to drug above?
- Can excessive drug usage especially marijuana coke, etc lead to the non-conformity attitude of our youth?
- Are there greater percentage of young people admitted into many psychiatric hospitals these days as a result of drug abuse?
- Does drug abuse lead to assassinations, shameful and naked body displays by adolescents?
- Can drug abuse lead to poverty, broken homes and devoice.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers some selected secondary schools in Uyo locals area in order to examine and ascertain whether actually there is drug abuse among adolescents who predominantly are in different schools across the Local Government Area and to look at ways in which preventive measures could be taken. The study was limited to the investigation of dangerous drugs, factors which contribute to their usage, effects of the usage of these drugs and measures to take in order to prevent the usage of these drugs.
in the course of this study, there were a lot of constraints encountered, these ranges from financial to lack of co-operation. Financial in the sense that money was needed in all aspects like for the preparation of the questionnaire, distribution and collation of the questionnaire.
In the aspect of lack of co-operation, some students after collecting the questionnaire refused to fill them, while others refused to hand them in for documentation as was necessary.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The process of growing up both physically and psychologically which starts with puberty and ends up with adulthood. It is the period when the maturing of the sexual organs (puberty) begins and continues to adulthood.
A state of periodic or chromic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of some substances or drugs.
An alkaloid found in coffee, tea and kola nuts that acts as a stimulant and a diuretic.
Chronic liver disease marked by scarring of liver tissue and eventually liver failure.
This term refers to drugs being used by teens and young adults at all-night dance parties such as “raves” or “trances” dance clubs and bars.
Sedative and pain relieving agent found in opium. Structurally related to morphine but less potent, and constituting approximately 0.5% of the opium extract.
A term used for a smolleable from of cocaine. It is a powerful addictive stimulant.
Any of the several drugs that sedate by acting on the Central Neavours System (CNS): medical uses include the treatment of anxiety, tension and high blood pressure.
A drug which causes an increased excretion of wine, such as caffeine and chlorothiazide.
A street name for valium.
This refers to the illicit (non medical) use of any drug (legal or illegal) for a medical or recreational purpose when other alternatives are available, practical or warranted, or when drug use endangers wither the user or others with whom he or she must interact.
A condition in which the body has adjusted to the present of a drug and when forced to function without the drug, the body reacts with a characteristic illness called withdrawal syndrome.
GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid)
An amino acid found in the Central Nervous Systems (CNS) which acts as inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A condition resulting from the repeated consumption of a drug that involves little or no evidence of tolerance.
A highly addictive drug derived from morphine, which is obtained from opium. It is a “downer” or depressant that affects the brains pleasure systems and interferes with the brains ability to perceive pain.
Chemical substance which can distort perceptions to induce delusions or hallucinations.
Perception of objects or experience of sensations with no real external cause. Can be auditory, visual, etc.
Drugs whose use, possession or sale is illegal
Volatile substance that is introduced into the body through the lungs.
The perception or complaint of inadequate or poor quality sleep because of one or more of the following: difficulty falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep, waking up too early in the morning, or unrefreshing sleep or due to drug usage.
LSD (Lysergic Acid Siethylamide)
A synthetic (man-made) drug that has been abused for its hallucinogenic properties. If consumed in a sufficiently large dose, it produces delusions and visual hallucinations that distort the users sense of time and identity. LSD is generally taken by mouth. The drug is colourless and odorless but has a slightly bitter taste.
MDA (3, 4 – Methylenedioxyamphetamine)
A kind of drug that gives the user a sense of empathy for those around them. A closeness, if you will, that can easily transform to sexual thoughts and an enjoyment of heightened body awareness. It is also known as “love drug”.
Major sedative and pain relieving drug found in opium, being approximately 10% of the crude opium exudates.
A sleep disorder due to drug use characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep.
A drug having the power to produce a state of sleep or drowsiness and to relieve pain with the potential of being dependence producing, extensive use can lead to addiction.
The main active ingredient of tobacco. Extremely toxic and causing irritation of lung tissues, construction of blood vessels, increased blood pressure and heart rate, and in general, central nervous System (CNS) simulation.
Any substance, natural or synthetic, that is related in action to morphine and binds to the same, or some of the same, receptors.
Juice obtained from poppy seeds, containing about 18 alkaloids including morphine (about 10%), codeine and papaverine. It relieves pain and may be used during labour.
PEP – Amphitamine
A CNS stimulant that increase energy and decreases appetite, used to treat narcolepsy and some form of depression.
Any substance (drug) that people take to change either the way they feel, think or behave. This include alcohol and tobacco as well as natural and manufactured drugs.
A compulsion to use a drug for its pleasurable effects. Such dependence may lead to a compulsion to misuse a drug. A compulsion to use a drug that is psychologically rather than physiologically based e.g. compulsive gambling is a purely psychological dependence, a similar effect may come from drug use.
To restore to effectiveness or normal life by training, etc, especially after imprisonment or illness, to restore to former privileges or reputation or a proper condition.
Referring to alcoholism, a recurrence of symptoms of the disease after a period of society.
Secondary effects, usually undesirable, of a drug or therapy after usage.
Any of several drugs that act on the CNS to produce excitation, alertness or wakefulness.
All the signs and symptoms associated with a disease. Tolerance – condition in which a person must keep increasing the dosage of a drug to maintain the same effect. Tolerance develops with the barbiturates, amphetamines and related compounds and opiates.
A substance that depresses the CNS resulting in calmness, relaxation, sleepiness, slowed breathing, reduction of anxiety and possibly – at higher doses shirred speech, staggering gait, prior judgement and slow actions e.g. Thorazine, valium.
A tranquilizea used to relieve anxiety and relax muscles. It acts by inhibitory actions of the neurotransmitter GABA. It can also be used as an anticonvulsant drug in causes of nerve agent poisoning.
The group of reactions or behaviour that follows abrupt cessation of the use of a drug upon which the body has become dependent. May include anxiety, insomnia, perspiration, hot flashes, tremors, dehydration, weakness dizziness, convulsion and psychotic behaviour. If untreated in some individuals can be a cause of death.
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Many people use drugs with the hope that they will feel better, more relaxed, free from pains, stress and strain. Some feel that it gives a “kick” and use it as a sign of rebellion against the authority, while some other people feel that drug in a substance used in the treatment of diseases. According to family encyclopedia (Volume 6, page 274), drugs are substances given to humans or animals for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of illnesses. They are used to relieve pains, improve and control abnormal conditions of the mind and body.
Horo (1977) puts it that drug is any substance other than food which when taken into the body alters its normal functioning, while Gadd (1982) says that drug is any chemical agent that affects the living protoplasm.
A drug is popular usage or as it is used in the context of this research is a substance people use hoping that they will feel better, more relaxed, free from pains, stress and strain or that they will experience a superior emotional state (“feel high”). However, a more complete or scientific definition of a drug as observed by Jones (1974), is that a drug is any substance other than food which alters the body or its functions.
Excessive use of drug can lead to change in behaviour. Some people use drug without obtaining any medical prescription from a doctor with little or no knowledge within the body can be harmful and dangerous.
Jones et al (1974) indicate that drug abuse may be regarded as the regular or excessive use of a substance such that a person is damaged, relationship with other is endangered or the society itself is jeopardized as a result.
According to a recent report from the substance abuse and mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) drug abuse refers to the illicit (i.e. non-medical) use of any of the substances listed in the 1988 single convention on Narcotic drugs. They fall into three categories: depressants (e.g. heroin, barbiturates), stimulants (e.g. cocaine, crack, amphetamines) and hallucinogens (e.g. marijuana, ecstacy, LSD).
The use of drugs in medical practice is accepted as legitimate, but the use for purposes other than those intended in medicine is abuse, and abuse is usually associated with drug dosages. Abusive doses is that when it is taken as many times in excess of those in legitimate medical practice. Jones (2006) further observed that when a drug is self administered in toxic dosages and its damages an individual, a society or both is being abused.
The World Health Organisation expert committee indicates that drug abuse may be said to be a persistent or sporadic (occasional) excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice. Drug abuse varies from culture to culture and from time to time within that same culture. Since law does not correspond to prevailing social attitudes, there may be times when users of an illegal drug are not considered to be drug abuses.
It is true that every society has had mood changing drugs and people use them in ways that were not socially approved. Repeated use of some drugs can cause a psychological dependence, in which the effects of the drug or the conditions associated with its use are felt by the user to be necessary for his state of emotional well-being. The intensity of the dependence may vary from wild inclination to use the drug to a stronger craving or compulsion to use it. Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 9, page 7) observes that the most serious from of addiction is associated with the use of opium and its derivatives.
Many people rely on drugs to get through their daily lives and when they become addicted, it is then hard for them to stop taking the drug(s) and as more and more of the drug is taken, the addicted body and their way of life is seriously harmed.
Habitual and long term drug abuse may result in physical addiction or dependence. Upon ceasing to take the drugs, a person who is physically addicted to the drug may suffer from withdrawal syndromes such as sweating, nausea and other unpleasant physical sensations and family (Encyclopedia Volume 6, page 279).
Drug as we have seen are substances, other than food, which alters the body or its function. They are so numerous that it would be almost hopeless to attempt to study them without the aid of some system groupings. Drugs may be classified in various ways. They can be grouped according to their sources, chemical composition, actions, effects and their uses. These include Narcotics, Hallucinogens, Narijuana, Alcohol, Barbituarates, Tranquilizers and Amphetanines and Cocaine.
Narcotics are habit forming drugs and can result in addiction. Examples are opium, morphine, heroin and codine. Heroin is considered the most dangerous of the Narcotic drugs. Jones et al (2006) indicates that the most widely abused drugs across the globe are the so-called Narcotics. The word narcotics comes from a Greek word meaning “to benumb” and is defined here as drugs having the power to produce a state of sleep or drowsiness and to relieve pain with the potential of being dependence producing.
The general action of Narcotics on the nervous system is one of depression. There depressant actions lead to the principal use of narcotics. Narcotics are also paradoxical in that they produce nausea and vomiting by stimulation of areas in the brain. The major depressant action include analgesia’s (relief of pain) and sedation (freeing the mind of anxiety and calming emotions).
Hallucinogens are drugs that cause distortions in perceptions, as in vision, hearing or smell. Several hundreds of hallucinogens have been produced from plants or from synthetic sowices. The best known of these are LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), MDA and Peppils. LSD is derived from a drug found in the fungus, Ergot. Jones et al (2006) observes that Hallucinogens are drugs that create vivid distortions in the senses without greatly disturbing the user’s consciousness.
Many individuals under the influence of these drugs exhibit behaviour that resembles the disturbances seen in the psychotic or severally mentally ill.
The annual cannabis sativa plant is the source of Marijuana and hashish. They are widely grown in most temperate and tropical areas, and almost everywhere in the United States of America. It is the young, small leaves surrounding the seeds of the plant and the flowering top that most of the mind affecting ingredients are found (Gullotha et al, 1994).
Marijuana makes are exhibit an impairment of memory, has difficulty in concentration and shows a poor work performance. The American Medical Association has reported that prolonged use of Marijuana can lead to serious harm to the brain, the circulatory system and the nervous system.
Among the greatest varieties of drugs available, alcohol is responsible for the largest number of problems possible brain damage among other problems are associated with long term alcohol usage. Gadd (1982) observes that excessive intake of alcohol can damage the liver. Alcoholism often accompanied by malnutrition can cause severe liver disease which involves the destruction of the cells and distortion of this important body organ.
Barbiturates were drugs derived from barbiturate acid and are synthetic drugs that, like morphine, are depressants of the central nervous system. They are classified as sedative hypnotics because they relieve anxiety and produce euphorbia and drowsiness.
The tranquilizers are of two types, the major and minor tranquilizers. Major tranquilizers or neural drugs are useful in the treatment of psychosis, they are also called antipsychotic drugs. There three major types of narcoleptic drugs.
- Phenothiazines, such as thorazine and mellaril
- Butyrophenones, such as italdol.
- Thioxanthenes, such as navana.
Minor tranquilizers or anti anxiety drugs e.g. miltown, valium and palmane are among the class of compounds known as Benzochazepine drugs.
Unlike the minor tranquilizers, the major antijpsynchotic trianquilizers are used in the treatment of serious psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophremia.
Amphiltamines and cocaine are the most commonly abused stimulants. They are dangerous drugs with high risk of addiction or dependence, and have numerous effects on the body. The effects of cocaine show up in loss of appetite and loss of weight (Samuel et al 1979).
Amphitamines have strong effects on the brain and the central nervous system users become extremely agitated and excited, grow aggressive and may develop feelings of superiority and great power. (Macmillan Family Encyclopaedia Vol. 6 pg. 280).
There is no single answer to the question, why young people use drugs? It has been well established that the critical period of susceptibility to the acquisition of drug habit is between the ages of twelve and twenty. This is the period when most of our youth involved are in secondary schools. The drug habit often begins with the process of experimentation and in a peer context, Macmillan Family Encyclopedia (Vol. 8 page 100) states that, drug abuse may result from many causes, including the influence of a peer group, the need to relieve monotony or boredom, feeling of inadequacy, rebellion or emotion problems.
In general young people tend to use drugs for “kicks” or “highs” to gain the approval of their peers. Samual (1979) indicates that it is a new exciting experience it gives a “kick”. Anwana (1997) observes that some youths turn to it in a bid to challenge authority. In order to get “high” to be able to challenge any opponent including his boss. During elections, political thugs are given certain drugs to keep them in shape to be able to perform all precarious functions they have for their political good fathers.
According to Jones (2006), adolescents always want to behave like adults, so some try to smoke, an act which is traditionally for adults. Their smoking is therefore an expression that they are also adults, with the bold ones smoking Indian Kemp so that they might be considered as courageous as adults.
At a certain period of a person’s development he may become puzzled by the changes he observes happening to him, his sense of identity may appear threatened, and if has no place to them to for assurance, he may turn to drugs in order to resolve his problem or cuisse. Similarly, he may turn to drugs to reduce his anxiety, satisfy curiosity or just to have experience or merely as a means of relaxation.
Anwana (1993) emphasized that, most youths of today turn to drugs because of the fast decreasing primary social controls like, lack of adequate parental guidance and control, broken homes, decrease in secondary social control, especially the weakening of the school community relations, law, customs, traditional and moreso through the rapid socio-cultural changes, rural-urban migration, mounting unemployment, the aftermath of the Nigerian civil war, the impact of the mast media, especially television programmes which promote and strongly advocate the use of certain drugs and mostly the flourishing in almost all homes Nigerian films which so many portray the use of drugs in various ways for various purposes which mostly are detrimental to the entire society.
Anthony (1995) in his emphasis says that there is no answer to the question of why people take drugs poverty, pleasure, the pressure of friends, the desire to be rebellions, television advertising, excessive, prescription by physicians, tention, stress, disillusionment, have all been blamed. He went on further to say that, some adolescents use drugs to avoid feeling the sexual and aggressive impulses and to relieve a sense of personal failure, disappointment and frustration. Some researchers suggested that, alcoholism tends to run in families, or to have a genetic basis.
The main problem in drug taking is the danger of addiction, for all drugs can become poisons if wrongly used. Besides psychological adaptations in the users known as tolerance and physical dependence. Jones (2006) observes that drug addiction is a state of periodic or chromic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug. Many use it in away that it becomes extremely hard for them to stop taking the drug and as they continue taking the drug more and more, they become so used to it (addiction) and their way of life is greatly harmed.
In recent times, there is an upsurge in the use of Marijuana, especially among adolescents of all ages, including primary school children. Samuel (1979) indicate that there is a growing evidence that illicit drug usage is rapidly becoming a part of students’ life and for a large number of students, it begins in secondary school.
In a recent study carried out in 27 secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria, involving about 14,505 students, it was discovered that one out of every ten students has had the drug Marijuana or some other dangerous drug once or more often. Addiction is considerable to be a very serious problem and so widespread that it has to be dealt with on a national scale.
There are so many problems associated with drug abuse. When considering the effects of drugs, the first thing that comes into our minds is that the already poor image of Nigeria abroad has been seriously dented in recent years following the activities of Nigerian drug users and peddlers. Most Nigerians traveling abroad are said to be subjected to very rigorous, thorough and shameful checking by customs and security officials outside Nigeria, since Nigeria has come to be regarded as a transit camp for drug peddlers. A regular drug user is a threat both to himself and to the society in which he belongs.
Excessive drinking can lead to accidents on the road, and the accident rate in Nigeria is considered very high. Drinking can make a driver to become carelessness courteous and does not obey traffic rules. His vision may be blurred, inability to concentrate on driving and it also lengthens his reaction time, because alcohol slows down the working of the nervous system and the person cannot react as quickly as he would if he were not to be under the influence of alcohol.
Kogan (1980) observes that as a depressant of the brain and central nervous system, alcohol impairs muscle control and co-ordination and also the ability to make sound judgments. Thus, driving even with low or moderate amount of alcohol in the bloodstream is dangerous.
Regular taking can lead to changes in behaviour, it may affect the family life of a person. Economic, emotional and social strains are created when the member or members of the family spend a fair share of their income on alcohol. Kogan (1980) indicates that confirmed alcoholics eventually loss interest in sexual intercourse as male alcoholics often become impotent. The porter in Shakespeare’s play, Macbeth, correctly says of alcohol, that “it provokes and improvokes. It provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance”. Marriages complicated by excessive drinking are seven times as likely as other marriages to end in separation or divorce.
Moderate amount of alcohol taken early in pregnancy can harm the embryo, resulting in an abnormal foetus. The fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of a considerable number of signs and symptoms. Among these are smallness at birth, underdeveloped head, abnormal spacing between eyelids, abnormal nose formation and small nails. Hord (1977) emphasized that alcoholic lower their standard (1977) emphasized that alcoholic lower their standard of conduct, they loss self respect and the respect of others. Their children may become delinquent and suffer shame and unhappiness as a result of alcoholism in the family.
In industries, it has been ascertained that alcohol reduces output and lessons caution, skill, endurance and accuracy. Accordingly, production is lowered and avoidable accidents are increased (Webster 1966).
Drinking can lead to malnutrition as it becomes a substitute for food, resulting in lack of vitamins, minerals and enough protein. Alcohol even in relative small amount can irritate and inflame the pancreas, a condition of sever pains in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting and abnormal digestion. It may harm the kidneys over a long period of time. Jones (2006) indicates that abusers of morphine like drugs have no indicates that abusers of morphine like drugs have no way of being certain how much active drug is contained in the substance being shot into their veins and an overdose is always a possibility. More common is the likelihood of becoming infected by unclean needles and syringes. A live infection called hepatitis is a serious illness among heroin abuses, and often results in death. Death also may be caused by reactions to impurities in the drugs such as quinine.
Also responsible for many so called heroin deaths is the interaction between the injected heroin and other drugs in the body. Jones (2006) observes that in addition, a wide varieties of microbes (among them the ones causing tetanus) and other contaminants (found in dirty needles and in syringes, and the drugs themselves) often cause dangerous infections that can result in death. Heroin abuse can also cause an absence of menstruation and menstrual irregularly.
This chapter is concerned with the design and methodology of the research instruments and procedure used in the data collection and analysis.
3.1 AREA OF STUDY
The area of study of this research is Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Uyo Local Government Area is one of the thirty one (31) Local Government Areas which makes up Akwa Ibom State. It is actually the Akwa Ibom State Capital, and it is its central location that had really made this possible. Thus, it occupies the North central part of Akwa Ibom State.
The people of Uyo Local Government Areas are culturally homogenous with a common identity and language, being the Ibibio language. The major occupation of the Uyo people who greatly occupy the metropolis white collar jobs such as in the civil service, administrative quarters, teaching, nursing, etc,, while subsistence farming is carried out in the villages. The people of Uyo are very friendly, welcoming visitors from all works of life at all times.
Uyo Local Government Area is bounded by other Local Government Areas like Ikono, Itu and Ibiono Ibom on the North, Etinan, Nsit Ibom, Ibesikpo Asutan on the South, Uruan on the East and Abak Local Area on the West. It is made up of (4) clans of Etoi, Offot, Ikono and Oku as the state capital, there are so many administrative offices as well as so many schools, ranging from nursery to the higher institutions.
There are so many secondary schools both public and private in Uyo Local Government Area, but for the purpose of this research, public secondary schools were considered.
A total of five (5) secondary schools were selected, each from the four clans that make up Uyo Local Government Area and the fifth secondary school selected was considered the most popular in the Local Government Area and questionnaire administered.
- RESEARCH DESIGN
In this study, the research design used were survey and exploratory. Here, the research visited there selected secondary schools and administered questionnaire on the students. These methods of research design were choosen became it is credited with the advantage of wider area coverage.
For precise, concise and accurate work done and meaningful interpretation of the data, the researcher randomly selected and distributed his questionnaire to respondents in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The population covered five (5) Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The sample of this study consisted of one hundred and fifty (150) randomly sampled students drawn from five (5) selected Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area. The sampling technique adopted for the study was the stratified random sampling. The stratified Random Sampling was adopted in order to reduce sampling error by the researcher.
3.5 INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT
The instrument developed and used in this research consisted of structured questionnaire containing twenty questions. The questionnaire was divided into three (3) tackle the effects of drug abuse.
All the questions in the questionnaire on the issue of drug abuse among adolescents. The sample of questionnaire used have been shown in the appendix.
- VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT
The instrument used here (the questionnaire) was effective because it had taken into consideration and cover all areas bothering on whether adolescents abuse drugs, why and recommendations on how this menace could be ameliorated, thus, the instrument is valid.
3.7 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE
For careful and unbias collection of data, the researcher went to each of the schools selected himself, introduced himself and obtained permission from the principal after stating his mission and with the help of any other teacher, as called upon by the principal, administered the questionnaire to the respondents, assuring them of utmost confidentiality. And through this same means, the researcher collected all the questionnaire administered.
- DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
After the collection of data using the questionnaire, the data were analysed, computed and represented in tables. Drug abuse among adolescents in Uyo Local Government Area as the topic of the research was subjected to descriptive analysis.
The various tables showed or represented vital information called from the field and the information summarized using the percentage.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of the data collected in the field through the administration of questionnaire. The specific questions here analysed are those used for the research (i.e. the Research Questions).
- Data Analysis and Interpretation
Thirty (30) copies of the questionnaire were sent out to each of the five(5) secondary schools, making a total of one hundred and fifty (150) questionnaire, it should be noted that of the total number sent out, four (4) copies of the questionnaire were not available for collection, thus not returned (Table 4.1).
Table 4.1: Return of Questionnaire
|No. Sent Out||No. Returned||No. Not Returned|
On whether excessive drug advertisement in the mass media e.g. television, radio, can lead to drug abuse, 59 respondents (40.4%) strong agreed, 28 respondents (19.2%) agreed, 39 respondents (26.7%) strongly disagreed, 19 respondents (13.0%) disagreed, while only 1 respondent (0.7%) was undecided (Table 4.2)
Responding on the question, can excessive drug usage especially marijuana, Coke etc. lead to the non conformity attitude of our youth? Respondents (76%) strongly agreed, 15 respondents (10.3%) agreed, 5 respondents (3.4%) strongly disagreed, 12 respondents (8.2%) disagreed, while 3 respondents (2.1%) remained undecided (Table 4.2)
|Strongly Agree||Agree||Strongly Disagree||Disagree||Undecided|
|Can excessive drug advertisement in the mass media e.g. TV, radio, lead to drug abuse||59|
|Excessive drug usage is responsible for Non-conformity attitude of our youths||111|
|A greater percentage of young people admitted into many psychiatric hospitals these days||127|
|Assassinations, shameful and naked body displays||16|
|Poverty, broken homes and divorce||11|
127 respondents (87%) strongly agreed, 10 respondents (6.9%) agreed, 3 respondents (2.1%) strongly disagreed, 6 (4.1%) disagreed and no respondent was undecided on whether there are greater percentage of young people admitted into many psychiatric hospitals these days as a result of drug abuse (Table 4.2).
Of the 146 copies of questionnaire returned, 16 respondents (11%) strongly agreed, 4 respondents (9.6%) agreed, 57 respondents (39%) strongly disagree, 41 (28.1%) respondents disagree, while 18 respondents (12.3%) were undecided on whether excessive drug usage is responsible for assassinations, shameful and naked body displays (Table 4.2).
On whether drug abuse can lead to poverty , broken homes and divorce, 11 respondents (7.5%) strongly agreed, 15 respondents (10.3%) agreed, 33 respondents (22.6%) strongly disagreed, 70 respondents (47.9%) disagreed, while 17 respondents (11.6%) were undecided. (Table 4.2).
4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
it has been found out as Horo (1977) puts it, that drugs when taken alters the body’s normal functioning. This is evidence in the research question “whether excessive drug usage can lead to the unconformity attitude of one youth”, where majority of the respondents strongly agreed to what Horo said, thus, confirming this as a fact. It is this fact that Jones et al (1974) also concurs to as he says “that a person is damaged, relationship with others endangered when such a person abuses drugs”.
In conformity to the fact that drug abuse lead to poverty, broken homes and divorce, Anwana (1993) had emphasized that most youths of today twin to drug because of the fast decreasing social control, broken homes, decrease in secondary social control, especially the weakening of the school community relations, law, customs, traditions and through the rapid socio-cultural changes, rural-urban migration, mounting unemployment.
In ascertaining that drug advertisement in the mass media e.g. radio, television can lead to drug abuse, Anwana (1993) stated that “the impact of the mass media, especially television programmes which promote and strongly advocate the use of certain drugs, and mostly the flourishing in almost all homes Nigerian films which so many portray the use of drugs in various ways for purpose which mostly are detrimental to the entire society.”
Comparing what the Macmillan Family Encyclopedia (Vol. 6, pg. 280) says regarding the change in attitude of our youth after taking drug, it puts it that drugs have strong effects on the brain and the central nervous system (CNS), that users become extremely agitated and excited, grow aggressive and may develop feelings of superiority and great power. That some youths twin to drug usage in a bit to challenge authority. In order to get “high” to be able to challenge any opponent including his boos.
In all of these, the research questions as put forward have been found to be on the affirmative as all findings proof that they are all true as a confirmation to what all the authors on this subject matter had put together.
That excessive drug advertisement in the mass media like radio, television, can lead to drug abuse. That excessive drug usage, especially marijuana, coke, etc leads to the non-conformity attitude of our youths. That there are a greater percentage of young people admitted into many psychiatric hospitals these days as a result of drug abuse. That drug abuse also lead to assassinations, shameful and naked body displays by adolescents. And also that drug abuse can led to poverty, broken homes and divorce.
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Drugs have been used throughout history for a variety of reasons, such as treatment, prevention and diagnosis of illnesses. The benefits derived from drugs prescribed by a physician and taken in accordance to the prescriptions for outweigh the possible risks involved in their abuse. Drugs is considered dangerous and unacceptable to the society when it is used for a purpose which is not medically legitimate and create problems affecting the society by making their abuses behave abnormally, doing what they would not do if they were in their normal and natural state. This affects the social and economic wellbeing of the society.
The purpose of this study, which was to verify drug use among adolescents in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State has been realized and the following facts have been established
- That drug abuse may result from many cases including the influence of peer group and the need for self esteem enhancement. Most youths turn to drugs in seeking for escape from pain, fatique, anxiety, poverty, failure and frustrations.
- That there are well defined risks related to the abuse of drugs. Some drugs notably cocaine and amphetamines stimulate the Central Nervous System (CNS), others such as narcotics depress the action of the brain
- Cigarette smoking is the cause of lung cancer in humans
- Associated with drug abuse is the cause of high incidence of armed robbery and other forms of violent crimes for over three decades now in Nigeria.
- Many parents as a result of spending most of their income on alcohol cannot adequately provide for their children in areas of clothing, food, housing, medical care and education
- That excessive drug usage in the cause of many road accidents and the reason why there are so many mentally retarded youth in our society today.
- Poverty broken homes and divorce are all the result of drug abuse.
Most of our young ones sincerely ignore these potential dangers and contentedly consume a substantial amount of drugs as often as they wish.
It is realized that there are many factors that contribute to drug abuse it is pertinent to point out here to all the youths and adolescents that these factors are controllable and should be avoided and discontinued if had already started for it is easy to start a drug habit but very difficult to stop it. Parents should try as much as possible to understand their wards, drawing closer to them by the day and try to all mans to advice, caution and solve their problems as they encounter them.
All drugs are dangerous when taken overdose or illicitly, youths and indeed people should not use drugs without medical prescription by a physician.
In order to achieve the objectives of this important research “Drug Abuse among Adolescents” the following recommendations are made by the researcher based on the data collected presented and analysed.
Every effort should be intensified at the National State and Local Government levels to control the usage of drugs among the youth. To achieve this, the following measures are suggested.
- Public enlightenment campaigns should be organized frequently at all levels of the government to educate people, especially youths on the bad effects of drugs. During these public enlightenments, the radio, television, newspapers, churches, mosques, market places, etc should be effectively utilized.
- Illegal manufacturing, distribution, possession or sale of drugs should be controlled strictly from the Federal Government down to the Local Government and strict penalties for violators should be imposed and applied.
- All experimental drug studies must be registered manufactures and should submit data on any new drug application, reporting both safety and effectiveness
- Locations cultivating drugs such as Indian hemp should be discovered and the plants destroyed at source (i.e. at the plantations) with the farm owner prosecuted accordingly instead of the government closing their eyes on such plantations but wanting to nip the sellers after such drugs had been harvested processed and sent out for consumption
- Advertisement of dangerous and illicit drugs in the mass media should be prohibited and advertising drugs during children’s programmes should be discouraged. All drugs and medicines should be kept where children cannot possibly get them.
- Parents should maintain cordial and close relationship with their children. Children should not be allowed to get frustrated. They should try to understand and identify any problem facing their children and consult a physician for diagnosis if they suspect that such problems are drugs related. This should often be accompanied by a comprehensive evaluation by a mental health professional.
- Government should study areas and persons that become compulsive for drug users and addicts for common tracts, so as to find the conditions, both social and psychological, that possibly make them abuse these drugs and see how to arrive at workable methods of prevention on treatment, rehabilitation and control.
- Self control is also necessary on the part of the abuses, more control than this is punishment. Participation in self support programmes during and following treatment often is helpful in maintaining abstinence. It is suggested that the predominant method of dealing with drug abuser should be to place the individual in jail (Ibanga 2000).
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Anwana, U. I. (1989): Psychology: Aspects of human development. Central Books Ltd, Bendel State
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I am a postgraduate student at the National Teacher’s Institute, Uyo Study Centre conducting a research on “Drug Abuse Among Adolescents” in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The questionnaire is designed purely to gather information for academic purpose and any information provided will be treated in strict confidence. Your maximum co-operation in highly solicited.
Feel free and contribute the best you can.
Tick the box must relevant to you.
- Sex: male Female
- Age: Between 12 – 16 16 – 20 20 – 25 25 & above
- Present Class: SS1 SS2 SS3
- Local Government of Area of Origin:………………………………………
- Can excessive drug advertisement in the mass media e.g. TV, Radio, lead to drug abuse? Yes No
- Have you been taking any drugs? Yes No
- If your answer is Yes, what type? Aspirin Codeine
Phenobarbitone Alcohol Indian hemp Cocaine Cigarette, others, state
- How often do you take drugs? Daily weekly Monthly
- How do you take the drugs? Advised by a Doctor Self Administration
- Have you any reason for taking the drug(s)? Yes No
- If Yes, Please state your reasons: (1) ……………………………..
- After taking the drug, do you notice any abnormal behaviour by you? Always Occasionally
- Do you find it almost unbearable when you turn out of the drug until you can get it? Yes No
Tick the column which to you is most appropriate
Do you agree that Excessive Drug usage
Especially marijuana and LSD is responsible for:
|14.||Non conformity attitude of our youth|
|15.||A greater percentage of young people admitted into many psychiatric hospitals these days|
|16.||High incidents of armed robbery and other forms of violent crimes in Nigeria|
|17.||Many road accidents|
|18.||Assassinations, shameful and naked body displays|
|19.||Premature deaths, child abuse, homosexuality and other sexual problems|
|20.||Poverty, broken homes and divorce|