This study investigated effects of effect of job enrichment techniques on employee performance in Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina State. Job enrichment is one of the cherished goals to achieve employee performance. It is essential to understand how job enrichment is a valuable tool for managing and fostering the successful employee performance. Enriched job consists of various elements like task significance, task identity and skill variety which improves the performance of employees and motivates them to perform zealously. This study intends to focus on the relationship between job enrichment and individual performance. It noted that job enrichment is that type of development in the job environment which may give a worker more challenge, more complete task, more obligation, more prospect for progression, and more effort to contribute his or her ideas for the betterment of the organization. It explores the connection between job enrichment, satisfaction, motivation and performance of employees using the descriptive survey design and utilizing the regression statistical tools to show the effect of Job enrichment techniques on job performance. The study drew its sample from the academic staffs of Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina State. The findings shows that training and development, Work-life balance, job autonomy and job incentive scores are positively and significantly related to job performance which implies that the higher the perceived training and development, work-life balance, job autonomy andjob incentive, the higher would be the level of perceived job performance. It also revealed that job enrichment is a strong predictor of work-related attitudes (employee satisfaction, motivation, and performance). This study concludes that job enrichment provides skill variety, job identity, feeling important in the eyes of others, responsibility, challenge, realizing ones competence, freedom, participation in decision making, performance feedback from the job done, growth and sense of achievement which leads to internal motivation, satisfaction, and high performance of the academic staff.
1.1 Background of the Study
The survival and growth of a corporate organization depend to a large extent on the productivity of its workforce. Similarly, the wealth of a nation as well as socio-economic wellbeing of its people depends on the effectiveness and efficiency of its various sub components (Akinyele, 2007). Productivity is therefore of great importance to the individual worker, the organization, thecinfluence of awareness and attitude of lecturers on self-plagiarism among the academic staffs in babcock and covenant university at large and therefore also important to the upliftment of the welfare of the citizen and reduction of mass poverty in the polity (Yesufu, 2000 &Akinyele, 2005). Productivity of the Nigerian worker has been adjudged lower than that of counterparts in the western world for decades (Yesufu, 2000 &Thingan, 2005). According to World Bank Report (2009), labour productivity in Nigeria is persistently low, labour productivity recorded an average growth rate of 1.2% from 2000- 2008, this is below the 1.9% recorded in sub Saharan African countries (World Bank, 2009).
The Nigerian educational sector is not only an integral part of the economy, but also an influential part because of its contribution to the economy. Because the sector has remained largely industrious mentally; but rely heavily on number of manual workers, it is also bogged down with the low productivity picture painted above (Wahab, 2001 & Akindele, 2003).
A major method tertiary institutions employ to improve their workers productivity is the use of incentive schemes. Results of researches on the use of these schemes indicated they have induced increased productivity in workers in different proportions, (Aina, 2000; Fagbenle, 2003; Wahab, 1984 &Ameh 2013). While these studies have been instructive, they have however, concentrated on either financial or non-financial incentives.
Job enrichment is a way to motivate workers by giving them opportunity to use a range of their abilities, this is done by giving them more responsibilities and varieties in their job. The purpose of job enrichment is to reverse the negative effects of repetitive tasks requiring autonomy, and having effects such as boredom, lack of flexibility and employees dissatisfaction. An enriched job will contain (a) a range of tasks and challenges of varying toughness (b) a complete unit of work and (c) feedback, encouragement and communication mechanisms. (Leach & Wall, 2004).
The earliest efforts on job enrichment were by Herzberg and later by Hackman and Oldham who designed a job characteristics model. Kotila (2001) reported that the model assumed that if five core job characteristics are present (skill variety, task identify, task significance, autonomy, feedback). Three psychological states critical to motivation will be produced in the worker, namely; meaningfulness of work, responsibilities for work outcomes and knowledge of results. Then there would be five positive job outcomes, namely; internal work motivation, job satisfaction, growth satisfaction low absenteeism and high quality performance. The three groups of advantages were (a) renewal consisting of reduction of boredom, making new contacts, thinking about new career options and change in view point (b) exploration, made up of the following: trying new skills, developing new relationships, testing management and administrative skills and (c) specialization, also consisting; re-education, in-depth exploration using special skills and meeting a need that were underserved. These multifaceted advantages suggest that job enrichment has potentials for increasing workers productivity in general, perhaps also in the educational institutions such as universities.
Earliest consideration of job enrichment in educational institutions witnessed low patronage and rejection by researchers. For example Borcherding and Oglesby, (1974) believed that satisfaction in university work is inherent in the work itself and therefore, efforts to improve job satisfaction and productivity lie in well planned, smooth work flow rather than in job enrichment as advocated by organizational behaviourists for industrial sector jobs.
Similarly, Hazeltine (1976) also believed that effective motivation of university workers will be best achieved by developing satisfactions inherent in the university work itself. He further maintained that job enrichment programmes used in educational work are not applicable to the universities and that authorities should capitalize on the existing motivation potentials of the institutional work. However, Maloney (1997) saw evidence of the use of job enrichment tools in the tertiary institutions, and saw the similarities between job enrichment and self managing work teams in the institutions.